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THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 


THE  ACCOUNTS  OF  EYE-WITNESSES 
AND  PARTICIPANTS 


BY  f  ^ 

AUGUST  C.  KREY 

ASSOCIATE  PROFESSOR  OF  HISTORY  IN  THl 
UNIVERSITY  OF  MINNESOTA 


*i 


PRINCETON  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 
PRINCETON 

LONDON:  HUMPHREY  MILFORD 
OXFORD  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 

1921 


/^l{^ 


D 

■I 


RSKy 


Copyright,    1921,    by 
Princeton   University   Press 

Published  1921 
Printed   in    the   United  States   of   Americ 


^.;^.u.^  c^s 


^;?v  W 


(^ 


To 
DANA  CARLETON  MUNRO 


DODGE  PROFESSOR  OF  MEDIAEVAL  HISTORY 
IN    PRINCETON   UNIVERSITY 


PREFACE 

When  Henry  Adams  sought  to  triangulate  the  progress  of 
modern  civiHzation  he  fixed  his  historical  transit  at  Mont  St. 
Michel  and  Chartres  in  the  days  of  the  First  Crusade  and  sighted 
from  them  across  the  centuries.  No  earlier  place  in  the  Middle 
Ages  would  have  afforded  a  foundation  of  equal  breadth  in  its 
description  of  society.  The  spiritual  character  of  the  Crusade 
lent  a  halo  to  even  the  most  commonplace  details  connected  with 
it  and  thus  gave  to  them  a  literary  immortality  hitherto  confined 
rather  narrowly  to  matters  of  ecclesiastical  interest.  The  wide- 
spread enthusiasm  for  the  movement  and  participation  in  it  as- 
sured its  commemoration  not  only  in  monuments  of  stone  but 
in  a  variety  of  writings  as  well.  The  authors  of  these  accounts 
were  neither  sophisticated  nor  highly  trained  in  their  art.  The 
picture  of  society  which  they  drew,  though  relatively  complete, 
has  stood  forth  with  all  the  simple  and  stark  realism  of  a  char- 
coal sketch,  full  of  feeling,  action,  and  scenery,  but  lacking  in 
finish.  The  polish  and  finish  have  come  with  the  later  centu- 
ries. For  those,  however,  who  would  understand  that  society 
even  in  its  more  finished  form,  a  knowledge  of  the  preliminary 
sketch  is  still  essential. 

In  these  lack-o-Latin  days  students  seeking  to  accomplish  this 
find  their  path  too  much  beset  with  linguistic  obstacles.  It  is  to 
ameliorate  these  difficulties  that  the  present  volume  has  been  com- 
piled. The  plan  of  this  work  will  be  found  reminiscent  of 
Archer's  Crmade  of  Richard  I  and  the  Parallel  Source  Problems 
of  Mediaeval  History.  The  author  gratefully  acknowledges  in- 
debtedness to  both.     For  assistance  in  the  preparation  of  these 


VI 


PREFACE 


translations  he  is  under  great  obligation  to  several  of  his  former 
students.  Special  acknowledgment  is  due  to  Sister  Frances  Rita* 
Ryan,  M.A.  (Sisters  of  St.  Joseph)  for  her  contributions  of  the 
passages  from  Fulcher  and  to  Mrs.  Willoughby  M.  Babcock,  M.A. 
for  a  like  service  in  the  case  of  Ekkehard.  Both  have  also  as- 
sisted in  reading  the  proof  sheets.  In  the  preparation  of  the  in- 
troduction and  notes  the  works  of  numerous  scholars  in  the 
field  have  been  placed  under  contribution.  A  few  of  these  are 
mentioned,  but  it  would  be  quite  impossible  to  enumerate  them 
all.  The  author  must  content  himself  with  the  expression  of  his 
gratitude  to  Professor  D.  C.  Munro,  through  whose  seminar  he, 
like  so  many  others,  was  first  introduced  to  the  study  of  this 
period.  Finally,  I  wish  to  acknowledge  my  indebtedness  to  my 
wife,  without  whose  help  at  all  stages  this  w^ork  would  not  have 
been  completed. 

A.  C.  K. 

Minneapolis,  Minn. 

May  31,  1921. 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction i 

Prologue  22 

Chapter  1.     The  Summons 24 

I.    Conditions   in   Europe  at  the  beginning  of   the   Crusade 

2.  Urban's  plea  for  a  Crusade 3.  The  immediate  response.    , 

4.  Urban's  instructions  to  assembling  Crusaders, 

Chapter  II.     The  March  to  Constantinople 44 

I.    The  Departure 2.  The  March  of  the   Peasants 3.  The 

Main  Body. 

Chapter  III.     Alexius  and  the  Crusaders 69 

I.    Alexius  and  the  Peasants.    Fate  of  the  Peasants'  Crusade 

2.  The  Emperor's  treatment  of  Hugh 3.  Godfrey  at  Con- 
stantinople  4.  Alexius  and  the  minor  leaders 5.   Bohe- 

mund  and  the  Emperor 6.  Raymond  and  the  Emperor 

7.  Robert  cj  Normandy  and  Stephen  at  the  Emperor's  Court 
8.  Sieg;i;  and  capture  of  Nicaea 9.  Alexius  at  the  sur- 
render of  JTicaea 10.  The  views  of  Alexius  on  his  relations 

with  the  Crusaders. 


Chapter  IV.     From  Nicaea  to  Antioch 112 

I.    Battle  of  Dorylaeum 2.  Hardships  of  the  march  through 

Asia  Minor 3.  Baldwin  and  Tancred  depart  from  the  main 

army 4.  The  march  through  Armenia 5.  Beginning  of 

the  siege  of  Antioch 6.  Summary  of  the  march  to  Antioch 

and  the  beginning  of  the  siege 7.  The  foraging  expedition 

of    Bohemund    and   Robert   of    Flanders 8.    Sufferings    in 

camp  before  Antioch 9.  Call  for  reinforcements 10.  The 

erection  of  a  fortress.    Fights  with  the  Turks 11.  Capture 

of  Antioch 12.  Summary  of  the  siege  of  Antioch.  ^ 

Chapter  V.     Kerbogha  and  the  Finding  of  the  Lance 163 

I.    Kerbogha  lays  siege  to  the  Crusaders  in  Antioch 2.  Dire 

straits  of   the  Crusaders 3.   Revelation   of   the   Lance 

4.  Defea/  ci  Kerbogha 5.  Summary  of  events. 

vii 


viii  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Chapter  VI.     Dissension  among  the  leaders 194 

I.  Disorganization  of  the  army 2.  Disputes  between  Ray- 
mond and  Bohemund 3.  Raymond  finally  starts  for  Jeru- 
salem.   Archas 4.  Continued  quarrels   among  the  leaders. 

The  trial  of  the  Lance 5.  Another  view  of  the  revelation 

and  trial  of  the  Lance. 

Chapter  VII.     Capture  of  Jerusalem 242 

I.    March  to  Jerusalem 2.  The  Siege 3.  Final   assault  and 

capture 4.  Arrangements  for  holding  Jerusalem 5.  Bat- 
tle of  Ascalon 6.  Bohemund  and  Baldwin  fulfil  their  vow 

7,  Official  Summary  of  the  Crusade. 

Epilogue    280 

Notes 282 


; 


INTRODUCTION 

/  It  is  now  more  than  eight  hundred  years  since  Christian  Europe 
^as  first  aroused  to  arms  in  an  effort  to  wrest  the  Holy  Land  from 
/the  hands  of  the  Infidel,  and  yet  the  interest  in  those  expeditions 
'  still  persists.  Scarcely  a  generation  has  passed  without  demanding 
a  fuller  and  fresher  account  of  the  Crusades  for  its  own  perusal. 
Sober  historians  have  sought  earnestly  to  answer  the  call,  but, 
voluminous  as  their  work  has  been,  the  fanciful  poet  and  novelist 
have  succeeded  in  keeping  a  pace  in  advance.  It  would  require  many 
pages  to  list  only  the  titles  of  the  books  and  articles  which  the  last 
generation  alone  has  produced.  Apparently  the  subject  will  not 
cease  to  appeal  to  the  interest  of  the  world  so  long  as  the  history  of 
Syria  remains  a  treasured  memory.  And  the  story  of  the  first  and 
most  successful  Christian  effort  to  retake  possession  of  the  Holy 
Land  will  continue  to  be  read  with  feeling  by  the  descendants,  blood 
and  spiritual,  of  those  first  Crusaders.  It  seems,  therefore,  not 
out  of  place  to  make  available  for  the  English  reader  the  story  of 
that  expedition  as  related  by  the  men  who  witnessed  it  and  parti- 
cipated in  it. 

I.  General  Importance  of  the  Chronicles 
Modern  writers  have  viewed  the  Crusades  with  varying  opinion. 
Scholarly  enthusiasts  have  seen  in  them  ''the  first  great  effort  of 
mediaeval  life  to  go  beyond  the  pursuit  of  selfish  and  isolated  am- 
bitions ;  .  .  .  the  trial  feat  of  the  young  world  essaying  to  use, 
to  the  glory  of  God  and  the  benefit  of  many,  the  arms  of  its  new 
knighthood."^  Others,  like  Gibbon,  more  cynical  in  their  attitude, 
have  seen  in  them  only  the  mournful  spectacle  of  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  human  beings  led  on  to  inevitable  slaughter  by  a  spirit 
of  ignorant  f anaticism.^  However  varied  Jj»e  opinion  on  the  wisdom 
and  the  expediency  of  the  undertaking!  there  is  less  room  for 
difference  in  regard  to  the  importance  of  wj£  movement  as  a  phase 
in  the  development  of  European  civilization^  The  highly  localized 
life  of  the  eleventh  century,  in  which  the  imrri^diate  horizon  so  often 
served  to  limit  men's  vision  of  knowledge,  was  shaken  from  end  to 
end.  Not  all  who  started  on  this  expedition  to  the  Holy  Land  ever 
reached  the  other  end ~of  Europe,  to  be  sure,  but  even  these  saw 
for  the  first  time  strange  cities  and  men  and  returned  home,  if  not 
with  ffloryy  certakdyLwjth  more  experience  than  they  had  had  before. 


,A 


X 


2  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

As  for  the  thousands  who  finally  succeeded  in  overcoming  the  almost 
superhuman  obstacles  involved  in  the  conquest  of  the  holy  places, 
what  wonders  did  they  not  have  to  relate!  Individuals  and  occa- 
sional bands  of  pilgrims  had  journeyed  over  the  same  route  before 
the  Crusaders,  but  they  were  relatively  so  few  that  their  experiences 
were  absorbed  within  their  own  limited  localities  and  left  few  traces. 
The  First  Crusade,  however,  enlisted  people  of  all  classes,  of  both 
s^xes,  and  every  age,  drawing  them  from  pfa^Hcally  all  parts  oF 
..Christian  Europe.  As  the  first  bands  proceeded  through  district 
after  district,  others  caught  the  spirit  and  started  after  them.  And 
thus  the  narrow  highways  were  choked  with  a  constant  stream  of 
Crusaders,  some  hurrying  eastward,  others  returning  home.  Nor 
did  the  movement  cease  with  the  capture  of  Jerusalem.  Ten  years 
later  there  were  Crusaders  still  going  East  in  answer  to  Urban's 
call  for  the  First  Crusade,  while  the  actual  possession  of  the  Holy 
City  by  the  Crusaders  afforded  the  necessary  impetus  for  a  steady 
stream  of  pilgrims  between  West  and  East.  With  tjig^mlgrim  and 
the_Qnusader_  went  .also  the  merchant,  cQurier^.miii^trel,  arid,  ad- 
venturer. Thus  wayfaring,  with  all  its  attendant  good  and  evil, 
became  aT  habit  over  all  of  Europe.  What  this  exchange  of  ideas 
and  wares  meant  transcends  statistics  and  must  be  looked  for  in 
the  accelerated  progress  of  Europe  which  followed,  in  the  so-called 
Renaissance  of  the  Twelfth  Century. 

Quite  apal'T^from  the  Crusade  itself,  the  eye-witness  accounts  of 
the  expedition  have  a  peculiar  value  for  the  student  of  history^  as 
the  first  fairly  full  description  of  European  society  si"nce"~tTie  fall 
of  the  Roman  Empire  in  the  West.  It  is  difficult  to  find  in  the 
period  between  the  fifth  and  twelfth  centuries  any  writings  which 
describe  contemporary  life  and  society.  Einhard's  Life  of  Charle- 
magne is  the  striking  exception.  Just  as  the  meagre  Germania 
of  Tacitus  has  been  remorselessly  tortured  into  a  confession  of 
Germanic  civilization,  frequently  made  to  serve  all  centuries  from 
the  prehistoric  to  the  eighth,  and  even  beyond,  so  Einhard,  with 
but  little  help,  has  been  pressed  into  equally  heroic  service  for 
the  eighth  and  ninth  centuries.  The  next  two  centuries,  for  lack 
of  a  Tacitus  or  an  Einhard,  have  been  constrained  to  linger  under 
the  infamy  of  the  name  "Dark  Ages."  This  darkness,  however,  is 
effectively  dispelled  at  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century,  largely 
through  these  chronicles  of  the  First  Crusades,  while  the  steadily 
swelling  volume  of  writings  thereafter  obviates  the  danger  for  suc- 
ceeding ages.  The  religious  character  of  the  Crusades  drew  the 
sympathetic  attention  of  clerical  writers,  the  only  writers  of  the 
time.     All   that  the   leaders   did   on   this   journey   ''of   the   Lord," 


f 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

whether  petty  or  great,  trivial  or  important,  was  thought  worth; 
commemoration  for  the  benefit  of  posterity.  Under  the  circum- 
stances, the  varied  composition  of  the  crusading  host  was  par- 
ticularly fortunate.  Practically  the  only  classes  of  Europe  not 
personally  represented  0Ji_..the  Crusad^^were  Emperor  and  King, 
Pope  and  Archbishop.  In  other  words,  that^portioSrof  society 
which  alone  was  deemed  worthy  of  attention  in  the  ordinary  brief 
annals  and  chronicles  of  the  time  was  absent,  and  those  who  de- 
tailed the  story  of  the  expedition  lavished  their  enthusiasm  upon 
ordinary  nobles,  knights,  and  foot  soldiers,  even  the  poor  being 
accorded  a  generous  measure  of  notice.  These  accounts,  accord- 
ingly, present  a  picture  of  society  in  which  the  irelationship  of  all 
glasses,  ecclesiastical  and  lay,  masculine  and  feminine,  is  portraved 
itL.. Its,  intimate  aspects.  Although  ordinary  affairs  are  at  times 
slighted,  the  extraordinary  recur  so  frequently  and  with  such  variety 
as  to  make  the  inference  of  the  ordinary  fairly  easy.  The  desciip- 
tions  are  so  full  ar|H  tonrh  sa  many  activities_ol.soci^ty  that  they 
illumine  not  only  the  civilization  of  the  time,  but  also  cast  con- 
siderable light  on  the  preceding  and  following  periods.  As  a  re- 
sult", it  has  been  a  comniOh  practice  for  master  historians  to  initiate 
their  apprentices  into  the  study  of  European  history  through  the 
accounts  of  the  First  Crusade. 

The  literary  value  of  these  writings  is  rather  indirect  than  other- 
wise. They  have  afforded  apparently  inexhaustible  material  for 
literature,  but  as  literary  productions  themselves  have  been  only 
lightly  appraised.  Nevertheless,  they  are  fair  specimens  of  the 
writings  of  that  time,  and,  as  such,  they  deserve  some  consideration 
in  a  comprehensive  history  of  literature.  Some  of  them,  such  as  the 
letters  of  -Stephen  of  Blois  and  Anselm  of  Ribemont,  have  a  charm 
which  entitles  them  to  much  higher  consideration.  Here  and  there 
in  the  chronicles  the  authors  soar  to  fairly  great  heights.  It  would 
be  difficult  to  find  anywhere  a  more  graphic  description  of  deep 
jespair  than  is  presented  by  the  anonymous  author  of  the  Gestcr 
in  his  account  of  the  reception  "by  Alexius  and  his  army  of  the  tate 
cyTfhf^  rnisaHprc;  at  Ar^tj^^^h  In  lilce  maaioeiv-thj^ jjuoj^Jul  acco^ 
of  the  interview  of  Kerbogha  and  his  mother  before  Antioch  may 
b e^Slce d  w i t h  many  a  better  known ^Tece'orimagery.  In  genefa!^ 
however,  the  literary  merit  of  the  following  accounts  consists  chiefly 
in  their  vivid  realism,  which  the  very  crudeness  of  expression  only 
serves  to  accentuate.  The  hopes  and  fears,  mournful  sorrows  and- 
exultant  joys,  the  profound  despair  and  terror  of  IRe'afmy,  as  it 
marched  through  one  trial  after  another,  are  described  with  the 
awful  earnestness  and  sincerity  of  men  who  have  actually  shared 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADF 

)eri£njces.  It  is  this  quality  which  causes  the  chronicles 
themselves  to  be  read  with  interest  long  after  their  material  has  been 
adorned  with  finer  language  by  more  skilful  writers. 

II.   The  Distribution  of  News 

But  the  absence  of  a  polished  literary  finish  was  not  wholly  due 
to  a  lack  of  skill  on  the  part  of  the  writers.  It  was  partly  due,  also, 
to  the  fact  that  these  writings  were  intended  for  the  information 
of  the  contemporary  world.  They  were  the  newspapers  of  the  time 
and  in  this  they  mark  a  distinct  advance  in  the  art  of  disseminating 
current  information.  Hitherto,  writing  had  been  almost  exclusively 
confined  to  the  Latin  language  and,  hence,  to  churchmen.  The  few 
exceptions  in  vernacular  tongues  before  the  twelfth  century  have 
been  deservedly  treasured  as  rare  monuments  of  philology.  In  the 
Latin  writings  only  such  matters  as  were  of  interest  to  the  clergy 
were  accorded  much  consideration.  Theological  writings.  Scripture, 
the  writings  of  the  Church  Fathers,  books  of  Church  service,  text- 
books for  the  schools,  and  treatises  on  kindred  subjects  constituted 
the  chief  themes  for  writers.  Laws  of  kingdoms  and  meagre  entries 
in  monastic  annals  composed  the  major  portion  of  secular  informa- 
tion committed  to  writing.  Occasionally  the  career  of  some  ruler 
was  chronicled  in  panegyric  fashion,  usually  because  of  some  past  or 
expected  favor  to  the  Church.  Even  the  histories  of  nations — e.g.. 
The  History  of  the  Franks  by  Gregory  of  Tours,  or  The  Ecclesiasti- 
cal History  of  England  by  the  Venerable  Bede —  were  ecclesiastical 
histories,  in  which  the  purely  secular  played  but  an  incidental  part. 

The  written  description  of  contempora.Ty  events  for  contem- 
porary men  was  left  to  letters.  But  in  the  narrow  life  of  the  time 
people  were  rarely  so  far  removed  from  their  friends  that  they 
found  it  necessary  to  resort  to  such  means  'for  exchanging  informa- 
tion. The  churchmen,  whose  organization  radiated  from  Rome, 
and  whose  training  had  made  them  more  familiar  with  the  art  of 
writing,  alone  employed  letters  to  any  gr<eat  extent.  Here  again, 
however,  ecclesiastical  and  scholastic  matters  received  the  pre- 
ponderant share  of  attention,  though  often,-  current  bits  of  general 
interest  were  included.  These  latter  items  might  be  transmitted  to 
Church  gatherings  and,  doubtless,  were  freq'uently  so  treated.  But 
for  the  most  part  the  news  of  the  day  was  passed  orally  from 
neighbor  to  neighbor,  or  wider  areas  wete  momentarily  linked 
together  by  the  tales  of  some  warfaring  minsitrel  or  other  traveller. 
As  the  monasteries  and  castles  were  most  famous  for  their  hos- 
pitality, so  these  were  the  best  informed  centers  of  the  time. 

The   Crusade,   however,   created   abnormal   .conditions.   Most  of 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  5 

the  people  who  went  on  the  expedition  did  so  with  the  expectation 
of  returning  home  after  the  fulfillment  of  their  purpose.  As  a  re- 
sult, the  social  interests  of  the  local  communities  were  suddenly  ex- 
panded even  to  Palestine  itself.  Since,  moreover,  there  were  few 
regions  of  western  Europe  which  did  not  furnish  some  of  their 
people  for  the  cause,  many  different  lines  of  interest  focused  them- 
selves upon  the  army  and  were  constantly  crossing  one  another. 
Secular  Europe  was  no  longer  limited  by  a  local  horizon;  it  was 
ever  eager  for  news,  and  more  news,  from  the  East  J  Neighborhood 
gossip  could  serve  only  as  a  local  distributing  agency  in  this  work. 
Wayfarers  were  eagerly  accosted  for  news  and  probably  suppHed 
the  localities  with  much  real  information.  But  where  the  interest 
was  great  and  so  constant,  the  temptation  to  expand  small  items 
to  magnificent  proportions  was  too  great  to  be  resisted,  and  many  a 
glib-tongued  impostor  exchanged  the  fabrication  of  his  fertile  im- 
agination for  full  fare  and  comfortable  lodging.  Some  of  these 
wild  tales  found  their  way  into  writing  and  were  transmitted  to 
a  credulous  posterity  with  all  the^  authority  which  the  written  page 
could  lend.  Authentic  information — and  even  the  common  world 
was  soon  forced  to  discriminate  between  kinds — had  to  be  obtained 
through  more  assured  channels.  The  service  of  couriers,  long 
known  to  the  official  world,  was  expanded  to  meet  the  need. 

III.    Letters 

In  the  earlier  stages  of  the  march  it  was  a  relatively  easy  matter 
to  detach  squires  or  foot-soldiers  and  send  them  back  with  messages 
and  news.  This  continued  even  to  the  time  when  the  army  left 
Nicaea;  thereafter  this  method  became  impracticable,  if  not  quite 
impossible.  Chance  meetings  with  ships  from  the  West  then 
offered  almost  the  only  opportunity  to  exchange  greetings,  and,  as 
the  accounts  show,  these  opportunities  occurred  but  rarely.  Letters 
alone  could  be  used  under  such  circumstances.  It  was,  ther-efore, 
fortunate  that  the  expedition  represented  a  union  of  ecclesiastical 
and  secular  interests,  for  the  churchmen,  priests,  or  clerics  lent 
themselves  willingly  to  the  task  of  drawing  up  letters — in  Latin,  of 
course.  The  churchmen  in  the  West,  upon  receiving  these  letters, 
copied  them  and  rapidly  passed  on  the  information  to  the  waiting 
world.  Such  letters,  even  when  addressed  to  individuals,  were  re- 
garded as  common  property,  unless  they  were  carefully  sealed,  and 
their  contents  were  widely  diffused,  usually  at  Church  gatherings  of 
some  sort.  How  eagerly  the  congregations  everywhere  must  have 
Loked  forward  to  such  meetings  for  news  from  relatives,  friends, 
and  acquaintances,  gone  so  long  and  so  far  away ! 


6  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

These  letters,^  of  which  fourteen  are  here  translated  and  distrib- 
uted at  their  appropriate  places  in  the  narrative,  constitute  the  most 
important  sources  of  our  knowledge  of  the  events  which  they  de- 
scribe. The  authors  are  all  men  of  prominence  and  responsibility. 
Two  of  the  letters  are  from  popes.  One  is  from  the  Emperor 
Alexius.  Five  are  from  the  leaders  of  the  Crusade  and  may  be  re- 
garded as  official  reports  of  progress,  while  the  remaining  four, 
though  also  the  works  of  leaders,  are  of  a  more  personal  nature. 
The  two  letters  of  Stephen  of  Blois  to  his  wife,  Adele,  are  among 
the  literary  gems  of  the  period.  In  addition  to  the  responsible  char- 
acter of  their  writers,  the  letters  have  the  further  merit  of  greater 
proximity  both  of  time  and  place  to  the  events  which  they  narrate. 
The  emotions  of  the  moment  grip  the  writers  irresistibly,  beyond  the 
power  of  epistolary  formality  to  efface  and  thus  lend  a  vividness 
which  the  later  chronicles  sometimes  lack.  Our  chief  regret  is  that 
there  are  not  more  of  them. 

IV.    Chronicles 

The  interest  of  the  world  in  the  events  of  the  First  Crusade 
could  not  be  satisfied  by  letters  alone.  Numerous  motives  combined 
to  keep  this  interest  inflamed.  P^tdatic  pride  in  the  achievements 
of  countrymen,  natural  enjoyment  of  the  marvelous  and  adven- 
turous, the  continued  need  ori)Oth  men  and  mpn^y  to  insure  the 
permanence  of  the  conquest,  and,  no  less,  the  pardonable  pride  of  the 

'V  Crusaders  themselves  in  preserving  the  memory  of  their  deeds — 
all  these  influences  tended  to  the  telling  and  the  retelling  of  the 
story.  Book-making  in  itself  offered  little  inducement,  for  the  ab- 
sence of  publishing  houses  and  the  lack  of  copyright  laws  denied 
prospective  authors  hope  either  of  fame  or  wealth.  Publishing,  if 
the  multipHcation  of  copies  by  the  laborious  process  of  hand-writing 
may  be  so  called,  was  done  chiefly  in  the  scriptoria  of  monasteries 
or  episcopal  schools.  But  parchment  was  expensive,  and  only  the 
clerics  could  write.  Ordinarily  the  military  exploits  of  contem- 
porary men  seemed  too  ephemeral  to  justify  description.  How- 
ever, the  Crusade  was  a  different  matter  in  that  its  exploits, 
though    largely    military    and    material,    nevertheless    had    a    deep 

^  religious  significance.  Urban's  remark  at  Clermont,  that  the  re- 
covery of  the  Holy  Land  would  be  a  deed  comparable  to  those 

—  of  the  Maccabees,  was  not  forgotten.  The  thought  that  he  was 
really  adding  a  chapter  to  Sacred  History  served  to  carj;y  more  than 
one  writer  over  depressing  periods  of  discouragement  to  the  suc- 
cessful completion  of  his  history  of  the  expedition.  These  varied 
motives,  both  sacred  and  profane,  combined  to  insprre   the  com- 


/ 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  7 

position  of  the  following  detailed  accounts  of  the  First  Crusade.* 
Thg  first  complete  account  of  the  Crusade  which  has  come_^^Qysn 
to  lis  is  rnrnmnnly  Wnnwn  a^  thp  Gp.^ta  Its  author  has  attained  some 
measure  of  distinction  as  the  Anonymous.  What  is  knqwn_to  Jiim, 
therefore."  rests  solely  upon  the  inferences  to  be  drawn  from  his 
work.  He  accompanied  the  Italian  Norman  prince.  Bohemund, 
from  the  siege  of  Amalfi  to  the.  capture  oi .  Antioch.  From 
there  he  went  to  Jerusalem  with  the  general  band  under  Ray- 
mond's leadership,  whether  with  Raymond  himself  or,  which 
is  more  likely,  with  Tancred  or  Robert  of  Normandy,  who  were 
associated  with  Raymond,  is  not  clear.  Hi§_  book  was  written 
before„tbj£LdQ5£^UIilU-^ 
Jerusalem  in  that  year.     So  much  may  be  stated  fairly  positively; 

the   rpgf  fg'nnTy  mfprpnfial,   Jricirt^Jalg  hnn\i-   pprgnr|^]   r^fprpnrf»Q    ^rp  j. 

singularly  few.  There  is  no  preface  or  dedication^-iia-^partiag  re- ?^ 
mark  to  the  reader.  However,  certain  expressions,  certain  modifica- 
tions of  the  Latin  winch  he_emplDya^iIetmy_a_.W  oFFamili- 
Jrity  with  the  verbal  habits  of  southern^Italy,  while  his  constant 
ludation  of  Bohemund^_evffl  though  he  abandoned  him  after  the 
4"  capture  of  Antioch^  tends  to  confirm  the  .Mjef  jhaL  his,  .home  was 
iji  that  region.  He  may  h^vp  bppn  a  N^^man;  if  so,  he  left  Nor-  / 
mandy  iongn^efore  the  First  Crusade.  His  somewhat  ^cular  point 
of  view  in  regard  to  events,  occasional  impersbhal  remarJcs~Upon 
the  clergy,  or  participation  in  battle,  have  led  modern  critics  to  the  ^^ 
bdief  that  he  was  a  knight,  though  his  lack  of  intimacy  with  the 
leaders^  would  indicate  that  he  was  a  lesser  knight.  The  style  of 
his  work^and  the~general  lack  of  literary  allusions  do  not  bespeak"^" 
a  very  high  degree  of  education.  His  use  of  language  is  that  of  an 
amateur,  and  his  vocabulary  is  decidedly  lirnited.  Unable  adequately 
to_ describe  the  achievements  of  the  various  crusaders,  he  strains 
the  superratTve'd^egree  of  his  adjectives  so  constantly  that  occa- 
sionally he  finds  it  necessary  to  lapse  into  the  simple  positive  as  a 
means  of  actual  distinction.  The  Bible  is  practically  the  only  work  tJ^ 
which  he  quptes.  Hjs  rpglj^ipty  is  sustained  both  in  his  book  and 
in  his  own  career,  as  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  he  chose  to  .go  on  to 
Jerusalem,  ijisteai_of_jremaining  with  his_  leader  at  Antioch.  What 
he  lacks  elsewhere  is  greatly  outweighed  by  his  judgment  in  eval- 
uating title  relative  importance  of  events^  his  restraint  in  preventing 
intimate  details  from"  obscuring  the  perspective  of  his  story,  his 
unusuaTfairriess  and  impartiality  toward  the  rival  Christian  leaders, 
as  well  as  toward  his  Turkish  foes,  and  a  certain  native  instinct  for 
the  dramatic  apparent  throughout  the  boo^.  Guibert,  Balderic,  and 
-  Robert  the  Monk  all  criticized  his  style,  but  unwittingly  paid  him 


8  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

the  lavish  compHment  of  incorporating  nearly  the  whole  of  his 
work  in  their  ''literary"  accounts  of  the  expedition.  The  great  his- 
torical value  of  the  work  rests  not  only  in  the  fact  that  it  was 
written  by  an  eye-witness  and  participant,  but  also  upon  the  fact 
that  it  was  probably  composed  from  time  to  time  on  the  journey 
and  finished  immediately  after  the  battle  of  Ascalon  in  September 
1099,  the  last  event  which  it  mentions.  ^It  is  the  first  full  account 
of  the  Crusade  still  extant,  and  almost  every  other  history  of  the 
First  Crusade  is  based  either  directly  or  indirectly  upon  it.  Six 
MS  copies  of  it  still  remain,  and  all  of  tke  material  has  been  pre- 
served in  one  form  or  another  in  the  later  accounts  of  the  Crusade. 

The  second  chronicle  listed,  on  the  other  hand,  does  not  at  all 
efface  its  author,  for  the  preface  sets  forth  the  authorship  and  the 
purpose  in  full: 

'To  my  Lord  Bishop  of  Viviers  and  to  all  the  orthodox,  from 
Pontius  of  Balazun  and  Raymond,  Canon  of  Puy;  greeting,  and  a 
share  in  our  labor. 

"We  have  concluded  that  we  ought  to  make  clear  to  you  and 
to  all  who  dwell  across  the  Alps  the  great  deeds  which  God  in  the 
usual  manner  of  His  love  performed,  and  did  not  cease  constantly 
to  perform,  through  us ;  especially  so,  since  the  unwarlike  and  the 
fearful  left  us  and  strove  to  substitute  falsehood  for  the  truth. 
But  let  him  who  shall  see  their  apostacy  shun  their  words  and  com- 
panionship! For  the  army  of  God,  even  if  it  bore  the  punishment 
of  the  Lord  Himself  for  its  sins,  out  of  His  compassion  also  stood 
forth  victor  over  all  paganism.  But  since  some  went  through 
Slavonia,  others  through  Hungary,  others  through  Longobardy, 
and  yet  others  by  sea,  it  would  be  tedious  for  us  to  write  about  each. 
Therefore  we  have  omitted  the  story  of  others  and  have  taken  it 
as  our  task  to  write  about  the  Count,  the  Bishop  of  Puy,  and  their 
army." 

Pontius  of  Balazun,  a  knight  in  the  Provengal  army,  was  killed  at 
Archas,  and  Raymond  was  thus  left  to  complete  the  task  alone. 
Raymond  had  been  elevated  to  the  priesthood  while  on  the  Crusade 
and  had  become  the  chaplain  of  Count  Raymond  of  Toulouse,  who 
was  the  wealthiest  leader  on  the  expedition.  The  expense  of  compil- 
ing the  book  was,  therefore,  a  trivial  matter.  His  intimacy  with 
Count  Raymond  and  with  Bishop  Adhemar  gave  him  access  to  much 
information  not  available  to  such  writers  as  the  Anonymous.  Critics 
have  been  exceedingly  harsh  in  their  condemnation  of  both  the  form 
and  the  content  of  the  book.  They  condemn  it  as  crude,  bigoted, 
intensely  partisan,  and  a  mass  of  confused  and  credulous  mysticism. 
Partisan  it  undoubtedly  is,  for  Raymond  was  writing  to  correct  a 


/ 

THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  9 

probable  impression  conveyed  by  the  returning  Crusaders  both  as 
to  the  bravery  of  the  Provengal  host  and  the  validity  of  the  Holy 
Lance,  especially  the  latter.  He  himself  had  been  among  the  first 
to  accept  the  visions  of  Peter  Bartholomew,  had  participated  in  the 
digging  for  the  Lance,  and  even  the  apparently  adverse  judgment 
of  the  Ordeal  was  not  sufficient  to  shake  his  faith  in  it.  A  large 
part  of  his  work,  therefore,  is  a  brief  in  defense  of  the  Lance,  in 
support  of  which  he  adduces  vision  after  vision  and  numerous  wit- 
nesses. The  rest  of  his  book  is  devoted  to  the  part  played  by  Count 
Raymond,  Bishop  Adhemar,  and  the  Provengal  host  in  the  Crusade. 
All  this  is  true,  but  it  cannot  be  said  in  justice  that  he  is  totally 
blind  to  the  faults  of  either  leader  or  people.  To  the  historian  the 
book  is  second  in  importance  only  to  the  Gesta,  for  it  was  the  work 
of  an  eye-witness,  written  possibly  no  earlier  than  1102,  though 
undoubtedly  on  the  basis  of  notes  taken  during  the  journey.  It 
must  be  regarded  as  an  independent  account,  even  though,  as  Hagen- 
meyer  conjectures,  its  author  may  have  used  details  from  the 
Gesta  to  correct  his  own  account.  For  what  may  be  termed  the 
sociological  aspects  of  the  Crusade,  Raymond's  history  is  the  most 
valuable  of  all  the  accounts.  Six  MS  copies  of  the  work  are 
extant. 

The  third  account  of  the  Crusade  as  a  whole  was  written  by 
Fulcher  of  Chartres,  whose  career  can  be  traced  more  fully  than 
that  of  any  other  eye-witness  chronicler  of  the  Crusade.  Born 
probably  at  Chartres  in  1059,  he  was  trained  for  the  service  of  the 
Church,  and  when  the  Council  of  Clermont  was  held  in  1095  he 
was  a  priest  either  at  Chartres  or  at  Orleans.  The  enthusiasm 
which  swept  over  the  land  claimed  him,  as  it  did  so  many  of  his 
countrymen,  so  that  when  the  army  of  Stephen  of  Blois  moved  from 
Chartres,  late  in  1096,  Fulcher  was  one  of  the  band.  He  was  with 
Stephen's  army  until  October,  1097,  when  he  became  the  chaplain 
of  Baldwin,  Godfrey's  brother.  From  this  time  until  Baldwin's 
death  in  11 18  he  remained  in  that  capacity,  closely  associated  with 
the  energetic  leader.  As  a  result,  he  was  present  /^either  at  the 
si.qge  of  Antioch  nor  at  that  of  Jerusalem,  being  then  at  Edessa, 
which  place  he  did  not  leave  until  late  in  1099,  when  he  made,  a 
pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem  with  Baldwin  and  Bohemund.  When  Bald- 
win was  summoned  to  take  the  reins  of  government  upon  the  death 
of  Godfrey,  Fulcher  accompanied  him  to  Jerusalem,  where  he  re- 
mained until  the  time  of  his  own  death  in  1127  or  1128. 

His  Historia  Hierosolymitana,  of  which  only  the  portion  re- 
lating events  actually  witnessed  by  Fulcher  on  the  First  Crusade 
is  here  translated,  was  written  upon  the  urgent  solicitation  of  his 


10  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

friends.  It  first  appeared  in  1105,  and  the  welcome  then  accorded 
it  encouraged  him  to  ga-tjrr  with  it.  The  latter  part  of  his  work 
takes  the  form  of  an  annalistic  account  of  the  Latin  Kingdom  of 
Jerusalem,  for  the  early  history  of  which  it  is  undoubtedly  the  most 
important  single  source  of  information.  He  seems  to  have  revised 
the  earlier  portions  of  his  history  at  least  twice,  and  the  final 
version  ends  somewhat  abruptly  with  the  mention  of  a  plague  of 
rats  in  the j^ar  11277,  Fulcher  apparently  had  a  more  extensive 
literary  training^tlran '^either  of  the  two  preceding  writers.  His 
fondness  for  quotation  has  been  charged  against  him  as  an  affecta- 
tion by  modern  critics,  but,  as  a  fault,  it  mars  only  the  latter  portion 
of  his  work,  written  when  he  was  quite  old.  On  the  whole,  his  book 
is  free  from  either  partisanship  or  bias.  He  seems  to  have  been 
interested  chiefly  in  describing  the  events  as  they  occurred,  with 
possibly  an  additional  desire  to  attract  soldiers  from  the  West  to 
the  support  of  the  needy  Latin  state  in  Syria.  He  displays  a  strong 
interest  in  nature  and  describes  strange  plants,  animals,  and  natural 
phenomena  in  a  naive  manner.  His  interest  in  the  intrigues  of  the 
lords,  both  lay  and  ecclesiastical,  is  very  slight,  but  the  general  wel- 
fare of  the  people  he  views  with  all  the  kindly  concern  of  a  simple 
French  cure.  As  a  whole,  the  book  is  exceedingly  valuable  and 
very  soon  was  widely  read  and  copied.  It  was  second  only  to  the 
Gesta  as  a  mine  for  exploitation  by  later  writers  on  the  Crusade. 
More  than  fifteen  MS  copies  of  the  original  are  still  extant. 

Of  the  writings  which  contribute  eye-witness  testimony  to  but 
a  portion  of  the  history  of  the  Crusade,  the  Alexiad,  by  Anna 
Comnena,  is  one  of  the  most  important.  The  writer  was  the 
daughter  of  Alexius,  and,  though  she  was  barely  fourteen  years  of 
age  when  the  Crusaders  came  to  Constantinople,  it  may  be  assumed 
that  the  presence  of  so  many  rude  strangers  in  the  imperial  city 
made  a  most  vivid  impression  on  her  mind.  Both  Anna  and  her 
husband,  Nicephorus  Briennius,  had  been  highly  educated,  and  when 
the  palace  intrigue  in  which  they  were  both  concerned  proved  un- 
successful and  she  was  shut  up  in  a  convent  by  her  brother's  order, 
she  undertook  to  complete  the  history  which  her  husband  had  begun. 
Forty  years  after  the  first  Crusaders  had  passed  through  Antioch 
she  began  her  task.  In  the  meantime  there  had  been  various  bands 
of  Crusaders  from  the  West.  Bohemund  had  taken  Antioch  in 
defiance  of  the  Emperor  and  had  even  made  war  upon  him.  The 
relations  of  Alexius  with  Count  Raymond  of  Toulouse  had  under- 
gone changes,  and  many  other  events  relating  to  the  Latins  and 
the  Crusades  had  occurred.     Thus,  with  so  much  to  confuse  her 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  ii 

memory,  her  chronology  is  uncertain,  her  statement  of  fact  often 
inaccurate,  and  her  style  highly  rhetorical  and  affected.  Never  very 
certain  of  the  identity  of  the  Latin  leaders,  as  she  herself  con- 
fesses, she  calls  them  all  counts  and  confuses  one  group  with  another 
in  hopeless  fashion.  N^vCTtheless,  her  work  is  exceedingly  valuable 
as  a  presentation  of  the  Byzantine  attitude  toward  the  Latins,  and 
her  conception  of  her  father's  feeling  toward  the  Westerners  can 
probably  be  relied  upon  as  correct.  A  MS  copy  of  the  account, 
corrected  by  Anna  herself,  is  preserved  at  Florence.  Other  frag- 
ments also  remain. 

It  is  necessary  to  include  in  the  list  of  eye-witness  accounts  of 
the  First  Crusade  the  work  by  Peter  Tudebode,  a  priest  of  Civray.^ 
This  work,  once  regarded  as  the  original  of  the  Gesta,  has  been 
dethroned  from  that  position  by  recent  criticism.  It  is  almost  ^ 
verbatim  copy  of  the  latter,  with  portions  added  from  the  account 
of  Raymond  of  Agilles,  together  with  a  very  few  personal  remarks 
and  observations.  He  speaks  of  the  death  of  his  brother  in  Antioch 
and  his  own  share  in  the  funeral  services.  His  account  differs 
from  that  of  the  Gesta  primarily  in  the  change  of  adjectives  qualify- 
ing Raymond  of  Toulouse  and  Bohemund,  for  Tudebode  was  a 
follower  of  Count  Raymond.  However,  this  policy  is  not  con- 
sistently maintained.  At  best,  the  work  may  be  regarded  as  an  eye- 
witness corroboration  of  the  Gesta.  It  was  written  after  both  the 
account  by  the  Anonymous  and  by  Raymond  had  been  composed, 
and  sometime  before  iiii,  after  which  date  it  was  quoted  by  other 
writers.    Four  MS  copies  are  preserved. 

Ekkehard  of  Aura,  who  is  still  regarded  as  one  of  the  greatest 
of  the  German  historians  of  the  Middle  Ages,  was  a  monk  at  Cor- 
vey  when  the  First  Crusade  was  preached.  He  accompanied  a 
later  band  of  crusaders  in  iioi  as  far  as  Constantinople  by  land, 
and  by  sea  from  there  to  Joppa.  At  Jerusalem  he  saw  a  copy  of 
the  Gesta,  which  he  made  a  basis  for  his  own  history.  This  work 
he  wrote  for  the  Abbot  of  Corvey  in  1112,  after  he  himself  had 
become  Abbot  of  Aura.  The  language  and  the  style  of  this  book 
reveal  a  greater  familiarity  with  classical  authors  than  is  shown  by 
any  of  the  preceding  accounts  of  the  Crusade.  Its  value  rests  chiefly 
upon  his  eye-witness  account  of  the  Crusade  of  iioi,  and  his  brief 
items  about  the  Peasants'  Crusade,  of  which  no  direct  chronicle 
has  come  down  to  us.  Only  the  latter  material  has  been  included  in 
the  following  translation.     Six  MS  copies  of  the  work  are  extant. 

Raoul  de  Caen,  a  Norman  knight  too  young  to  accompany  the 


12  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Crusaders  of  1096,  enlisted  in  the  army  which  Bohemund  as- 
sembled in  1 107.  He  reached  Syria  and  entered  the  service  of 
Tancred,  then  prince  of  Antioch,  whom  he  served  until  the  latter's 
death.  In  his  early  years  he  had  received  instruction  in  letters  from 
Arnulf,  who  became  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem  after  11 12.  He  was 
an  accomplished  knight  and  seems  to  have  enjoyed  the  friendship 
of  Tancred.  During  the  first  five  years  of  this  relationship  he 
learned  much  about  the  First  Crusade,  especially  Tancred's  view 
of  events.  He  also  visited  Jerusalem  and  there  conversed  with 
his  former  teacher,  Arnulf,  now  the  Patriarch,  to  whom  he  dedicated 
his  work,  the  Gesta  Tancredi.  Though  an  important  source  of  in- 
formation, this  work  is  not,  strictly  speaking,  an  eye-witness  account. 
It  is  a  panegyric  of  the  Norman  princes  of  Antioch  and  is  very  hostile 
to  the  Emperor  Alexius  and  to  Count  Raymond.  It  deals  with  the 
history  of  the  First  Crusade  and  of  Tancred  up  to  1105,  and  its 
chief  value  lies  in  the  reflection  of  the  Norman  point  of  view.  It 
also  contains  some  information  not  afforded  by  other  writers.  The 
Latin  is  polished  and  adorned  with  numerous  passages  and  quota- 
tions from  classical  authors.  Raoul  writes  chiefly  in  prose,  but  he 
sometimes  attempts  to  soar  to  poetic  form  in  describing  unusually 
great  achievements.  On  the  whole.  Patriarch  Arnulf  had  reason 
to  be  proud  of  his  former  pupil's  achievement.  The  book  was 
written  sometime  between  Tancred's  death  in  11 12  and  that  of 
Arnulf  in  11 18.  A  single  MS  copy  is  preserved  at  the  Royal  Library 
of  Brussels.  His  account  of  the  Holy  Lance,  in  which  he  takes 
an  opposite  view  from  Raymond,  is  here  translated  in  full.  Other 
material  from  the  work  is  included  in  the  notes. 

The  value  of  the  account  by  Albert  of  Aix  has  been  much  dis- 
puted. Little  is  known  of  the  author,  who  is  said  to  have  been  a 
canon  of  the  church  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  about  the  middle  of  the 
twelfth  century.  By  his  own  confession  he  never  visited  the  Holy 
Land  himself.  Nevertheless,  he  wrote  a  history  of  the  First  Orusade 
and  the  Latin  Kingdom  of  Jerusalem  down  to  the  year  1120,  of 
which  twelve  MS  copies  exist.  The  date  of  this  writing  has,  there- 
fore, been  placed  somewhere  between  1120  and  the  middle  of  the 
century.  He  obtained  his  information,  he  says,  from  the  oral  and 
written  testimony  of  participants.  Much  of  the  material  is  palpably 
legendary ;  more  of  it,  however,  seems  entirely  probable  and  stands 
the  test  of  comparison  with  well  established  accounts.  The  work 
contains  so  much  not  treated  by  other  writers  and,  therefore,  in- 
capable of  corroboration  that  its  value  must  stand  or  fall  with  the 
reader's  attitude  toward  the  author.     It  has  been  conjectured  that 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  13 

much  of  the  material  was  taken  from  a  Lorraine  chronicle  now  lost, 
an  explanation  plausible  enough,  though  thus  far  not  substantiated. 
At  any  rate,  his  items  of  information  cannot  be  ignored,  and  they 
may  be  of  full  value.  Until  further  evidence  is  discovered,  the 
question  cannot  be  settled  positively."  Only  excerpts  on  the  Peas- 
ants' Crusade  and  Godfrey's  march  to  Constantinople  are  here 
translated  from  Albert. 

The  other  three  works  included  in  this  translation  because  their 
authors  were  present  at  the  Council  of  Clermont  may  be  grouped 
together  as  literary  histories.  None  of  the  writers  accompanied  the 
expedition,  but  each  wrote  a  history  of  the  whole  Crusade,  thus 
illustrating  the  deep  interest  of  the  people  of  Europe  in  the  subject. 
All  three  were  churchmen  of  high  position,  and  each  sought  to 
rewrite  the  crude  account  of  the  Gesta  in  more  literary  form.  They 
succeeded  in  varying  degree,  but  their  names  are  remembered,  while 
that  of  the  original  author  -has  been  irretrievably  lost.  Robert  the 
Monk  is  generally  identified  as  the  monk  chosen  Abbot  of  Saint- 
Remi  of  Rheims  in  1094,  and  later  forced  to  retire  to  the  priory  of 
Senuc.  His  work  was  written  at  the  request  of  Bernard,  Abbot  of 
Marmoutier,  sometime  before  1107.  It  adds  little  to  the  Gesta, 
but  was  very  popular  in  the  twelfth  century.  More  than  eighty 
MS  copies  of  it  are  still  extant.  Balderic,  Abbot  of  Bourgeuil, 
and  Archbishop  of  Dol  after  1107,  added  little  more  than  Robert 
to  the  Gesta  account.  His  work  was  written  after  1107  and  was 
also  quite  popular.  Seven  MS  copies  remain.  The  best  of  these 
three  accounts  is  that  of  Guibert,  who  was  Abbot  of  Nogent  from 
1 104  to  1 121.  He  composed  his  book  between  1108  and  11 12  and 
dedicated  it  to  Lisiard,  Bishop  of  Soissons.  Guibert  was  one  of 
the  leading  scholars  of  his  time,  well  versed  in  classical  lore,  which 
he  used  to  adorn  his  accounts  of  the  Crusade.  He  was  also  fairly 
well  informed  about  matters  in  northern  France.  His  additions  to 
the  Gesta  contain  many  valuable  items  about  the  crusading  leaders 
from  that  region.     Four  MS  copies  of  his  work  are  preserved. 

V.   Terminology. 

In  the  translation  of  these  accounts  a  conscious  effort  has  been 
made  to  reproduce  as  nearly  as  possible  the  style  and  manner  of 
expression  of  the  original.  Though  the  writers  all  used  the  same 
language,  they  employed  different  words  and  idioms  to  describe 
the  same  occurrences,  even  the  ordinary  incidents  of  life.  Under 
the  circumstances,  it  was  felt  that  too  much  would  be  lost  if  the 
expressions  were  all  translated  in  the  standard  idiom  of  today. 
The  person  of  the  twentieth  century  who  is  interested  in  the  man- 


14  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

ners  and  customs  of  that  time  will  find  enough  pleasure  and  profit 
in  this  treatment,  it  is  hoped,  to  repay  him  for  whatever  confusion 
the  variety  of  expressions  may  create.  A  brief  explanation  of  some 
of  the  more  distinctive  habits  in  the  terminology  of  the  period 
may  be  of  use. 

I.    Names  of  persons  and  places. 

The  names  of  the  same  persons  and  the  same  places  are  spelled 
in  many  different  ways  not  only  by  the  different  writers,  but  often, 
too,  by  the  same  writer.  While  this  is  more  true  of  Eastern  persons 
and  places,  it  is,  also,  quite  generally  true  with  regard  to  the  West,  a 
revelation  of  how  much  of  the  world  was  strange  to  the  people  of 
eleventh  century  Europe.  It  must  be  remembered,  however, 
that  dictionaries,  gazetteers,  and  similar  works  of  reference,  which 
greet  the  twentieth  century  person  at  every  turn,  were  virtually  un- 
known, while  newspapers  and  other  periodicals,  which  serve  to 
standardize  so  much  of  life  today,  did  not  then  exist.  Almost  the 
only  common  descriptions  of  the  world  known  at  that  time  were 
those  contained  in  either  the  classical  writings  or  in  those  of  the 
Church  fathers.  It  is  not  strange,  therefore,  to  find  the  names  of 
old  Roman  provinces  and  cities  applied  to  places  by  some  of  the 
more  highly  educated  writers,  such  as  Ekkehard,  Raoul,  or  Guibert. 
Less  trained  writers — and  most  of  our  writers  fall  within  this 
category — had  to  trust  chiefly  to  their  powers  of  hearing  and  their 
ability  to  reproduce  in  writing  what  they  heard.  They  had  to  follow 
their  own  rules  of  phonetic  spelling  and,  considering  the  difficulties 
under  which  they  labored,  their  results  deserve  genuine  admiration. 
In  order  to  avoid  undue  confusion,  a  uniform  spelling  has  been 
adopted  for  the  names  of  places  which  have  been  identified.  In 
most  cases  the  mediaeval  name  has  been  employed,  but  where  the 
modern  equivalent  is  much  better  known  that  form  has  been  chosen. 

The  identification  of  the  places  mentioned  by  the  writers  presents 
considerable  difficulty  at  times.  It  would  be  asking  almost  too  much 
to  expect  the  chroniclers  to  recall  vividly  and  correctly  both  the 
name  and  exact  location  of  all  the  strange  places  which  they  mention 
five  or  more  years  after  they  had  passed  through  them.  Important 
towns  and  places  in  which  they  spent  some  time,  or  with  which 
they  were  able  to  associate  some  dramatic  event,  are  usually  located 
quite  accurately ;  other  lesser  places  cannot  always  be  positively 
identified.  All  places  mentioned  whose  location  can  be  identified 
appear  on  the  accompanying  maps.  The  others,  whose  location  is 
uncertain,  have  been  italicized. 

Names    of    persons,    such    as    Robert,    Godfrey,    Baldwin,    and 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  15 

Stephen  were  common  enough,  and  little  variation  occurs.  But 
Adhemar,  papal  leader  of  the  expedition,  seems  to  have  had  a 
baffling  name,  probably  due  to  its  similarity  to  a  variety  of  names. 
As  a  result,  his  name  appears  as  Haymarus,  Aimarus,  Ademarus, 
or  Adhemarus,  or  not  at  all.  Guibert,  in  describing  the  Pope's 
appointment  of  a  vicar  for  the  Crusade,  confesses  that  he  does  not 
know  his  name,  an  interesting  comment  on  the  isolation  of  the  time. 
His  use  of  the  name  later  may  be  an  indication  that  he  was  using 
his  original  too  closely,  for  the  author  of  the  Gesta,  too,  was  igno- 
rant of  the  name  until  later  in  the  expedition.  For  the  purposes  of 
this  translation,  however,  the  names  of  the  Western  leaders  are 
standardized.  This  is  not  the  case  with  Oriental  names,  the  un- 
usual character  of  which  occasioned  the  chroniclers  a  great  deal 
of  trouble.  The  name  of  the  Turkish  ruler  of  Antioch  may  be 
cited  as  a  typical  instance.  The  common  spelling  of  his  name  today 
is  Yagi-Sian  or  lagi-Sian.  It  appears  in  the  accounts,  however, 
wth  the  Latin  ending  as  Aoxian-us,  Cassian-us,  Caspian-us,  and 
even  Gracianus.  Fulcher,  who  coined  the  first  of  these,  succeeded 
remarkably  well  on  the  whole.  In  the  case  of  less  prominent  men 
who  are  mentioned  only  once  or  twice,  the  variations  have  caused 
considerable  confusion,  leading  even  to  the  belief  that  they  were 
different  persons — e.g.,  Godfrey  of  Lastours,  who  appears  as  Gul- 
ferrus  de  Daturre,  Golprius  de  turrihus,  and  Gosfridus  de  Dasturs. 
This  example  seems  to  indicate  the  beginning  of  the  use  of  surnames, 
but  it  is  probably  fortunate  for  the  reader  that  the  movement  had 
not  yet  developed  far.  The  efforts  of  the  Crusaders  to  distinguish 
between  the  numerous  Raymonds,  Roberts,  Stephens,  Baldwins, 
and  Godfreys,  are  of  interest  as  early  factors  in  the  movement  which 
led  to  the  growth  of  heraldry  and  the  multiplication  of  names. 

2.    Expressions  of  time. 

The  reader  will  doubtless  be  impressed  by  the  absence  in  the 
chronicles  of  precise  and  minute  statements  of  time,  which  are  such 
a  marked  feature  of  modern  industrial  life.  The__year  seems  to 
Jiave  been  of  little  account  as  a  basis  for  reckoning  time,  for  the 
author  of  the  Gt'.f /a  mentions  it  oilly  0nce"tlU'fTngThe'"wHore^nar- 
rative  which  extends  over  a  period  of  foilf  year s,^and""Rrayf^^ 
Agilles  scarcely  more  often.  The  more  learned  Fulcher  uses  it,  to 
be  sure,  but  rather  as  an  ornament  than  because  he  feels  the  need 
of  such  a  measure  of  time.  The  great  festival  days  of  the  Church 
constituted  the  chief  standards  o  ri1me7'i^n'd  hefe;_  thanks  to  'the  m-- 
fluencfi.. of  lhg..jC:hurcli,  we  find  a  jfairly  uni form  practice  among  the 
writers.    The  necessity  of  determining  the  variable  date  of  Easter 


i6  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

compelled  the  Church  to  keep  a  calendar,  while  the  custom  of 
regulating  the  ordinary  affairs  of  life  with  reference  to  the  chief 
festival  days  of  the  Church  had  long  since  become  an  established 
habit  of  Christian  Europe.  The  old  Roman  Calendar,  too,  continued 
to  exert  some  influence  despite  the  efforts  of  the  Church  to  supplant 
it  with  a  Christian  scheme.  As  a  result,  the  days  of  the  month  are 
reckoned  both  by  Kalends,  Nones,  and  Ides,  and  by  the  numerical 
count  of  days  from  the  incoming  or  outgoing  month.  Days  of  the 
week  bear  the  old  Roman  names  and  the  canonical  enumeration 
from  the  Lord's  Day,  as  well.  Time  of  day  is  expressed  usually  by 
means  of  the  canonical  hours,  Matins,  Prime,  Terce,  Sext,  None, 
Vespers,  and  Compline,  though  such  expressions  as  cock-crow, 
earliest  dawn,  and  sunrise  also  occur.  Time  of  day,  and  day  of 
year  are  sometimes  noted  by  the  psalms  and  prayers  customary  at 
those  times.  Local  variations  in  reckoning  the  beginning  of  the  year 
and  seasons,  or  in  expressing  dates  by  festivals  of  loyal  saints,  a 
practice  quite  common  in  the  West,  appear  rather  infrequently  in 
these  accounts.'^ 

3.    Numbers. 

The  figures  used  by  mediaeval  writers  in  stating  numbers  of 
people  have  baffled  modern  investigators.  In  order  to  discover  the 
actual  numbers  involved,  it  has  become  almost  a  rule  to  divide  the 
figures  of  the  chroniclers  by  ten.  Perhaps  it  would  be  fairer  to 
regard  almost  all  numbers  over  one  thousand  as  figures  of  speech, 
intended  only  to  convey  the  impression  of  a  very  large  number. 
Roman  numerals  alone  were  in  use,  and  neither  the  average  writer 
nor  the  average  reader  of  the  period  had  very  much  training  in 
arithmetic.  It  was  certainly  a  difficult  task  to  describe,  if  not  a 
more  difficult  task  to  decipher,  a  very  uneven  number  of  six  figures 
in  Roman  numerals.  Quite  aside  from  the  mere  mechanical  diffi- 
culty of  the  task,  few,  if  any  persons,  had  had  experience  in  dealing 
with  large  numbers.  Neither  commercial,  ecclesiastical,  nor  military 
establishments  dealt  accurately  in  very  large  amounts  or  numbers 
at  this  time.  As  a  result,  when  these  chroniclers  found  themselves 
in  the  midst  of  the  vast  host  which  composed  the  crusading  army 
they  were  struck  with  amazement.  Nothing  in  their  previous  ex- 
perience afforded  them  a  satisfactory  basis  for  estimating  the  size  of 
the  army.  The  numbers  implied  in  their  frequent  resort  to  the 
term  ''countless"  and  "innumerable,"  or  ''as  the  sands  of  the  sea," 
and  "as  the  leaves  of  autumn,"  are  probably  almost  as  accurate  as 
the  numerals  which  they  employ.  The  actual  number  of  persons 
who  took  part  in  the  First  Crusade  cannot  be  fixed  with  any  cer- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  17 

tainty.  Army  rosters  were  not  yet  in  use.  It  is,  furthermore,  ex- 
tremely doubtful  whether  even  among  the  better  organized  bands, 
such  as  those  of  Raymond  and  Godfrey,  the  leaders  themselves 
knew  exactly  how  many  persons  were  in  their  following.  The 
more  adventurous  knights  were  constantly  digressing  in  smaller 
or  larger  companies  from  the  main  line  of  march;  the  more  timid 
were  dropping  behind  or  deserting;  and  new  enthusiasts  were  join- 
ing the  march  at  almost  every  halting  place.  Thus  the  total  number  -f- 
in  the  army  fluctuated  from  day  to  day.  Fulcher's  statement  that 
if  all  who  had  signed  themselves  with  the  cross  had  been  present  at 
Nicaea,  there  would  have  been  six  million,  instead  of  six  hundred 
thousand,  armed  men  is  probably  more  jaccurate  in  its  proportions 
than  in  its  actual  figures.  A  modern  estimate  of  the  number  in  the 
army  as  it  left  Nicaea,  ingeniously  computed  from  the  length  of  1 
time  required  to  cross  a  certain  bridge  in  Asia  Minor,  is  io5,cxx)  I 
persons,^  The  combined  army  was  then  at  its  maximum  size.  It 
dwindled  rapidly  thereafter,  and  the  figures  offered  by  the  chroni- 
clers themselves  became  more  and  more  accurate,  so  that  when 
F.ulcher  reports  the  number  of  Crusaders  left  to  garrison  Jerusalem 
as  a  few  hundred,  his  statement  may  be  accepted  without  great 
question. 

If  they  had  so  much  difficulty  in  describing  their  own  numbers, 
little  surprise  need  be  felt  at  their  estimate  of  the  enemy's  forces. 
After  chronicling  battles  against  the  Turks  and  Saracens  for  almost 
thirty  years,  Fulcher  reaches  the  following  conclusion:  "As  to  the 
number  of  dead  or  wounded  in  this  or  any  other  battle,  it  is  not 
possible  to  determine  the  truth,  for  such  great  numbers  cannot  be 
computed  by  anyone,  except  approximately.  Often  when  different 
writers  deceive,  the  reason  for  their  deception  is  to  be  attributed 
to  adulation;  for  they  try  to  enhance  the  glory  of  the  victors  and 
to  extol  the  valor  of  their  own  land  for  people  present  and  to  come. 
From  this  it  is  very  clear  why  they  so  fooHshly  and  falsely  exagger- 
ate the  number  of  dead  among  the  enemy,  and  minimize,  or  remain 
entirely  silent,  about  their  own  loss."  This  critical  attitude,  how- 
ever, was  not  taken  by  the  earlier  writers,  not  even  by  Fulcher 
himself  in  the  period  with  which  this  translation  deals. 

4.    Money  and  prices.  ^  ; 

Europe  was  still  dealing  largely  on  a  basis  of  natural  economy      A^ 
when  the  First  Crusade  started  on  its  way.     Money  was  regarded 
rather  as  a  luxury  than  as  a  matter  of  general  need,  and  even 
ordinary  state  obligations  were  discharged  in  kind  rather  than  coin. 
Indeed,  there  was  no  standard  coin  in  the  West,  and  coinage  was  a 


i8  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

right  exercised  by  all  the  great  feudal  vassals.  There  were  expres- 
sions of  value  common  to  all  Europe — e.g.,  the  liber,  or  pound, 
which  equalled  20  solidi,  or  shillings,  which  equalled  240  denarii,  or 
pennies;  and  a  marc  which  equalled  two-thirds  of  a  liber,  or  160 
denarii.  But  when  these  terms  were  applied  to  coins  in  actual  cir- 
culation, their  meaning  varied  with  the  character  of  the  coin  in- 
volved. The  coin  in  most  general  use  was  the  denarius,  or  penny. 
This  was  usually  of  silver,  but  might  be  made  of  an  alloy,  or  some- 
times of  copper  alone.  A  large  and  a  small  denarius  were  known, 
the  latter  often  called  an  obol.  The  intrinsic  value  of  the  coin 
varied  somewhat  according  to  the  particular  mint  at  which  it  was 
coined,  weight  constituting,  on  the  whole,  the  safest  method  of 
determining  value.  Raymond  mentions  seven  different  denarii 
from  a  limited  region  of  the  West  as  current  in  the  army.  Varia- 
tion was  caused  by  debasement  through  coin-clipping  and  kindred 
practices,  which,  however,  appear  to  have  been  less  common 
at  this  time  than  later.  In  view  of  such  facts,  generalizations 
about  monetary  matters  are  exceedingly  hazardous.  However,  it 
is  usually  safe  to  assume  when  Western  coins  are  mentioned  that 
denarii  are  meant.  Solidi,  liheri,  and  marci  are  moneys  of  account, 
convenient  in  expressing  large  sums  of  denarii.  The  ordinary  silver 
denarius  weighed  from  20  to  24  gr.  as  compared  with  the  American 
dime  which  weighs  38.5  gr.  In  the  East  the  Crusaders  met  with 
gold  coins,  the  besant  and  perperus  of  Constantinople,  and  the  gold 
besant  of  the  Saracens.  The  besant  of  Constantinople  weighed 
about  65  gr.  as  compared  with  the  American  gold  coinage,  which 
weighs  about  25  gr.  per  dollar.  The  perperus,  called  also  pur- 
puratus,  yperperus,  yperperon,  and  perpre,  is  less  well  known.  Its 
value,  as  stated  by  the  author  of  the  Gesta,  was  equal  to  15  solidi, 
or  180  denarii.  The  gold  besant  of  the  Saracens,  a  Latin  term  for 
the  Arabian  dinar,  w^s  about  equal  in  weight  and  intrinsic  value  to 
the  besant  of  Constantinople.  In  seeking  the  modern  equivalents 
of  these  coins,  it  is  necessary  to  bear  in  mind  the  relative  value  of 
gold  and  silver  in  the  middle  ages.  Another  coin  encountered  in 
the  East  was  the  tartaron,  which  appears  to  have  been  a  cheap 
copper  coin  of  somewhat  varying  value. 

From  an  economic  point  of  view  the  First  Crusade  must  be  re- 
garded as  one  of  the  most  important  factors  in  transforming  the- 
basis  of  European  exchange  from  the  natural  to  the  monetary.  The 
change  was  by  no  means  complete  with  the  end  of  the  Crusades, 
but  a  long  step  had  been  taken  toward  that  goal  when  the  first  of 
these  expeditions  was  launched.  Money  was  necessary  to  defray 
the  ordinary  living  expenses  on  the  march,  and  the  Crusaders  re- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  19 

sorted  to  almost  every  conceivable  device  to  obtain  it.  They  tor- 
tured Jews,  melted  plate,  mortgaged  their  possessions,  and  sold 
their  goods  for  ridiculously  small  sums.  Money,  ordinarily  scarce, 
rose  in  value  until,  as  Albert  recounts,  one  peasant  sold  seven  sheep 
for  a  single  denarius.  Normally,  a  denarius  was  the  equivalent  of 
a  workman's  dinner,  but  the  Crusade  created  abnormal  conditions. 
Unfortunately,  this  abnormal  state  of  affairs  accompanied  the 
Crusaders  along  their  whole  Hne  of  march,  for  just  as  their  arrange- 
ments for  departure  caused  the  exchange  value  of  money  to  soar,  so 
the  arrival  of  so  many  people  at  one  town  or  another  caused  the 
limited  food  supply  to  take  on  incredible  prices.  ]  Occasionally,  in 
time  of  famine,  food  rose  to  almost  impossible  heights,  so  that  the 
peasant  who  exchanged  his  seven  sheep  for  one  denarius  in  the 
Rhine  country  might  have  exchanged  his  denarius,  in  turn,  for  a 
single  nut  at  Antioch  during  its  siege  by  Kerbogha.  The  student  of 
economics  will  be  able  to  find  many  such  equations  in  the  following 
pages.  The  Crusaders  had  unwittingly  become  steady  victims  of 
the  law  of  supply  and  demand,  but  for  lack  of  such  knowledge  they 
blamed  their  misfortunes  upon  the  cupidity  of  the  Armenians  and 
Greeks.  Thus,  however,  they  learned  to  esteem  the  possession  of 
money,  and  in  Saracen  territory  they  lost  few  opportunities  to 
secure  it  either  as  tribute,  extortion,  or  plain  robbery.  Sometimes 
they  even  burned  the  dead  bodies  of  their  foes  to  obtain  the  coins 
which  they  believed  these  people  had  swallowed  or  secreted  about 
their  bodies. /'Actual  money  and  its  value  was  one  of  the  most 
important  contributions  of  the  returning  Crusaders  to  Western 
life,  so  much  so  that  the  besant.oi  Constantinople  and  the  Saracen 
hesant  became  well  known  coins  in  Europe.j 

i       5.    Military  arrangements. 

Ajde£uiite...DXganization  of  the  army  as  a  whole  did  not  exist.  The 
Pope's  representative,  Adhemar,~'wW~ipeF"aTr  of  his  charges  at 
Nicaea  for  the  first  time,  was  social  and  ecclesiastical  head  of  the 
expedition  until  his  death  at  Antioch,  August  i,  1098.  For  military 
purposes,  the  Crusaders  chose  Stephen  of  Blois  as  their  leader  on 
the.march  across^.Asia  Minor^  and,  after  his  withdrawal,  Bohemund 
acted  in  that  capacity  for  a  time.  Little  real  authority,  however,  ,^ 
was  accorded  these  leaders,  except  for  the  brief  period  of  Ker- 
bogha's  siege,  when  Bohemund  was  entrusted  with  full  powers. 
Ordinarily,  matters  of  policy  were  decided  at  a  coutKJL  of  all  the  "^ 
leaders,  both  lay  and  ecclesiastical.  For  all  practical  purposes,  each 
band  was  almost  a  separate  army  in  itself,  and  even  within  each 
band  matters  were  usually  decided  by  a  common  council.  Leaders 
of  the  separate  bands  frequently  had  to  resort  to  all  the  arts  of 


20  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

persuasion  at  their  command  in  order  to  keep  their  many-minded 
and  impulsive  vassals  in  leash.  Eloquence,  entreaty,  offers  of  pay, 
and  even  threats  were  used  time  and  time  again.  The  feudal  o^th 
=ef  allegian^ejof  YassaLlQ,pxer-lord  was  the  only^b^sis  of  obedience, 
but  the -eondittens-imder  which~  the.  campaign  was  conducted  were 
so   different   from  those   of   the  West  as  to   render  the   ordinary 


feudal  obligations  quite  inadequate.  As  a  result,  adventurous 
^T-ightg  frequently  wpnt  nff  nn  raiding_g2!^editions  without  regard 
for  the  wishes  of  their  lords,  and  companies  of~kmghts  for  these, 
f orajis^jyere  Jormed  froni.jnany  different  bands.  Disorganization 
wa5_illilher_inc.reas,ed.bxlhe. presence  of  great  numbers  of  non-v 
combatants.  Persons  of  both  sexes  and  all  ages  had  attached  them- 
selves to  the  army  from  various  motives — serfs  to  perform  menial 
tasks ;  peasants  with  their  families  seeking  improvement,  material, 
social,  or  spiritual;  women,  wives  of  Crusaders,  or  mere  adven- 
turers; pious  pilgrims  of  all  ages;  and  clergy,  both,  regular  and 
secular.  At  Nicaea  this  multitude  probably  largely  outnumbered  the 
fighting  men,  and,  as  a  rule,  they  were  a  great  hindrance  to  the  army. 

TJje  fighting_men  W-£i£-oi_two  classes — the  mounted  and  armored 
knight,  and  the  more  Qr,ksa..armore_d  foot-soldiefs.  At  first  the 
mounted  knights  were  probably  all  of  noble  birth,  but,  as  the  exigen- 
cies of  the  campaign  multiplied,  this  condition  was  changed.  At 
times  noble  knights  were  compelled  to  ride  on  oxen  or  other 
beasts,  or  to  proceed  on  foot,  and,  again,  ignoble  foot-soldiers  found 
mounts  and  suits  of  armor.  In  the  course  of  time,  many  of  the 
latter  proved  themselves  worthy  of  knighthood,  so  that  by  the  time 
the  army  reached  Jerusalem  a  great  number  of  the  so-called  knights 
were  not  of  noble  birth. 

The  k^i^ht,  protected  by  his  breastplate  and  his  suit  of  chain- 
mail,  and  equipped  with  shield,  lance,  and  two-edged  sword,  was 
the  mainstay  of  the  army.  His  squires,  also  mounted,  usually  ac- 
companied the  knight  in  battle.  The  fooj^soldiers,  whose  chief 
weapons  were  the  cross-bow  and  javelin,  were  used  both  to  break 
up  the  line  of  the  enemy  in  the  opening  charge  and  to  dispose  of 
the  dismounted  enemy  after  the  main  charge  of  the  knights.  JMon- 
combatants  were^  of^^ome  service  in  refreshing  the  filters  witTi 
drinks,  caring  for  the  "wpundedj  a,n^_ji^j^  collect  tTte-^oils^ 

The  clergy  played  an  important  part  by  administermg^  the  sacra- 
ment before  battle  and  offering  up  prayers  during  the  course  of  the 
fighting.  Such  was  the  practice  against  an  enemy  in  the  open  field. 
The  tactics  Qi_the  Turks,  however,  caused  some  modifications. 
This  foe,  usually  mounted  on  s\y[ft  horses  and  armed  with  danger- 
ous small  bows,  insisted  upon  encircling'  the  Crusaders  "-.without 
coming  to  close  quarters.     Their  arro_ws«,  which.,.tliey_shot  guickly 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  21 

and  in  profusion,  were  calculated  to  shatter  the  ranks  of  the  Cru- 
saders  and  usually  did  great  damage  to  the  less  heavily 
armored  foot-soldiers.  If  this  device  failed  to  open  up  the  ranks, 
thpy  srattp.reH  in  fpigned  flighty  hoping  thus  to  draw  the  Crusaders 
afte^them  in  disorganized  pursuit,  when  it  was  an  easy  matter  to 
turn^^ad-cut  them  down.  The  Emperor  Alexius  gave  the  Cru-  | 
saders  some  very  valuable  advice  on  these  matters.  Actual  _ex- 
perience  proved  an  even  more  effective  teacher .,^0. that  the  Crusaders 
regularlx_Blaced  a  strong  line  at  their  rear  and  on  the  flanks,  as  well 
as  in  front,  and  did  not  pur$ue_^e,  ^emY__until  they  were  actually 
in  rout. 

.  To  the  Westerners  siege  warfare  was  less  Ayp|l  Wnnwn  than  nppn 
fighting.    In  most  of  Western  Europe  there  was  little  of  the  heavy 
masonry  of  Roman  days,  such  as  had  never  gone  out  of  use  in  the 
East.     The  Italians  had  had  relatively  more  experience  than  the        ' 
people  north  of  the  Alps,  but  both  had  much  to  learn.    The  military 
engineers   of   Constantinople  gave  the   Crusaders  some  important 
lessons  in  siege-craft  at  Nicaea.    The  development  of  more  power- 
ful hurling  engines  for  both  stones  and  arrows  became  a  necessity.       J 
These  were  of  two  kinds :  the  balUstae,  used  to  shoot  large  arrows       I 
or  bolts  with  great  force,  and  the  Petraria,  which  hurled  large       \ 
stones.    The  motive  power  was  provided  by  the  torsion  of  twisted       \ 
ropes  or  the  sudden  release  of  a  heavy  counter-poise,  and  great       1 
ingenuity  was  exercised  to  increase  their  force.    During  the  whole       j 
expedition,  however,  they  were  not  developed  sufficiently  to  make       \ 
any  considerable  impression  upon  the   walls.     They  were  chiefly        i 
effective  in  clearing  the  walls  of  defenders,  which  facilitated  other        " 
siege  operations.     Battering  rgjus  of  various  kinds  were  also  used, 
and,  as  a  protection  for  the  manipulators,  mantlets  made  of  wattled 
stakes  were  constructed.     Undermining  the  walls  was  an  operation 
also   resorted   to,    but   the  rhosf^^ective    devfces    in    overcoming 
strongly  fortified  towns  were  the  great  movable  towers  and  the 
blockade.    The  first  was  used  successfully  both  at  Marra  and  Jeru- 
salem, the  latter  at  Nicaea  and  Antioch.    These  are  fully  described  ,•  ,jus 
in  the  text  (see  pages  256,  205,  105).    Scaling  ladders  of  wood  were 
of  subsidiary  value,  but  played  a  part  at  Marra  and  Jerusalem  and 
especially  at  Caesarea.     In  all  these  operations  there  was  a  great 
d^emand  for  skilful  engineers,  as  well  as  for  unskilled  labor.     It       / 
is  signifi^nt  that^^eek  engineers  were  employed  at  Nicaea  and       j 
Antioch,  Italian  at  Antioch  and  Jerusalem.     The  Westerners  had 
much  to  learn,  it  is  true,  but  that  they  were  quick  to  do  so  is  shown 
not  only  by  their  success  at  Jerusalem,  but  also  by  the  stronger 
castles  and  fortifications  which  appeared  in  Western  Europe  during 
the  twelfth  century. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 


PROLOGUE 

(Fiilcher.)  It  is  a  joy  to  the  living  and  even  profitable  to  the 
dead  when  the  deeds  of  brave  men,  and  especially  of  those  fighting 
for  God,  are  read  from  writings,  or,  committed  to  memory,  are  re- 
cited with  prudence  in  the  midst  of  the  faithful.  For  upon  hearing 
the  pious  purposes  of  those  who  have  gone  before  them — how,  re- 
jecting the  honor  of  the  world,  leaving  their  parents,  wives,  and 
goods  of  whatsoever  kind,  they  clung  to  God  and  followed  Him 
according  to  the  counsel  of  the  Gospel — those  who  live  in  the  world 
are  themselves  animated  by  His  inspiration  and  aroused  to  love 
Him  most  ardently.  It  is  even  beneficial  to  those  who  are  dead  in 
the  Lord,  since  the  faithful,  hearing  their  good  and  pious  deeds, 
therefore  bless  their  souls  and  in  charity  offer  alms  and  prayers 
for  them,  whether  these  dead  were  known  to  them  or  not. 

Moved,  therefore,  by  the  requests  of  former  comrades,  I  have  re- 
lated in  careful  and  orderly  fashion  the  illustrious  deeds  of  the 
Franks  in  honor  of  the  Saviour,  when  at  the  command  of  God  they 
made  an  armed  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem.  In  homely  style,  but, 
nevertheless,  truly,  I  have  recounted  what  I  deemed  worthy  to  be 
committed  to  memory,  and  I  have  told  it  as  well  as  I  can  and  just 
as  I  saw  it  myself.  Although  I  do  not  dare  to  put  this  work  of  the 
Franks  that  I  have  mentioned  on  an  equality  with  the  distinguished 
achievements  of  the  people  of  Israel,  or  of  the  Maccabees^,  or  of 
many  other  peoples  whom  God  has  honored  by  such  frequent  and 
such  wonderful  miracles,  still  I  consider  it  not  far  inferior  to  those 
works,  since  in  connection  with  it  miracles  worked  by  God  were 
often  witnessed.     These  I  have  taken  care  to  report  in  writing. 

In  what  way,  indeed,  do  these  Franks  differ  from  the  Israelites 
and  the  Maccabees?  In  those  lands,  by  my  very  side,  I  have  seen 
them  dismembered,  crucified,  flayed,  shot  with  arrows,  butchered,  or 
killed  by  other  kinds  of  martyrdom  for  the  love  of  Christ ;  or  I 
have  heard  of  it  when  I  was  far  away.  And  yet  they  could  be  over- 
come neither  by  threats  nor  blandishments !  Nay,  even  if  the  slay- 
er's sword  had  come,  many  of  us  would  not  have  refused  to  perish 
for  the  love  of  Christ.  Oh,  how  many  thousands  of  martyrs  died 
a  happy  death  on  this  expedition !    Who  is  so  hard  of  heart  that  he 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  23 

can  hear  these  deeds  without  being  moved  by  deepest  piety  to  break 
forth  in  His  praise?  Who  will  not  wonder  how  we,  a  few  people  in 
the  midst  of  the  lands  of  our  enemies,  were  able  not  only  to  resist, 
but  to  live?  Who  has  ever  heard  such  things?  On  one  side  of  us 
were  Egypt  and  Ethiopia;  on  another  Arabia,  Chaldea,  Syria, 
Parthia,  Mesopotamia,  Assyria,  and  Media;  on  another  Persia  and 
Scythia.^  A  great  sea  separated  us  from  Christendom  and  shut 
us  up  in  the  hands  of  our  destroyers,  as  if  God  allowed  it.  But  His 
arm  mercifully  defended  us.  "Blessed  indeed  is  the  nation  whose 
God  is  the  Lord."^ 

The  history  which  follows  shall  explain  how  this  work  was  be- 
gun, and  how  all  the  people  of  the  West,  once  aroused  to  under- 
take so  great  an  expedition,  more  than  willingly  applied  their  hearts 
and  hands  to  it. 


CHAPTER  I 

The-  Summons 

(After  Fulcher's  preface,  which  seems  admirably  suited  to  this  account, 
the  chapter  deals  with  the  call  for  Crusaders  from  the  West.  The  condition 
of  Europe  on  the  eve  of  the  Crusade  is  too  large  a  subject  to  be  treated 
adequately  here,  but  Fulcher's  brief  summary  contains  a  very  suggestive 
survey  of  the  situation  and  is  interestingly  supplemented  by  Ekkehard's 
contrast  of  conditions  in  East  and  West  Frankland.  Most  of  the  causes 
of  the  movement  may  be  inferred  from  Urban's  speech  at  Clermont. 

The  Council  of  Clermont  was  held  in  November  1095  ^^^  lasted  for  ten 
days,  from  the  eighteenth  to  the  twenty-eighth  of  the  month,  the  famous 
address  of  Urban  being  delivered  on  the  day  before  the  close  of  the  Council. 
The  four  writers  who  were  presumably  present  wrote  their  versions  of  the 
speech  several  years  after  it  occurred,  that  of  Fulcher  being  perhaps  the 
earliest.  Each  may  have  preserved  notes  taken  at  the  time,  but  it  is  ex- 
tremely interesting  to  observe  that  each  stresses  that  phase  of  the  speech 
which  especially  appealed  to  him.  Robert  the  Monk  seems  to  have  responded 
as  a  patriotic  Frenchman,  Balderic  as  a  member  of  the  Church  hierarchy, 
Guibert  as  a  mystic,  Fulcher,  here,  as  always,  as  the  simple  cure — all  as 
churchmen.*  Enough  has  been  added  by  the  writers  to  indicate  that  most 
of  Urban's  audience,  which  consisted  principally  of  the  clergy,  became  un- 
official preachers  of  the  Crusade  when  they  returned  to  their  own  districts. 
This  is  indicated  also  by  Urban's  letter  to  the  Crusaders  in  Flanders,  written 
less  than  a  month  after  the  Council,  which  was  half  plea  and  half  instruc- 
tion to  men  already  aroused.  Urban  himself  spoke  at  other  places  in  France 
before  returning  to  Italy  to  stir  up  the  people  there,  but  he  did  not  go  to 
Germany  for  the  reasons  mentioned  by  both  Fulcher  and  Ekkehard.  The 
appeal  there,  though  indirect,  was  powerful,  as  the  second  chapter  proves. 
The  call  to  the  Crusade  was  sounded  and  resounded  by  Urban,  even  to  the 
time  of  his  death,  and  by  hundreds  of  others  both  during  his  life-time  and 
long  thereafter.)  , 

I.  Conditions  in  Europe  at  the  beginning  of  the  Crusades. 

(Fulcher.)  In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1095,  in  the  reign  of  the  so- 
called  Emperor^  Henry  in  Germany  and  of  King  Philip  in  France, 
throughout  Europe  evils  of  all  kinds  waxed  strong  because  of  vacil- 
lating faith.  Pope  Urban  H  ®  then  ruled  in  the  city  of  Rome.  He 
was  a  man  admirable  in  life  and  habits,  who  always  strove  wisely 
and  energetically  to  raise  the  status  of  Holy  Church  higher  and 
higher.   .    .    . 

But  the   devil,  who  always   desires   man's  destruction  and  goes 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  25 

about  like  a  raging  lion  seeking  whom  he  may  devour,  stirred  up 
to  the  confusion  of  the  people  a  certain  rival  to  Urban,  Wibert^  by 
name.  Incited  by  the  stimulus  of  pride  and  supported  by  the  shame- 
lessness  of  the  aforesaid  Emperor  of  the  Bavarians,  Wibert  at- 
tempted to  usurp  the  papal  office  while  Urban's  predecessor,  Greg- 
ory, that  is  Hildebrand,  was  the  legitimate  Pope ;  and  he  thus  caused 
Gregory  himself  to  be  cast  out  of  St.  Peter's.  So  the  better  people 
refused  to  recognize  him  because  he  acted  thus  perversely.  After 
the  death  of  Hildebrand,  Urban,  lawfully  elected,  was  consecrated 
by  the  cardinal  bishops,  and  the  greater  and  holier  part  of  the  people 
submitted  in  obedience  to  him.  Wibert,  however,  urged  on  by  the 
support  of  the  aforesaid  Emperor  and  by  the  instigation  of  the 
Roman  citizens,  for  some  time  kept  Urban  a  stranger  to  the  Church 
of  St.  Peter ;  but  Urban,  although  he  was  banished  from  the  Church, 
went  about  through  the  country,  reconciling  to  God  the  people  who 
had  gone  somewhat  astray.  Wibert,  however,  puffed  up  by  the 
primacy  of  the  Church,  showed  himself  indulgent  to  sinners,  and 
exercising  the  office  of  pope,  although  unjustly,  amongst  his  ad- 
herents, he  denounced  as  ridiculous  the  acts  of  Urban.  But  in  the 
year  in  which  the  Franks  first  passed  through  Rome  on  their  way 
to  Jerusalem,  Urban  obtained  the  complete  papal  power  every- 
where, with  the  help  of  a  certain  most  noble  matron,  Matilda^  by 
name,  who  then  had  great  influence  in  the  Roman  state.  Wibert 
was  then  in  Germany.  So  there  were  two  Popes;  and  many  did 
not  know  which  to  obey,  or  from  which  counsel  should  be  taken,  or 
who  should  remedy  the  ills  of  Christianity.  Some  favored  the  one; 
some  the  other.  But  it  was  clear  to  the  intelligence  of  men  that 
Urban  was  the  better,  for  he  is  righly  considered  better  who  con- 
trols his  passions,  just  as  if  they  were  enemies.  Wibert  was  Arch- 
bishop of  the  city  of  Ravenna.  He  was  very  rich  and  revelled  in 
honor  and  wealth.  It  was  a  wonder  that  such  riches  did  not  satisfy 
him.  Ought  he  to  be  considered  by  all  an  exemplar  of  right  living 
who,  himself  a  lover  of  pomp,  boldly  assumes  to  usurp  the  sceptre 
of  Almighty  God?  Truly,  this  office  must  not  be  seized  by  force, 
but  accepted  with  fear  and  humility. 

What  wonder  that  the  whole  world  was  a  prey  to  disturbance  and 
confusion?  For  when  the  Roman  Church,  which  is  the  source  of 
correction  for  all  Christianity,  is  troubled  by  any  disorder,  the  sor- 
row is  communicated  from  the  nerves  of  the  head  to  the  members 
subject  to  it,  and  these  suffer  sympathetically.  This  Church,  indeed, 
our  mother,  as  it  were,  at  whose  bosom  we  were  nourished,  by  whose 
doctrine  we  were  instructed  and  strengthened,  by  whose  counsel 
we  were  admonished,  was  by  this  proud  Wibert  greatly  afflicted. 


26  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

For  when  the  head  is  thus  struck,  the  members  at  once  are  sick. 
If  the  head  be  sick,  the  other  members  suffer.  Since  the  head  was 
thus  sick,  pain  was  engendered  in  the  enfeebled  members;  for  in 
all  parts  of  Europe  peace,  goodness,  faith,  were  boldly  trampled  un- 
der foot,  within  the  church  and  without,  by  the  high,  as  well  as  by 
the  low.  It  was  necessary  both  that  an  end  be  put  to  these  evils, 
and  that,  in  accordance  with  the  plan  suggested  by  Pope  Urban, 
they  turn  against  the  pagans  the  strength  formerly  used  in  prose- 
cuting battles  among  themselves.  .  .  . 

He  saw,  moreover,  the  faith  of  Christendom  greatly  degraded  by 
all,  by  the  clergy  as  well  as  by  the  laity,  and  peace  totally  disre- 
garded; for  the  princes  of  the  land  were  incessantly  engaged  in 
armed  strife,  now  these,  now  those  quarrelling  among  themselves. 
He  saw  the  goods  of  the  land  stolen  from  the  owners ;  and  many, 
who  were  unjustly  taken  captive  and  most  barbarously  cast  into 
foul  prisons,  he  saw  ransomed  for  excessive  sums,  or  tormented 
there  by  the  three  evils,  starvation,  thirst,  and  cold,  or  allowed  to 
perish  by  unseen  death.  He  also  saw  holy  places  violated,  monas- 
teries and  villas  destroyed  by  fire,  and  not  a  little  human  suffering, 
both  the  divine  and  the  human  being  held  in  derision. 

When  he  heard,  too,  that  interior  parts  of  Romania  were  held 
oppressed  by  the  Turks,  and  that  Christians  were  subjected  to 
destructive  and  savage  attacks,  he  was  moved  by  compassionate 
pity;  and,  prompted  by  the  love  of  God,  he  crossed  the  Alps  and 
came  into  Gaul.  He  there  called  a  council  at  Clermpi]Lt-^ia..Auvergne, 
which  council  had  been  fittingly  proclaimed  by  envoys  in  all  direc- 
tions. It  is  estimated  that  there  were  three  hundred  and  ten  bishops 
and  abbots  who  bore  the  crozier.  When  they  were  assembled  on  the 
day  appointed  for  the  council,  Urban,  in  an  eloquent  address  full  of 
sweetness,  made  known  the  object  of  the  meeting.  /With  the  plain- 
tive voice  of  the  afflicted  Church  he  bewailed  in  a  long  discourse 
the  great  disturbances  which,  as  has  been  mentioned  above,  agitated 
the  world  where  faith  had  been  undermined.  Then,  as  a  supplicant, 
he  exhorted  all  to  resume  the  fullness  of  their  faith,  and  in  good 
earnest  to  try  diligently  to  withstand  the  deceits  of  the  devil,  and 
to  raise  to  its  pristine  honor  the  status  of  Holy  Church,  now  most 
unmercifully  crippled  by  the  wicked. 

"Dearest  brethren,"  he  said,  'T,  Urban,  invested  by  the  permission 
of  God  with  the  papal  tiara,  and  spiritual  ruler  over  the  whole  world, 
have  come  here  in  this  great  crisis  to  you,  servants  of  God,  as  a 
messenger  of  divine  admonition.  I  wish  those  whom  I  have  be- 
lieved good  and  faithful  dispensers  of  the  ministry  of  God  to  be 
found  free  from  shameful  dissimulation.     For  if  there  be  in  you 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  27 

any  disposition  or  crookedness  contrary  to  God's  law,  because  you 
have  lost  the  moderation  of  reason  and  justice,  I  shall  earnestly  en- 
deavor to  correct  it  at  once,  with  divine  assistance.  For  the  Lord 
has  made  you  stewards  over  His  family,  that  you  provide  it  with 
pleasant-tasting  meat  in  season.  You  will  be  blessed,  indeed,  if  the 
Lord  shall  find  you  faithful  in  stewardship.  You  are  also  called 
shepherds;  see  that  you  do  not  the  work  of  hirelings.  Be  true 
shepherds  and  have  your  crooks  always  in  your  hands.  Sleep  not, 
but  defend  everywhere  the  flock  committed  to  your  care.  For  if 
through  your  carelessness  or  neglect  the  wolf  carries  off  a  sheep, 
doubtless  you  will  not  only  lose  the  reward  prepared  for  you  by 
our  Lord,  but,  after  having  first  been  tortured  by  the  strokes  of  the 
lictor,  you  will  also  be  savagely  hurled  into  the  abode  of  the  damned. 
In  the  words  of  the  gospel,  *Ye  are  the  salt  of  the  earth' ?^  But,  it 
is  asked,  Tf  ye  fail,  wherewith  shall  it  be  salted?'  Oh,  what  a  salt- 
ing !  Indeed,  you  must  strive  by  the  salt  of  your  wisdom  to  correct 
this  fooHsh  people,  over-eager  for.  the  pleasures  of  the  world,  lest 
the  Lord  find  them  insipid  and  rank,  corrupted  by  crimes  at  the 
time  when  He  wishes  to  speak  to  them.  For  if  because  of  your 
slothful  performance  of  duty  He  shall  discover  any  worms  in  them, 
that  is  to  say  any  sins.  He  will  in  contempt  order  them  to  be  cast 
forthwith  into  the  abyss  of  uncleanness;  and  because  you  will  be 
unable  to  make  good  to  Him  such  a  loss.  He  will  surely  banish  you, 
condemned  by  His  judgment,  from  the  presence  of  His  love.  But 
one  that  salteth  ought  to  be  prudent,  foresighted,  learned,  peaceful, 
watchful,  respectable,  pious,  just,  fair-minded,  pure.  For  how  can 
the  unlearned  make  others  learned,  the  immodest  make  others  mod- 
est, the  unclean  make  others  clean?  How  can  he  make  peace  who 
hates  it?  If  anyone  has  soiled  hands,  how  can  he  cleanse  the  spots 
from  one  contaminated?  For  it  is  written,  Tf  the  blind  lead  the 
blind,  both  shall  fall  into  the  pit.'^**  Accordingly,  first  correct  your- 
selves, so  that  without  reproach  you  can  then  correct  those  undei 
your  care.  If,  indeed,  you  wish  to  be  the  friends  of  God,  do  gener- 
ously what  you  see  is  pleasing  to  Him. 

"See  to  it  that  the  affairs  of  Holy  Church,  especially,  are  main- 
tained in  their  rights,  and  that  simoniacal  heresy  in  no  way  takes 
root  among  you.  Take  care  lest  purchasers  and  venders  alike, 
struck  by  the  lash  of  the  Lord,  be  disgracefully  driven  through  nar- 
row ways  into  utter  confusion.  Keep  the  Church  in  all  its  orders 
entirely  free  from  the  secular  power;  have  given  to  God  faithfully 
one-tenth  of  the  fruits  of  the  earth,  neither  selling  them,  nor  with- 
holding them.  Whoever  lays  violent  hands  on  a  bishop,  let  him  be 
considered  excommunicated.    Whoever  shall  have  seized  monks,  or 


28  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

priests,  or  nuns,  and  their  servants,  or  pilgrims,  or  traders,  and 
shall  have  despoiled  them,  let  him  be  accursed.  Let  thieves  and 
burners  of  houses  and  their  accomplices  be  excommunicated  from 
the  church  and  accursed.  Therefore,  we  must  consider  especially, 
as  Gregory  says,  how  great  will  be  his  punishment  who  steals  from 
another,  if  he  incurs  the  damnation  of  hell  who  does  not  distribute 
alms  from  his  own  possessions.  For  so  it  happened  to  the  rich 
man  in  the  Gospel,  who  was  punished  not  for  steahng  anything 
from  another,  but  because,  having  received  wealth,  he  used  it  badly.^^ 

"By  these  evils,  therefore,  as  I  have  said,  dearest  brethren,  you 
have  seen  the  world  disordered  for  a  long  time,  and  to  such  a  de- 
gree that  in  some  places  in  your  provinces,  as  has  been  reported  to 
us  (perhaps  due  to  your  weakness  in  administering  justice),  one 
scarcely  dares  to  travel  for  fear  of  being  kidnapped  by  thieves  at 
night  or  highwayman  by  day,  by  force  or  by  craft,  at  home  or 
out  of  doors.  Wherefore,  it  is  well  to  enforce  anew  the  Truce,^^ 
commonly  so-called,  which  was  long  ago  established  by  our  holy 
fathers,  and  which  I  most  earnestly  entreat  each  one  of  you  to  have 
observed  in  his  diocese.  But  if  any  one,  led  on  by  pride  or  am- 
bition, infringes  this  injunction  voluntarily,  let  him  be  anathema  in 
virtue  of  the  authority  of  God  and  by  the  sanction  of  the  decrees 
of  this  council." 

When  these  and  many  other  things  were  well  disposed  of,  all  those 
present,  priests  and  people  alike,  gave  thanks  to  God  and  welcomed 
the  advice  of  the  Lord  Pope  Urban,  assuring  him,  with  a  promise  of 
fidelity,  that  these  decrees  of  his  would  be  well  kept. 

2.   Urban  s  plea  for  a  Crusade.     (November  27,  1095.) 

(Gesta.)  When  now  that  time  was  at  hand  which  the  Lord 
Jesus  daily  points  out  to  His  faithful,  especially  in  the  Gospel,  say- 
ing, "li  any  man  would  come  after  me,  let  him  deny  himself  and 
take  up  his  cross  and  follow  me,"^^  a  mighty  agitation  was  carried 
on  throughout  all  the  region  of  Gaul.  (Its  tenor  was)  that  if 
anyone  desired  to  follow  the  Lord  zealously,  with  a  pure  heart  and 
mind,  and  wished  faithfully  to  bear  the  cross  after  Him,  he  would 
no  longer  hesitate  to  take  up  the  way  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre. 

And  so  Urban,  Pope  of  the  Roman  see,  with  his  archbishops, 
bishops,  abbots,  and  priests,  set  out  as  quickly  as  possible  beyond 
the  mountains  and  began  to  deliver  sermons  and  to  preach  eloquent- 
ly, saying:  "Whoever  wishes  to  save  his  soul  should  not  hesitate 
humbly  to  take  up  the  way  of  the  Lord,  and  if  he  lacks  sufficient 
money,  divine  mercy  will  give  him  enough."  Then  the  apostolic 
lord  continued,  "Brethren,  we  ought  to  endure  much  suffering  for 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  29 

the  name  of  Christ — misery,  poverty,  nakedness,  persecution,  want, 
illness,  hunger,  thirst,  and  other  (ills)  of  this  kind,  just  as  the  Lord 
saith  to  His  disciples:  'Ye  must  suffer  much  in  My  name,'^*  and 
*Be  not  ashamed  to  confess  Me  before  the  faces  of  men;  verily  I 
will  give  you  mouth  and  wisdom,'^^  and  finally,  'Great  is  your  re- 
ward in  Heaven.'  "^^  And  when  this  speech  had  already  begun  to 
be  noised  abroad,  little  by  little,  through  all  the  regions  and  coun- 
tries of  Gaul,  the  Franks,  upon  hearing  such  reports,  forthwith 
caused  crosses  to  be  sewed  on  their  right  shoulders,  saying  that  they 
followed  with  one  accord  the  footsteps  of  Christ,  by  which  they  had 
been  redeemed  from  the  hand  of  hell. 

(Fulcher.)  But  the  Pope  added  at  once  that  another  trouble,  not  J 
less,  but  still  more  grievous  than  that  already  spoken  of,  and  even 
the  very  worst,  was  besetting  Christianity  from  another  part  of  the 
world.  He  said:  "Since,  O  sons  of  God,  you  have  promised  the 
Lord  to  maintain  peace  more  earnestly  than  heretofore  in  your 
midst,  and  faithfully  to  sustain  the  rights  of  Holy  Church,  there 
still  remains  for  you,  who  are  newly  aroused  by  this  divine  correc- 
tion, a  very  necessary  work,  in  which  you  can  show  the  strength  of 
your  good  will  by  a  certain  further  duty,  God's  concern  and  your 
own.  For  you  must  hasten  to  carry  aid  to  }^rjDretoen  dwelling 
in  the  East^  who  need  your  helpj^^TTtfiey  often  have  asked.  For 
the  Turks,  a  Persian  people,  have  attacked  TEem,  as  many^oPyoii 
already  know,  and  have"  advanced  as  faF  into  the  Roman  terri- 
tory as  that  part  of  the  Mediterranean  which  is  called  the  Arm  of 
St.  George ;  and,  by  seiziFg  more  and  more  of  the  lands  ot  the 


Christians,_the^have  aTready_oIten  jgonquered  them  in  battle,  have 
killed  and  captured  many,  have  destroyed  the  churches,  and  have 
devastafed"ltie  km"gdom^  of  God.  If  you  allow  them  to  contiriue 
much  longer,  they  willsubjugale'Ijod's  faithful  yet  more  widely.      - 

"Wherefore,  I  exhort  with  earnest  prayer — not  I,  but  God — that,      ^^ 
as  heralds  of  Christ,  you  urge  men  by  frequent  exhortation,  men  of 
all  ranks,  knights  as  well  as  foot-soldiers,  rich  as  well  as  poor,  to 
hasten  to  exterminate  this  vile  race  from  the  lands  of  your  brethren, 
and  to  aid  the  Christians  in  time.     I  speak  to  those  present ;  I  pro- 
claim it  to  the  absent ;  moreover,  Christ  commands  it.    And  if  those  ^ 
who  set  out  thither  should  lose  their  lives  on  the  way  by  land,  or  in  J     ^' 
crossing  the  sea,  or  in  fighting  the  pagans,  their  sins  shall  be  re- 
mitted.    This  I  grant  to  all  who  go,  through  the  power  vested  in 
me  by  God.    Oh,  what  a  disgrace,  if  a  race  so  despised,  base,  and 
the  instrument  of  demons,  should  so  overcome  a  people  endowed 
with  faith  in  the  all-powerful  God,  and  resplendent  with  the  name 
of  Christ!     Oh,  what  reproaches  will  be  charged  against  you  by     *  ■ 


30  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

the  Lord  Himself  if  you  have  not  helped  those  who  are  counted, 
like  yourselves,  of  the  Christian  faith!  Let  those  who  have  been 
accustomed  to  make  private  war  against  the  faithful  carry  on  to  a 
successful  issue  a  war  against  infidels,  which  ought  to  have  been 
begun  ere  now.     Let  these  who  for  a  long  time  have  been  robbers 

,  now  become  soldiers  of  Christ.  Let  those  who  once  fought  against 
brothers  and  relatives  now  fight  against  barbarians,  as  they  ought. 
Let  those  who  have  been  hirelings  at  low  wages  now  labor  for  an 
eternal  reward.  Let  those  who  have  been  wearing  themselves  out 
to  the  detriment  of  body  and  soul  now  labor  for  a  double  glory. 
On  the  one  hand  will  be  the  sad  and  poor,  on  the  other  the  joyous 
and  wealthy;  here  the  enemies  of  the  Lord;  there  His  friends.  Let 
no  obstacle  stand  in  the  way  of  those  who  are  going,  but,  after 
their  affairs  are  settled  and  expense  money  is  collected,  when  the 
winter  has  ended  and  spring  has  come,  let  them  zealously  under- 
take the  journey  under  the  guidance  of  the  Lord." 

(Robert  the  Monk.)  .  .  .  *'Oh,  race  of  Franks,  race  from  across 
the  mountains,  race  chosen  and  beloved  by  God — as  shines  forth  in 
very  many  of  your  works — set  apart  from  all  nations  by  the  situa- 
tion of  your  country,  as  well  as  by  your  Catholic  faith  and  the  honor 
of  the  Holy  Church !  To  you  our  discourse  is  addressed,  and  for 
you  our  exhortation  is  intended.  We  wish  you  to  know  what  a 
grievous  cause  has  led  us  to  your  country,  what  peril,  threatening 
you  and  all  the  faithful,  has  brought  us. 

->  "From  the  confines  of  Jerusalem  and  the  city  of  Constantinople  a 
horrible  tale  has  gone  forth  and  very  frequently  has  been  brought 
to  our  ears ;  namely,  that  a  race  from  the  kingdom  of  the  Persians, 
an  accursed  race,  a  race  utterly  alienated  from  God,  a  generation, 
forsooth,  which  has  neither  directed  its  heart  nor  entrusted  its 
spirit  to  God,  has  invaded  the  lands  of  those  Christians  and  has 
depopulated  them  by  the  sword,  pillage,  and  fire ;  it  has  led  away  a 
part  of  the  captives  into  its  own  country,  and  a  part  it  has  destroyed 
by  cruel  tortures;  it  has  either  entirely  destroyed  the  churches  of 
God  or  appropriated  them  for  the  rites  of  its  own  religion.  They 
destroy  the  altars,  after  having  defiled  them  with  their  uncleanness. 
They  circumcise  the  Christians,  and  the  blood  of  the  circumcision 
they  either  spread  upon  the  altars  or  pour  into  the  vases  of  the 
baptismal  font.  When  they  wish  to  torture  people  by  a  base  death, 
they  perforate  their  navels,  and,  dragging  forth  the  end  of  the  in- 
testines, bind  it  to  a  stake ;  then  with  flogging  they  lead  the  victim 
around  until  his  viscera  have  gushed  forth,  and  he  falls  prostrate 
upon  the  ground.  Others  they  bind  to  a  post  and  pierce  with  ar- 
rows.    Others  they  compel  to  extend  their  necks,  and  then,  attack- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  31 

ing  them  with  naked  swords,  they  attempt  to  cut  through  the  neck 
with  a  single  blow.  What  shall  I  say  of  the  abominable  rape  of 
the  women  ?  To  speak  of  it  is  worse  than  to  be  silent.  The  king- 
dom of  the  Greeks  is  now  dismembered  by  them  and  deprived  of 
territory  so  vast  in  extent  that  it  can  not  be  traversed  in  a  march  of 
two  months.  On  whom,  therefore,  is  the  task  of  avenging  these 
wrongs  and  of  recovering  this  territory  incumbent,  if  not  upon  you? 
You,  upon  whom  above  other  nations  God  has  conferred  remark- 
able glory  in  arms,  great  courage,  bodily  energy,  and  the  strength 
to  humble  the  hairy  scalp  of  those  who  resist  you. 

''Let  the  deeds  of  your  ancestors  move  you  and  incite  your  minds 
to  manly  achievements;  likewise,  the  glory  and  greatness  of  King 
Charles  the  Great,  and  his  son  Louis,  and  of  your  other  kings,  who 
have  destroyed  the  kingdoms  of  the  pagans,  and  have  extended  in 
these  lands  the  territory  of  the  Holy  Church.  Let  the  Holy  Sepul- 
chre of  the  Lord,  our  Saviour,  which  is  possessed  by  unclean  na- 
tions, especially  move  you,  and  likewise  the  holy  places,  which  are 
"now  treated  with  ignominy  and  irreverently  polluted  with  filthiness. 
Oh,  most  valiant  soldiers  and  descendants  of  invincible  ancestors, 
\^  not  degenerate,  but  recall  the  valor  of  your  forefathers! 

However,  if  you  are  hindered  bv  love  of  children,  parents,  and 
wives,  remember  what  the  Lord  says  in  the  Gospel^  'He  that  loveth 
father,  or  mother  more  than  me,  is  not  worthy^of  me,.'^^  'Every 
one  that  hath  forsaken  houses,  or  brethren,  or  sisters,  or  father,  or 
mother,  or  wife,  or  children,  or  lands  for  my  name's  sake  shall  re- 
ceive an  hundred-fold  and  shall  inherit  everlasting  life.'^^  Let  none 
of  your  possessions  detain  you,  no  solicitude  for  your  family  affairs, 
since  this  land  which  you  inhabit,  shut  in  on  all  sides  by  the  sea 
and  surrounded  by  mountain  peaks,  is  too  narrow  for  your  large 
population ;  nor  does  it  abound  in  wealth ;  and  it  furnishes  scarcely 
food  enough  for  its  cultivators.  Hence  it  is  that  you  murder  and 
devour  one  another,  that  you  wage  war,  and  that  frequently  you 
perish  by  mutual  wounds.  Let  therefore  hatred  depart  from  among 
you,  let  your  quarrels  end,  let  wars  cease,  and  let  all  dissensions  and 
controversies  slumber.  Enter  upon  the  road  to  the  Holy  Sepul- 
chre; wrest  that  land  from  the  wicked  race,  and  subject  it  to  your- 
selves. That  land  which,  as  the  Scripture  says,  'floweth  with  milk 
and  honey'^^  was  given  by  God  into  the  possession  of  the  children 
of  Israel. 

->  "Jerusalem  is  the  navel  of  the  world ;  the  land  is  fruitful  above 
others,  like  another*paradise  of  delights.  This  the  Redeemer  of 
the  human  race  has  made  illustrious  by  His  advent,  has  beautified 

His  presence,  has  consecrated  by  suffering,  has  redeemed  by 


32  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

death,  has  glorified  by  burial.  This  royal  city,  therefore,  situated 
at  the  center  of  the  world,  is  now  held  captive  by  His  enemies,  and 
is  in  subjection  to  those  who  do  not  know  God,  to  the  worship  of 
the  heathen.  Therefore,  she  seeks  and  desires  to  be  liberated  and 
does  not  cease  to  implore  you  to  come  to  her  aid.  From  you,  espe- 
cially, she  asks  succor,  because,  as  we  have  already  said,  God  has 
conferred  upon  you,  above  all  nations,  great  glory  in  arms.  Ac- 
cordingly, undertake  this  journey  for  the  remission  of  your  sins, 
with  the  assurance  of  the  imperishable  glory  of  the  kingdom  of 
heaven." 

When  Pope  Urban  had  said  these  and  very  many  similar  things 
in  his  urbane  discourse,  he  so  influenced  to  one  purpose  the  desires 
of  all  who  were  present  that  they  cried  out,  ''God  wills  it!  God 
wills  it !"  When  the  venerable  Roman  pontiff  heard  that,  with  eyes 
uplifted  to  heaven  he  gave  thanks  to  God  and,  with  his  hand  com- 
manding silence,  said: 

''Most  beloved  brethren,  to-day  is  manifest  in  you  what  the  Lord 
says  in  the  Gospel,  'Where  two  or  three  are  gathered  together  in 
My  name  there  am  I  in  the  midst  of  them.'-"  Unless  the  Lord  God 
had  been  present  in  your  minds,  all  of  you  would  not  have  uttered 
the  same  cry.  For,  although  the  cry  issued  from  numerous  mouths, 
yet  the  origin  of  the  cry  was  one.  Therefore  I  say  to  you  that  God, 
who  implanted  this  in  your  breasts,  has  drawn  it  forth  from  you. 
Let  this  then  be  your  battle-cry  in  combat,  because  this  word  is 
given  to  you  by  God.  When  an  armed  attack  is  made  upon  the 
enemy,  let  this  one  cry  be  raised  by  all  the  soldiers  of  God:  'God 
wills  it!     God  wills  it!' 

"And  we  do  not  command  or  advise  that  the  old,  or  the  feeble, 
or  those  unfit  for  bearing  arms,  undertake  this  journey;  nor  ought 
women  to  set  out  at  all  without  their  husbands,  or  brothers,  or  legal 
guardians.  For  such  are  more  of  a  hindrance  than  aid,  more  of  a 
burden  than  an  advantage.  Let  the  rich  aid  the  needy;  and,  ac- 
cording to  their  means,  let  them  take  with  them  experienced  sol- 
diers. The  priests  and  clerks  of  any  order  are  not  to  go  without 
the  consent  of  their  bishops;  for  this  journey  would  profit  them 
nothing  if  they  went  without  such  permission.  Also,  it  is  not  fitting 
that  laymen  should  enter  upon  the  pilgrimage  without  the  blessing 
of  their  priests. 

"Whoever,  therefore,  shall  determine  upon  this  holy  pilgrimage 
and  shall  make  his  vow  to  God  to  that  effect  and  shall  offer  himself 
to  Him  as  a  living  sacrifice,  holy,  acceptable  unto  God,  shall  wear 
the  sign  of  the  cross  of  the  Lord  on  his  forehead,  or  on  his  breast. 
When,  having  truly  fulfilled  his  vow,  he  wishes  to  return,  let  him 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  33 

place  the  cross  on  his  back  between  his  shoulders.  Such,  indeed, 
by  two-fold  action  will  fulfil  the  precept  of  the  Lord,  as  He  com- 
mands in  the  Gospel,  *He  that  doth  not  take  his  cross  and  follow 
after  me,  is  not  worthy  of  me/  "^^  .  .  . 

(Balderic  of  Dol.)  .  .  .  "We  have  heard,  most  beloved  brethren, 
and  you  have  heard  what  we  cannot  recount  without  deep  sorrow — 
how,  with  great  hurt  and  dire  sufferings  our  Christian  brothers, 
members  in  Christ,  are  scourged,  oppressed,  and  injured  in  Jerusa- 
lem, in  Antioch,  and  the  other  cities  of  the  East.  Your  own  blood- 
brothers,  your  companions,  your  associates  (for  you  are  sons  of  the 
same  Christ  and  the  same  Church)  are  either  subjected  in  their  in- 
herited homes  to  other  masters,  or  are  driven  from  them,  or  they 
come  as  beggars  among  us ;  or,  which  is  far  worse,  they  are  flogged 
and  exiled  as  slaves  for  sale  in  their  own  land.  Christian  blood, 
redeemed  by  the  blood  of  Christ,  has  been  shed,  and  Christian 
flesh,  akin  to  the  flesh  of  Christ,  has  been  subjected  to  unspeakable 
degradation  and  servitude.  Everywhere  in  those  cities  there  is 
sorrow,  everywhere  misery,  everywhere  groaning  (I  say  it  with  a 
sig'h).  The  churches  in  which  divine  mysteries  were  celebrated  in 
olden  times  are  now,  to  our  sorrow,  used  as  stables  for  the  animals 
of  these  people!  Holy  men  do  not  possess  those  cities;  nay,  base 
and  bastard  Turks  hold  sway  over  our  brothers.  The  blessed  Peter 
first  presided  as  Bishop  at  Antioch;  behold,  in  his  own  church  the 
Gentiles  have  established  their  superstitions,  and  the  Christian  re- 
ligion, which  they  ought  rather  to  cherish,  they  have  basely  shut 
out  from  the  hall  dedicated  to  God !  The  estates  given  for  the  sup- 
port of  the  saints  and  the  patrimony  of  nobles  set  aside  for  the  sus- 
tenance of  the  poor  are  subject  to  pagan  tyranny,  while  cruel  mas- 
ters abuse  for  their  own  purposes  the  returns  from  these  lands. 
The  priesthood  of  God  has  been  ground  down  into  the  dust.  The 
sanctuary  of  God  (unspeakable  shame!)  is  everywhere  profaned. 
Whatever  Christians  still  remain  in  hiding  there  are  sought  out 
with  unheard  of  tortures. 

*'Of  holy  Jerusalem,  brethren,  we  dare  not  speak,  for  we  are  ex- 
ceedingly afraid  and  ashamed  to  speak  of  it.  This  very  city,  in 
which,  as  you  all  know,  Christ  Himself  suffered  for  us,  because  our 
sins  demanded  it,  has  been  reduced  to  the  pollution  of  paganism  and, 
I  say  it  to  our  disgrace,  withdrawn  from  the  service  of  God.  Such 
is  the  heap  of  reproach  upon  us  who  have  so  much  deserved  it! 
Who  now  serves  the  church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  in  the  valley  of 
Josaphat,  in  which  church  she  herself  was  buried  in  body?  But 
why  do  we  pass  over  the  Temple  of  Solomon,  nay  of  the  Lord,  in 
which  the  barbarous  nations  placed  their  idols   contrary  to  law, 


34  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

human  and  divine?  Of  the  Lord's  Sepulchre  we  have  refrained 
from  speaking,  since  some  of  you  with  your  own  eyes  have  seen  to 
what  abominations  it  has  been  given  over.  The  Turks  violently 
took  from  it  the  offerings  which  you  brought  there  for  alms  in  such 
vast  amounts,  and,  in  addition,  they  scoffed  much  and  often  at  your 
religion.  And  yet  in  that  place  (I  say  only  what  you  already  know) 
rested  the  Lord ;  there  He  died  for  us ;  there  He  was  buried.  How 
precious  would  be  the  longed-for,  incomparable  place  of  the  Lord's 
burial,  even  if  God  failed  there  to  perform  the  yearly  miracle  l^^ 
For  in  the  days  of  His  Passion  all  the  lights  in  the  Sepulchre  and 
round  about  in  the  church,  which  have  been  extinguished,  are  re- 
lighted by  divine  command.  Whose  heart  is  so  stony,  brethren, 
that  it  is  not  touched  by  so  great  a  miracle?  Believe  me,  that  man 
is  bestial  and  senseless  whose  heart  such  divinely  manifest  grace 
does  not  move  to  faith!  And  yet  the  Gentiles  see  this  in  common 
with  the  Christians  and  are  not  turned  from  their  ways!  They 
are,  indeed,  afraid,  but  they  are  not  converted  to  the  faith ;  nor  is  it 
to  be  wondered  at,  for  a  blindness  of  mind  rules  over  them.  With 
what  afflictions  they  wronged  you  who  have  returned  and  are  now 
piesent,  you  yourselves  know  too  well,  you  who  there  sacrificed 
your  substance  and  your  blood  for  God. 

'This,  beloved  brethren,  we  shall  say,  that  we  may  have  you  as 
witness  of  our  words.  More  suffering  of  our  brethren  and  de- 
vastation of  churches  remains  than  we  can  speak  of  one  by  one,  for 
we  are  oppressed  by  tears  and  groans,  sighs  and  sobs.  We  weep  and 
wail,  brethren,  alas,  like  the  Psalmist,  in  our  inmost  heart!  We 
are  wretched  and  unhappy,  and  in  us  is  that  prophecy  fulfilled: 
*God,  the  nations  are  come  into  thine  inheritance;  thy  holy  temple 
have  they  defiled;  they  have  laid  Jerusalem  in  heaps;  the  dead 
bodies  of  thy  servants  have  been  given  to  be  food  for  the  birds  of 
the  heaven,  the  flesh  of  thy  saints  unto  the  beasts  of  the  earth. 
Their  blood  have  they  shed  like  water  round  about  Jerusalem,  and 
there  was  none  to  bury  them.'^^  Woe  unto  us,  brethren !  We  who 
have  already  become  a  reproach  to  our  neighbors,  a  scoffing,  and 
derision  to  them  round  about  us,  let  us  at  least  with  tears  condole 
and  have  compassion  upon  our  brothers !  We  who  are  become  the 
scorn  of  all  peoples,  and  worse  than  all,  let  us  bewail  the  most 
monstrous  devastation  of  the  Holy  Land !  This  land  we  have  de- 
servedly called  holy  in  which  there  is  not  even  a  foot-step  that  the 
body  or  spirit  of  the  Saviour  did  not  render  glorious  and  blessed; 
which  embraced  the  holy  presence  of  the  mother  of  God,  and  the 
meetings  of  the  apostles,  and  drank  up  the  blood  of  the  martyr^, 
shed  there.     How  blessed  are  the  stones  which  crowned  you,  Ste- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  35 

phen,  the  first  martyr !  How  happy,  O,  John  the  Baptist,  the  waters 
of  the  Jordan  which  served  you  in  baptizing  the  Saviour !  The  chil- 
dren of  Israel,  who  were  led  out  of  Egypt,  and  who  prefigured  you 
in  the  crossing  of  the  Red  Sea,  have  taken  that  land  by  their  arms, 
with  Jesus  as  leader ;  they  have  driven  out  the  Jebusites^*  and  other 
inhabitants  and  have  themselves  inhabited  earthly  Jerusalem,  the 
image  of  celestial  Jerusalem.  ^ 

"What  are  we  saying?  Listen  and  learn!  You,  girt  about  with 
the  badge  of  knighthood,  are  arrogant  with  great  pride;  you  rage 
against  your  brothers  and  cut  each  other  in  pieces.  This  is  not 
the  (true)  soldiery  of  Christ  which  rends  asunder  the  sheep-fold  of 
the  Redeemer.  The  Holy  Church  has  reserved  a  soldiery  for  her- 
self to  help  her  people,  but  you  debase  her  wickedly  to  her  hurt.  Let 
us  confess  the  truth,  whose  heralds  we  ought  to  be;  truly,  you  are 
not  holding  to  the  way  which  leads  to  life.  You,  the  oppressers  of 
children,  plunderers  of  widows;  you,  guilty  of  homicide,  of  sacri- 
lege, robbers  of  another's  rights;  you  who  await  the  pay  of  thieves 
for  the  shedding  of  Christian  blood — as  vultures  smell  fetid  corpses, 
so  do  you  sense  battles  from  afar  and  rush  to  them  eagerly.  Verily, 
this  is  the  worst  way,  for  it  is  utterly  removed  from  God!  If, 
forsooth,  you  wish  to  be  mindful  of  your  souls,  either  lay  down  the 
girdle  of  such  knighthood,  or  advance  boldly,  as  knights  of  Christ, 
and  rush  as  quickly  as  you  can  to  the  defence  of  the  Eastern 
Church.  For  she  it  is  from  whom  the  joys  of  your  whole  salvation 
have  come  forth,  who  poured  into  your  mouths  the  milk  of  divine 
wisdom,  who  set  before  you  the  holy  teachings  of  the  Gospels.  We 
say  this,  brethren,  that  you  may  restrain  your  murderous  hands 
from  the  destruction  of  your  brothers,  and  in  behalf  of  your  rela- 
tives in  the  faith  oppose  yourselves  to  the  Gentiles.  Under  Jesus 
Christ,  our  Leader,  may  you  struggle  for  your  Jerusalem,  in  Chris- 
tian battle-line,  most  invincible  line,  even  more  successfully  than 
did  the  sons  of  Jacob  of  old — struggle,  that  you  may  assail  and 
drive  out  the  Turks,  more  execrable  than  the  Jebusites,  who  are  in 
this  land,  and  may  you  deem  it  a  beautiful  thing  to  die  for  Christ 
in  that  city  in  which  He  died  for  us.  But  if  it  befall  you 
to  die  this  side  of  it,  be  sure  that  to  have  died  on  the  way  is  of 
equal  value,  if  Christ  shall  find  you  in  His  army.  God  pays  with 
the  same  shilling,  wliether  at  the  first  or  eleventh  hour.  You 
should  shudder,  brethren,  you  should  shudder  at  raising  a  violent 
.  hand  against  Christians ;  it  is  less  wicked  to  brandish  your  sword 
against  Saracens.  It  £s  the  only  warfare  that  is  righteous,  for  it  is 
charity  to  risk  your  life  for  your  brothers.  That  you  may  not  be 
troubled  about  the  concerns  of  to-morrow,  know  that  those  who 


36  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

fear  God  want  nothing,  nor  those  who  cherish  Him  in  truth.  The 
possessions  of  the  enemy,  too,  will  be  yours,  since  you  will  make 
spoil  of  their  treasures  and  return  victorious  to  your  own;  or  em- 
purpled with  your  own  blood,  you  will  have  gained  everlasting 
glory.  For  such  a  Commander  you  ought  to  fight,  for  One  who 
lacks  neither  might  nor  wealth  with  which  to  reward  you.  Short  is 
the  way,  little  the  labor,  which,  nevertheless,  will  repay  you  with 
the  crown  that  fadeth  not  away.  Accordingly,  we  speak  with  the 
authority  of  the  prophet:  'Gird  thy  sword  upon  thy  thigh,  O 
mighty  one.'^^  Gird  yourselves,  everyone  of  you,  I  say,  and  be 
valiant  sons ;  for  it  is  better  for  you  to  die  in  battle  than  to  behold 
the  sorrows  of  your  race  and  of  your  holy  places.  Let  neither 
property  nor  the  alluring  charms  of  your  wives  entice  you  from 
going;  nor  let  the  trials  that  are  to  be  borne  so  deter  you  that  you 
remain  here." 

And  turning  to  the  bishops,  he  said,  "You,  brothers  and  fellow 
bishops ;  you,  fellow  priests  and  sharers  with  us  in  Christ,  make 
this  same  announcement  through  the  churches  committed  to  you, 
and  with  your  whole  soul  vigorously  preach  the  journey  to  Jerusa- 
lem. When  they  have  confessed  the  disgrace  of  their  sins,  do  you, 
secure  in  Christ,  grant  them  speedy  pardon.  Moreover,  you  who 
are  to  go  shall  have  us  praying  for  you ;  we  shall  have  you  fighting 
for  God's  people.  It  is  our  duty  to  pray,  yours  to  fight  against  the 
Amalekites.^*^  With  Moses,  we  shall  extend  unwearied  hands  in 
prayer  to  Heaven,  while  you  go  forth  and  brandish  the  sword,  like 
dauntless  warriors,  against  Amalek." 

As  those  present  were  thus  clearly  informed  by  these  and  other 
words  of  this  kind  from  the  apostolic  lord,  the  eyes  of  some  were 
bathed  in  tears ;  some  trembled,  and  yet  others  discussed  the  matter. 
However,  in  the  presence  of  all  at  that  same  council,  and  as  we 
looked  on,  the  Bishop  of  Puy,^^  a  man  of  great  renown  and  of 
highest  ability,  went  to  the  Pope  with  joyful  countenance  and  on 
bended  knee  sought  and  entreated  blessing  and  permission  to  go. 
Over  and  above  this,  he  won  from  the  Pope  the  command  that  all 
should  obey  him,  and  that  he  should  hold  sway  over  all  the  army 
in  behalf  of  the  Pope,  since  all  knew  him  to  be  a  prelate  of  unusual 
energy  and  industry.  .  .  . 

(Guibert  of  Nogent.)  .  .  .  *Tf  among  the  churches  scattered 
about  over  the  whole  world  some,  because  of  persons  or  location, 
deserve  reverence  above  others  (for  persons,  I  say,  since  greater 
privileges  are  accorded  to  apostolic  sees;  for  places,  indeed,  since 
the  same  dignity  which  is  accorded  to  persons  is  also  shown  to 
regal  cities,  such  as  Constantinople),  we  owe  most  to  that  church 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  37 

from  which  we  received  the  grace  of  redemption  and  the  source  of 
all  Christianity.  If  what  the  Lord  says — namely,  'Salvation  is  from 
the  Jews — /^^  accords  with  the  truth,  and  it  is  true  that  the  Lord 
has  left  us  Sabaoth  as  seed,  that  we  may  not  become  like  Sodom 
and  Gomorrah,  and  our  seed  is  Christ,  in  whom  is  the  salvation  and 
benediction  of  all  peoples,  then,  indeed,  the  very  land  and  city  in 
which  He  dwelt  and  suffered  is,  by  witness  of  the  Scriptures,  holy. 
If  this  land  is  spoken  of  in  the  sacred  writings  of  the  prophets  as 
the  inheritance  and  the  holy  temple  of  God  before  ever  the  Lord 
walked  about  in  it,  or  was  revealed,  what  sanctity,  what  reverence 
has  it  not  acquired  since  God  in  His  majesty  was  there  clothed  in 
the  flesh,  nourished,  grew  up,  and  in  bodily  form  there  walked 
about,  or  was  carried  about;  and,  to  compress  in  fitting  brevity  all 
that  might  be  told  in  a  long  series  of  words,  since  there  the  blood  of 
the  Son  of  God,  more  holy  than  heaven  and  earth,  was  poured  forth, 
and  His  body,  its  quivering  members  dead,  rested  in  the  tomb. 
What  veneration  do  we  think  it  deserves?  If,  when  the  Lord  had 
but  just  been  crucified  and  the  city  was  still  held  by  the  Jews,  it 
was  called  holy  by  the  evangelist  when  he  says,  'Many  bodies  of  the 
saints  that  had  fallen  asleep  were  raised;  and  coming  forth  out  of 
the  tombs  after  His  resurrection,  they  entered  into  the  holy  city  and 
appeared  unto  many,'^^  and  by  the  prophet  Isaiah  when  he  says, 
*It  shall  be  His  glorious  sepulchre,'^*^  then,  surely,  with  this  sanctity 
placed  upon  it  by  God  the  Sanctifier  Himself,  no  evil  that  may  be- 
fall it  can  destroy  it,  and  in  the  same  way  glory  is  indivisibly  fixed 
to  His  Sepulchre.  Most  beloved  brethren,  if  you  reverence  the 
source  of  that  holiness  and  glory,  if  you  cherish  these  shrines  which 
are  the  marks  of  His  foot-prints  on  earth,  if  you  seek  (the  way), 
God  leading  you,  God  fighting  in  your  behalf,  you  should  strive 
with  your  utmost  efforts  to  cleanse  the  Holy  City  and  the  glory  of 
the  Sepulchre,  now  polluted  by  the  concourse  of  the  Gentiles,  as 
much  as  is  in  their  power. 

"If  in  olden  times  the  Maccabees  attained  to  the  highest  praise 
of  piety  because  they  fought  for  the  ceremonies  and  the  Temple, 
it  is  also  justly  granted  you.  Christian  soldiers,  to  defend  the  liberty 
of  your  country  by  armed  endeavor.  If  you,  likewise,  consider  that 
the  abode  of  the  holy  apostles  and  any  other  saints  should  be  striven 
for  with  such  effort,  why  do  you  refuse  to  rescue  the  Cross,  the 
Blood,  the  Tomb?  Why  do  you  refuse  to  visit  them,  to  spend  the 
price  of  your  lives  in  rescuing  them?  You  have  thus  far  waged 
unjust  wars,  at  one  time  and  another;  you  have  brandished  mad 
weapons  to  your  mutual  destruction,  for  no  other  reason  than 
covetousness  and  pride,  as  a  result  of  which  you  have  deserved 


38  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

eternal  death  and  sure  damnation.  We  now  hold  out  to  you  wars 
which  contain  the  glorious  reward  of  martyrdom,  which  will  re- 
tain that  title  of  praise  now  and  forever. 

**Let  us  suppose,  for  the  moment,  that  Christ  was  not  dead  and 
buried,  and  had  never  lived  any  length  of  time  in  Jerusalem.  Sure- 
ly, if  all  this  were  lacking,  this  fact  alone  ought  still  to  arouse  you 
to  go  to  the  aid  of  the  land  and  city — ^the  fact  that  *0'ut  of  Zion  shall 
go  forth  the  law  and  the  word  of  Jehovah  from  Jerusalem  l'^^  If 
all  that  there  is  of  Christian  preaching  has  flowed  from  the  foun- 
tain of  Jerusalem,  its  streams,  whithersoever  spread  out  over  the 
whole  world,  encircle  the  hearts  of  the  Catholic  multitude,  that  they 
may  consider  wisely  what  they  owe  such  a  well-watered  fountain. 
If  rivers  return  to  the  place  whence  they  have  issued  only  to  flow 
forth  again,  according  to  the  saying  of  Solomon,^^  it  ought  to  seem 
glorious  to  you  to  be  able  to  apply  a  new  cleansing  to  this  place, 
whence  it  is  certain  that  you  received  the  cleansing  of  baptism  and 
the  witness  of  your  faith. 

"And  you  ought,  furthermore,  to  consider  with  the  utmost  de- 
liberation, if  by  your  labors,  God  working  through  you,  it  should 
occur  that  the  Mother  of  churches  should  flourish  anew  to  the  wor- 
ship of  Christianity,  whether,  perchance.  He  may  not  wish  other 
regions  of  the  East  to  be  restored  to  the  faith  against  the  approach- 
ing time  of  the  Antichrist.^^  For  it  is  clear  that  Antichrist  is  to  do 
battle  not  with  the  Jews,  not  with  the  Gentiles;  but,  according  to 
the  etymology  of  his  name,  He  will  attack  Christians.  And  if  Anti- 
christ finds  there  no  Christians  (just  as  at  present  when  scarcely 
any  dwell  there),  no  one  will  be  there  to  oppose  him,  or  whom  he 
may  rightly  overcome.  According  to  Daniel  and  Jerome,  the  in- 
terpreter of  Daniel,  he  is  to  fix  his  tents  on  the  Mount  of  Olives; 
and  it  is  certain,  for  the  apostle  teaches  it,  that  he  will  sit  at  Jeru- 
salem in  the  Temple  of  the  Lord,  as  though  he  were  God.  And 
according  to  the  same  prophet,  he  will  first  kill  three  kings  of 
Egypt,  Africa,  and  Ethiopia,  without  doubt  for  their  Christian  faith. 
This,  indeed,  could  not  at  all  be  done  unless  Christianity  was  estab- 
lished where  now  is  paganism.  If,  therefore,  you  are  zealous  in  the 
practice  of  holy  battles,  in  order  that,  just  as  you  have  received  the 
seed  of  knowledge  of  God  from  Jerusalem,  you  may  in  the  same 
way  restore  the  borrowed  grace,  so  that  through  you  the  Catholic 
name  may  be  advanced  to  oppose  the  perfidy  of  the  Antichrist  and 
the  Antichristians — then,  who  can  not  conjecture  that  God,  who  has 
exceeded  the  hope  of  all,  will  consume,  in  the  abundance  of  your 
courage  and  through  you  as  the  spark,  such  a  thicket  of  paganism 
as  to  include  within  His  law  Egypt,  Africa,  and  Ethiopia,  which 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  -39 

have  withdrawn  from  the  communion  of  our  belief?  And  the  man 
of  sin,  the  son  of  perdition,  will  find  some  to  oppose  him.  Behold, 
the  Gospel  cries  out,  'Jerusalem  shall  be  trodden  down  by  the  Gen- 
tiles until  the  times  of  the  Gentiles  be  fulfilled.'^*  'Times  of  the 
Gentiles'  can  be  understood  in  two  ways:  Either  that  they  have 
ruled  over  the  Christians  at  their  pleasure,  and  have  gladly  fre- 
quented the  sloughs  of  all  baseness  for  the  satisfaction  of  their 
lusts,  and  in  all  this  have  had  no  obstacle  (for  they  who  have  every- 
thing according  to  their  wish  are  said  to  have  their  time;  there  is 
that  saying:  *My  time  is  not  yet  come,  but  your  time  is  always 
ready,'^^  whence  the  lustful  are  wont  to  say  *you  are  having  your 
time').  Or,  again,  'the  times  of  the  Gentiles'  are  the  fulness  of 
time  for  those  Gentiles  who  shall  have  entered  secretly  before 
Israel  shall  be  saved.  These  times,  most  beloved  brothers,  will  now, 
forsooth,  be  fulfilled,  provided  the  might  of  the  pagans  be  repulsed 
through  you,  with  the  co-operation  of  God.  With  the  end  of  the 
world  already  near,  even  though  the  Gentiles  fail  to  be  converted 
to  the  Lord  (since  according  to  the  apostle  there  must  be  a  with- 
drawal from  the  faith),  it  is  first  necessary,  according  to  the  proph- 
ecy, that  the  Christian  sway  be  renewed  in  those  regions,  either 
through  you,  or  others,  whom  it  shall  please  God  to  send  before 
the  coming  of  Antichrist,  so  that  the  head  of  all  evil,  who  is  to 
occupy  there  the  throne  of  the  kingdom,  shall  find  some  support  of 
the  faith  to  fight  against  him. 

"Consider,  therefore,  that  the  Almighty  has  provided  you,  per- 
haps, for  this  purpose,  that  through  you  He  may  restore  Jerusalem 
from  such  debasement.  Ponder,  I  beg  you,  how  full  of  joy  and  de- 
light our  hearts  will  be  when  we  shall  see  the  Holy  City  restored 
with  your  little  help,  and  the  prophet's,  nay  divine,  words  fulfilled 
in  our  times.  Let  your  memory  be  moved  by  what  the  Lord  Him- 
self says  to  the  Church:  T  will  bring  thy  seed  from  the  East 
and  gather  thee  from  the  West.'^^  God  has  already  brought  our 
seed  from  the  East,  since  in  a  double  way  that  region  of  the  East 
has  given  the  first  beginnings  of  the  Church  to  us.  But  from  the 
West  He  will  also  gather  it,  provided  He  repairs  the  wrongs  of 
Jerusalem  through  those  who  have  begun  the  witness  of  the  final 
faith,  that  is  the  people  of  the  West.  With  God's  assistance,  we 
think  this  can  be  done  through  you. 

"If  neither  the  words  of  the -Scriptures  arouse  you,  nor  our  ad- 
monitions penetrate  your  minds,  at  least  let  the  great  suflfering  of 
those  who  desired  to  go  to  the  holy  places  stir  you  up.  Think  of 
those  who  made  the  pilgrimage  across  the  sea !  Even  if  they  were 
more  wealthy,  consider  what  taxes,  what  violence  they  underwent, 


40  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

since  they  were  forced  to  make  payments  and  tributes  almost  every 
mile,  to  purchase  release  at  every  gate  of  the  city,  at  the  entrance 
of  the  churches  and  temples,  at  every  side-journey  from  place  to 
place:  also,  if  any  accusation  whatsoever  were  made  against  them, 
they  were  compelled  to  purchase  their  release;  but  if  they  refused  to 
pay  money,  the  prefects  of  the  Gentiles,  according  to  their  custom, 
urged  them  fiercely  with  blows.  What  shall  we  say  of  those  who 
took  up  the  journey  without  anything  more  than  trust  in  their  bar- 
ren poverty,  since  they  seemed  to  have  nothing  except  their  bodies 
to  lose?  They  not  only  demanded  money  of  them,  which  is  not  an 
unendurable  punishment,  but  also  examined  the  callouses  of  their 
heels,  cutting  them  open  and  folding  the  skin  back,  lest,  perchance, 
they  had  sewed  something  there.  Their  unspeakable  cruelty  was 
carried  on  even  to  the  point  of  giving  them  scammony  to  drink 
until  they  vomited,  or  even  burst  their  bowels,  because  they  thought 
the  wretches  had  swallowed  gold  or  silver ;  or,  horrible  to  say,  they 
cut  their  bowels  open  with  a  sword  and,  spreading  out  the  folds 
of  the  intestines,  with  frightful  mutilation  disclosed  whatever  na- 
ture held  there  in  secret.  Remember,  I  pray,  the  thousands  who 
have  perished  vile  deaths,  and  strive  for  the  holy  places  from  which 
the  beginnings  of  your  faith  have  come.  Before  you  engage  in  His 
battles,  believe  without  question  that  Christ  will  be  your  standard- 
bearer  and  inseparable  fore-runner." 

The  most  excellent  man  concluded  his  oration  and  by  the  power 
of  the  blessed  Peter  absolved  all  who  vowed  to  go  and  confirmed 
those  acts  with  apostolic  blessing.  He  instituted  a  sign  well  suited 
to  so  honorable  a  profession  by  making  the  figure  of  the  Cross, 
the  stigma  of  the  Lord's  Passion,  the  emblem  of  the  soldiery,  or 
rather,  of  what  was  to  be  the  soldiery  of  God.  This,  made  of 
any  kind  of  cloth,  he  ordered  to  be  sewed  upon  the  shirts,  cloaks, 
and  byrra  of  those  who  were  about  to  go.  He  commanded  that  if 
anyone,  after  receiving  this  emblem,  or  after  taking  openly  this 
vow,  should  shrink  from  his  good  intent  through  base  change  of 
heart,  or  any  affection  for  his  parents,  he  should  be  regarded  an 
outlaw  forever,  unless  he  repented  and  again  undertook  whatever 
of  his  pledge  he  had  omitted.  Furthermore,  the  Pope  condemned 
with  a  fearful  anathema  all  those  who  dared  to  molest  the  wives, 
children,  and  possessions  of  these  who  were  going  on  this  journey 
for  God.  ...  ^ 

3.  The  wnmediate  response. 

(Fulcher.)  After  this  speech,  those  present  were  very  enthusi- 
astic in  the  cause,  and  many,  thinking  that  nothing  could  be  more 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  41 

laudable  than  such  an  undertaking,  at  once  offered  to  go  and  dili- 
gently exhort  the  absent.  Among  these  was  the  Bishop  of  Puy, 
Adhemar  by  name,  who  later  acting  as  the  Pope's  vicegerent  pru- 
dently and  wisely  led  the  whole  army  of  God  and  vigorously  in- 
spired them  to  accomplish  the  undertaking.  So,  when  those  things 
which  have  been  mentioned  were  determined  upon  in  the  council 
and  unanimously  approved  of,  and  after  the  papal  blessing  was 
given,  they  withdrew  to  their  homes  to  make  known  to  those  who 
were  not  present  at  the  council  what  had  been  done.  When  these 
tidings  were  proclaimed  throughout  the  provinces,  they  agreed 
under  oath  that  the  peace  which  was  called  the  Truce  should  be 
kept  mutually  by  all.  Finally,  then,  many  persons  of  every  class 
vowed,  after  confession,  that  they  were  going  with  a  pure  intent 
whither  they  were  ordered  to  go. 

Oh,  how  fitting  and  how  pleasing  to  us  all  to  see  those  crosses, 
beautiful,  whether  of  silk,  or  of  woven  gold,  or  of  any  kind  of  cloth, 
which  these  pilgrims,  by  order  of  Pope  Urban,  sewed  on  the  should- 
ers of  their  mantles,  or  cassocks,  or  tunics,  once  they  had  made 
the  vow  to  go.  It  was  indeed  proper  that  soldiers  of  God  who 
prepared  to  fight  for  His  honor  should  be  signed  and  fortified  by 
this  fitting  emblem  of  victory ;  and,  since  they  thus  marked  them- 
selves with  this  symbol  under  the  acknowledgment  of  faith,  finally 
they  very  truly  obtained  the  Cross  of  which  they  carried  the  symbol. 
They  adopted  the  sign  that  they  might  follow  the  reality  of  the  sign. 

It  is  evident  that  a  good  intention  brings  about  the  achievement 
of  a  good  work,  and  that  good  work  earns  the  soul's  salvation.  For 
if  it  is  good  to  intend  well,  it  is  still  better  to  accomplish  a  good 
work  which  has  been  planned.  Therefore  the  best  thing  one  can 
do  is  to  provide  for  the  salvation  of  his  soul  by  a  worthy  action. 
Let  each  one  then  plan  good  deeds,  which  by  still  more  worthy  ac- 
tion he  will  fulfil,  so  that  he  shall  at  length  receive  the  never  end- 
ing reward  which  he  has  earned.  So  Urban,  a  man  prudent  and 
revered,  conceived  a  work  by  which  later  the  whole  universe  pros- 
pered. For  he  restored  peace  and  re-established  the  rights  of  the 
church  in  their  pristine  condition.  And  with  a  lively  determination 
he  also  made  an  effort  to  drive  out  the  pagans  from  the  Christian 
lands.  Therefore,  since  he  endeavored  in  every  way  to  glorify 
everything  which  was  God's,  almost  all  voluntarily  submitted  them- 
selves to  his  paternal  direction. 

(Ekkehard.)  The  West  Franks^^  could  easily  be  induced  to 
leave  their  lands,  since  for  several  years  Gaul  had  suffered,  now 
from  civil  war,  now  from  famine,  and  again  from  excessive  mor- 
tality; and,  finally,  that  disease  which  had  its  origin  in  the  vicinity 


42  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

of  the  church  of  St.  Gertrude  of  Nivelle^^  alarmed  them  to  such  an 
extent  that  they  feared  for  their  Hves.  This  was  the  nature  of  the 
disease.  The  patient,  attacked  in  any  part  of  the  body  by  invisible 
fire,  suffered  unspeakable  torment  for  a  long  time,  and  without 
remedy,  until  either  he  lost  his  life  from  the  agony,  or  he  lost  both 
the  torture  and  the  afflicted  limb  at  the  same  time.  There  are  to 
this  day  living  witnesses  of  this  disease,  maimed  either  in  hands  or 
feet  by  the  scourge. 

Of  the  other  nations,  some  peoples  or  individuals  acknowledged 
that  they  had  been  called  to  the  land  of  promise  not  only  by  the 
proclamation  of  the  Pope,  but  also  by  certain  prophets  who  had 
lately  arisen  among  them,  or  by  signs  and  revelations  from  heaven ; 
others  confessed  that  they  had  been  constrained  to  take  the  vows 
by  reason  of  embarrassed  circumstances.  Indeed,  the  majority  set 
out  encumbered  with  their  wives  and  children  and  all  their  house- 
hold effects. 

But  for  the  East  Franks,  the  Saxons,  the  Thuringians,  the  Ba- 
varians, and  the  AlemannP^  this  trumpet  call  sounded  only  faintly, 
particularly  because  of  the  schism  between  the  empire  and  the 
papacy,  from  the  time  of  Pope  Alexander*^  even  until  today.  This, 
alas,  has  strengthened  our  hatred  and  enmity  against  the  Romans, 
as  it  has  theirs  towards  us !  And  so  it  came  to  pass  that  almost  all 
the  Teutonic  race,  at  first  ignorant  of  the  reason  for  this  setting 
out,  laughed  to  scorn  the  many  legions  of  knights  passing  through 
their  land,  the  many  companies  of  foot  soldiers,  and  the  crowds  of 
country  people,  women,  and  little  ones.  They  regarded  them  as 
crazed  with  unspeakable  folly,  inasmuch  as  they  were  striving  after 
uncertainties  in  place  of  certainties  and  were  leaving  for  naught 
the  land  of  their  birth,  to  seek  with  certain  danger  the  uncertain 
land  of  promise;  and,  while  giving  up  their  own  possessions,  they 
were  yearning  after  those  of  strangers.  But  although  our  people 
are  more  perverse  than  other  races,  yet  in  consideration  of  the 
promise  of  divine  pity,  the  enthusiasm  of  the  Teutons  was  at  last 
turned  to  this  same  proclamation,  for  they  were  taught,  forsooth, 
what  the  thing  really  meant  by  the  crowds  passing  through  their 
lands. 

4.  Urhan's  instructions  to  the  assembling  Crusaders. 

Urban,  bishop,  servant  of  the  servants  of  God,  to  all  the  faithful, 
both  princes  and  subjects,  waiting  in  Flanders;  greeting,  apostolic 
grace,  and  blessing. 

Your  brotherhood,  we  believe,  has  long  since  learned  from  many 
accounts  that  a  barbaric  fury  has  deplorably  afflicted  and  laid  waste 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  43 

the  churches  of  God  in  the  regions  of  the  Orient.  More  than  this, 
blasphemous  to  say,  it  has  even  grasped  in  intolerable  servitude  its 
churches  and  the  Holy  City  of  Christ,  glorified  by  His  passion  and 
resurrection.  Grieving  with  pious  concern  at  this  calamity,  we 
visited  the  regions  of  Gaul  and  devoted  ourselves  largely  to  urging 
the  princes  of  the  land  and  their  subjects  to  free  the  churches  of 
the  East.  We  solemnly  enjoined  upon  them  at  the  council  of 
Auvergne*^  (the  accomplishment  of)  such  an  undertaking,  as  a  prep- 
aration for  the  remission  of  all  their ^  sins.  And  we  have  consti- 
tuted our  most  beloved  son,  Adhemar,  Bishop  of  Puy,  leader  of  this 
expedition  and  undertaking  in  our  stead,  so  that  those  who,  per- 
chance, may  wish  to  undertake  this  journey  should  comply  with 
his  commands,  as  if  they  were  our  own,  and  submit  fully  to  his 
loosings  or  bindings,  as  far  as  shall  seem  to  belong  to  such  an 
office.  If,  moreover,  there  are  any  of  your  people  whom  God  has 
inspired  to  this  vow,  let  them  know  that  he  (Adhemar)  will  set  out 
with  the  aid  of  God  on  the  day  of  the  Assumption  of  the  Blessed 
Mary,*^  and  that  they  can  then  attach  themselves  to  his  following. 

(Written  toward  the  end  of  December,  1095.) 


CHAPTER  II 
The  March  to  Constantinople 

(Despite  Urban's  efforts  to  keep  the  expedition  within  the  bounds  of 
a  common  plan  and  to  maintain  some  degree  of  organization,  the  enthusiasm 
which  he  aroused  was  too  great  to  be  restrained.  Without  waiting  for  the 
appointed  day,  various  bands,  commonly  known  as  the  Peasants'  Crusade, 
started  from  the  Rhine  country,  eager  to  be  the  first  to  gain  the  great  re- 
wards. Neither  the  character  nor  the  conduct  of  the  groups  seems  to  have 
been  such  as  to  inspire  any  writer  with  a  desire  to  recount  their  deeds.  As 
a  result,  our  information  about  them  comes  wholly  from  the  none  too  sym- 
pathetic chronicles  of  the  later  writers.  The  versions  given  by  the  Anony- 
mous, who  met  some  of  the  survivors  at  Constantinople,  by  Ekkehard,  and 
by  Albert,  both  of  whom  lived  in  the  country  through  which  these  bands 
passed,  have  been  selected  as  the  most  accurate  and  complete.  The  persecu- 
tions of  the  Jews,  so  common  along  the  march  of  the  Peasants,  was  by  no 
means,  however,  confined  to  them,  being  almost  as  widespread  as  the  en- 
thusiasm for  the  Crusade  itself. ^  Though  the  final  fate  of  the  first  of  these 
companies  is  described  in  the  third  chapter,  they  had  all  started  before  the 
main  body,  and  their  conduct  had  left  a  deep  impression  upon  the  peoples 
through  whose  lands  they  journeyed.  The  difficulties  of  the  main  army  in 
these  same  regions  were  probably  due  in  no  small  measure  to  the  excesses 
which  the  Peasants  had  committed.  The  main  armies  must  be  followed  up 
to  Constantinople,  as  the  leaders  followed  four  different  routes.  The  march 
of  Godfrey  and  Baldwin  is  described  by  Albert,  that  of  Bohemund  by  the 
Anonymous,  who  accompanied  him,  that  of  Raymond  by  his  chaplain,  Ray- 
mond of  Aguilers,  and  that  of  Robert  of  Normandy  and  Stephen  of  Blois 
by  Fulcher,  who  was  with  them.  Hugh  the  Great  and  Robert  of  Flanders 
had  no  chroniclers  in  their,  following,  or,  at  any  rate,  no  detailed  account 
of  their  journey  to  Constantinople  has  been  preserved.  Due  to  the  diverse 
routes  chosen  by  the  leaders,  this  portion  of  the  history  of  the  First  Crusade 
is  least  well  substantiated,  for  each  of  the  writers  could  render  accurate 
account  of  only  his  own  army.  References  to  other  bands  are  often  in- 
accurate and  confusing,  and  even  in  the  story  of  a  single  route  geographical 
allusions  are  frequently  uncertain  or  incorrect.  This  can  be  easily  explained 
by  the  fact  that  the  Crusaders  were  moving  fairly  rapidly  through  strange 
country,  without  the  stimulus  of  actual  warfare  to  fix  place  names  in  their 
minds.  Fortunately,  the  well  worn  Roman  roads  through  the  Balkan  and 
Danube  country  can  still  be  traced,  while  the  recognizable  places  mentioned 
by  the  chroniclers  afford  ample  testimony  that  the  Crusaders  followed  them  in 
the  main.) 

I.  The  Departure. 

(Fulcher.)  Now  then,  I  must  turn  to  the  history  of  those  who 
went    to    Jerusalem    and    make    clear    to    all    who    do    not    know 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  45 

what  happened  to  these  pilgrims  on  the  way,  how,  little  by 
little,  by  the  grace  of  God,  their  undertaking  and  their  labor 
gloriously  succeeded.  I,  Fulcher  of  Chartres,  went  with  the  other 
pilgrims,  and  for  the  benefit  of  posterity  I  have  carefully  and 
diligently  stored  all  this  in  my  memory,  just  as  I  witnessed  it. 

In  the  year  1096,  and  in  the  month  of  March  following  the  coun- 
cil, which,  as  has  been  said.  Pope  Urban  held  during  November  in 
Auvergne,  some  who  were  more  prompt  in  their  preparation  than 
others  began  to  set  out  on  the  holy  journey.  Others  followed  in 
April,  or  May,  in  June,  or  in  July,  or  even  in  August,  or  Septem- 
ber, or  October,  as  they  were  able  to  secure  the  means  to  defray 
their  expenses.  That  year  peace  and  good  crops  of  grain  and  grapes 
flourished  everywhere,  by  the  disposition  of  God,  lest  those  who 
chose  to  follow  Him  with  their  crosses,  in  accordance  with  His 
precept,  should  fail  on  the  way  for  want  of  food.  .  .  . 

What  further  shall  I  say?  The  islands  of  the  sea  and  all  the 
regions  of  the  earth  were  shaken  under  foot,  so  that  it  would  seem 
that  the  prophecy  of  David  was  fulfilled,  who  said  in  the  psalm,  "All 
the  nations  thou  hast  made  shall  come  and  worship  before  thee,  O 
Lord"^;  and  that,  also,  which  those  who  came  later  justly  said,  '*Wc 
will  worship  in  the  place  where  His  feet  have  stood."  Of  this 
journey,  moreover,  we  have  read  much  more  in  the  Prophets,  which 
it  would  be  tedious  to  repeat.  Oh  what  grief,  what  sighs,  what 
weeping!  What  lamentations  among  friends,  when  the  husband  left 
his  wife  so  dear  to  him,  and  his  children,  and  all  his  possessions, 
his  father,  his  mother,  his  brothers,  or  his  relatives !  But  in  spite 
of  such  tears  which  those  who  remained  shed  for  departing  friends 
in  their  very  presence,  the  crusaders  were  still  in  no  wise  weakened 
by.  this ;  and  for  love  of  God  they  left  all  that  they  possessed,  firmly 
convinced  that  they  would  receive  that  hundred-fold  which  the 
Lord  has  promised  to  those  who  love  Him.  Then  husband  advised 
wife  of  the  time  of  his  return,  assuring  her  that  if  he  lived,  by 
God's  grace,  he  would  return  to  her.  He  commended  her  to  the 
Lord,  he  kissed  her  tenderly,  and,  weeping,  he  promised  to  return. 
But  she,  fearing  that  she  would  never  see  him  more,  was  unable  to 
stand  and  fell  senseless  to  the  ground  and  wept  for  her  love,  whom, 
though  living,  she  had  lost  as  though  already  dead.  H-e,  like  one 
who  had  no  pity — though  he  had — and  as  if  moved  neither  by  the 
tears  of  his  wife  nor  the  grief  of  any  friends — and  still  in  his  heart 
he  was  moved — set  out,  keeping  his  purpose  firm.  Sadness  was 
the  lot  of  those  who  remained,  those  who  left  were  glad.  What 
then  can  we  add  further?  'This  is  the  Lord's  doings  and  it  is 
marvelous  in  our  eyes."* 


46  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

(Ekkehard.)  Moreover,  the  sign  which  was  described  before  as 
seen  in  the  sun,  and  many  portents  which  appeared  in  the  air,  as 
well  as  on  the  earth,  stimulated  many,  who  had  been  backward  be- 
fore, to  undertakings  of  this  kind.  Some  of  these  portents  I  have 
deemed  it  desirable  to  insert  here,  but  to  tell  all  would  certainly 
take  too  long.  For  we,  too,  about  the  Nones  of  October,  saw  a 
comet  in  the  southern  sky,  its  radiance  extending  out  obliquely,  like 
a  sword;  and  two  years  later,  on  the  sixth  day  before  the  Kalends 
of  March,  1099,  we  saw  another  star  in  the  east  changing  its  posi- 
tion by  leaps  at  long  intervals.  There  were  also  blood-red  clouds 
rising  in  the  east,  as  well  as  in  the  west,  and  darting  up  into  the 
zenith  to  meet  each  other;  and,  again,  about  midnight,  fiery  splen- 
dors rushed  up  in  the  north ;  and  frequently  we  even  saw  torches  of 
fire  flying  through  the  air,  as  we  proved  by  many  witnesses.  About 
three  o'clock  one  day  some  years  before  this,  Sigger,  a  certain 
priest  of  exemplary  life,  saw  two  knights  rushing  at  each  other  in 
the  air,  and  after  they  had  fought  for  a  long  time,  the  one  who  bore 
a  large  cross,  with  which  he  seemed  to  strike  the  other,  emerged 
as  victor.  At  the  same  time,  the  priest,  G — ,  who  now  belongs  to 
the  monastic  profession  with  us,  having  paid  the  sheep  which  is 
owed  to  Christ  in  place  of  the  first  born  of  the  ass,  was  walking 
one  day  at  the  noon  hour  in  a  wood,  with  two  companions,  when  he 
saw  a  sword  of  wondrous  length  (which  came,  he  knew  not 
whence)  carried  up  on  high  by  a  whirlwind.  Until  the  great  height 
hid  it  from  his  eyes,  he  not  only  saw  the  metal,  but  heard  the  crash- 
ing of  the  weapon.  Some  men  who  were  keeping  watch  in  a  horse 
pasture  also  reported  that  they  saw  the  semblance  of  a  city  in  the 
air,  and  that  they  saw  divers  companies,  both  on  horseback  and  on 
foot,  hastening  to  it  from  different  directions.  Some  even  showed 
the  sign  of  the  cross  stamped  by  divine  power  upon  their  fore- 
heads, or  clothes,  or  upon  some  part  of  the  body ;  and  by  this  sign 
they  believed  that  they  had  been  predestined  for  the  same  army  of 
the  Lord.  Again,  others,  pricked  by  a  sudden  change  of  heart,  or 
taught  by  visions  of  the  night,  resolved  to  sell  their  lands  and  goods, 
and  to  sew  upon  their  clothes  the  sign  of  the  cross.  To  all  these 
people,  who  flocked  to  the  churches  in  incredible  numbers,  the 
priests,  in  a  new  rite,  distributed  swords  along  with  a  blessing  and 
pilgrims'  staves  and  bags.  Why  should  I  mention  the  fact  that  in 
those  days  a  certain  woman  continued  pregnant  for  two  years  and, 
at  last,  brought  forth  a  boy  who  could  speak  from  birth?  Like- 
wise, a  child  was  born  with  a  double  set  of  limbs,  and  another  with 
two  heads;  some  lambs,  also,  with  two  heads.  Again,  foals  were 
born  which  possessed  at  birth  the  larger  teeth  which  we  commonly 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  47 

call  horse-teeth,  and  which  nature  does  not  pre    ide  unti     he  cole 
is  three  years  old. 

While  by  these  and  like  signs  all  creation  Wc  _        iimoned 

into  the  army  of  the  Lord,  that  enemy  of  men,  the  evil  one  him- 
self (ever  on  the  watch,  even  while  others  are  sleeping)  did  not 
delay  to  sow  his  own  tares,  to  rouse  false  prophets,  and,  under  the 
guise  of  religion,  to  mingle  with  the  army  of  the  Lord  false  breth- 
ren and  shameless  women.  And  so,  through  the  hypocrisy  and 
falsehoods  of  some  and  the  gross  immorality  of  others,  the  army 
of  Christ  was  polluted  to  such  an  extent  that,  according  to  the 
prophecy  of  the  good  shepherd,  even  the  elect  were  led  astray.  At 
this  time,  the  legend  about  Charles  the  Great  was  invented,*  that  he 
had  been  raised  from  the  dead  for  this  expedition,  and  about  some 
one  else  who  was  living  again;  and  also  that  foolish  story  of  the 
goose  that  acted  as  its  mistress's  guide,  and  many  tales  of  that  kind. 
Yet,  since  each  one  may  be  known  by  his  fruits,  even  as  wolves  are 
recognized  under  sheep's  clothing,  those  same  deceivers,  especially 
these  who  are  still  alive,  may  be  questioned  as  to  what  port  they 
sailed  from,  according  to  their  vows,  and  how  they  crossed  the  sea 
without  ships,  or  in  what  battles  and  places  they  worsted  so  many 
pagans  with  their  small  forces,  what  fortresses  of  the  enemy  they 
took  there,  and,  finally,  at  what  part  of  the  wall  at  Jerusalem  they 
had  their  camp,  and  so  forth.  And  those  who  have  nothing  to 
answer  as  to  the  alms  which  they  have  hypocritically  taken  from 
the  faithful,  or  as  to  the  many  bands  which  they  have  misled  and 
murdered  for  plunder,  and,  above  all,  as  to  their  own  apostacy, 
may  be  compelled  to  do  penance. 

(Guibert  of  No  gent)  :  Now  then,  while  the  princes  who  felt 
the  need  of  large  funds  and  the  support  of  numerous  followers 
were  making  preparations  carefully  and  slowly,  the  common  people, 
who  were  poor  in  substance  but  abundant  in  numbers,  attached  them- 
selves to  a  certain  Peter  the  Hermit^  who  appeared  as  a  master  while 
we  were  as  yet  still  considering  the  project. 

He  was  from  the  city  of  Amiens,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  and  we 
learned  that  he  had  lived  as  a  hermit  in  the  garb  of  a  monk  some- 
where in  Northern  Gaul,  I  know  not  where.  We  beheld  him  leav- 
ing there,  with  what  intent  I  do  not  know,  and  going  about  through 
cities  and  towns  under  the  pretext  of  preaching.  He  was  sur- 
rounded by  such  great  throngs,  received  such  enormous  gifts,  and 
was  lauded  with  such  fame  for  holiness  that  I  do  not  remember 
anyone  to  have  been  held  in  like  honor. 

He  was  very  generous  to  the  poor  from  the  wealth  that  had 
been  given  him.    He  reclaimed  prostitutes   and  provided  them  with 


48  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

husbands,  not  without  dowry  from  him;  and  everywhere  with  an 
amazing  authority,  he  restored  peace  and  concord  in  place  of  strife. 
Whatever  he  did  or  said  was  regarded  as  Httle  short  of  divine,  to 
such  an  extent  that  hairs  were  snatched  from  his  mule  as  relics. 
This  we  ascribe  not  so  much  to  the  popular  love  for  truth  as  for 
novelty. 

He  wore  a  plain  woolen  shirt  with  a  hood  and  over  this  a 
cloak  without  sleeves,  both  extending  to  his  ankles,  and  his  feet  were 
bare.  He  lived  on  wine  and  fish:  he  hardly  ever,  or  never,  ate 
bread.  .  .  . 

2.  The  March  of  the  Peasants. 

A.  Peter  the  Hermit  and  Walter  the  Penniless.  (March- August, 
1096.) 

{Albert.)  There  was  a  priest,  Peter  by  name,  formerly  a  her- 
mit. He  was  born  in  the  city  of  Amiens,  which  is  in  the  western 
part  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Franks,  and  he  was  appointed  preacher 
in  Berri  in  the  aforesaid  kingdom.  In  every  admonition  and  ser- 
mon, with  all  the  persuasion  of  which  he  was  capable,  he  urged 
setting  out  on  the  journey  as  soon  as  possible.  In  response  to  his 
constant  admonition  and  call,  bishops,  abbots,  clerics,  and  monks  set 
out ;  next,  most  noble  laymen,  and  princes  of  the  different  kingdoms ; 
then,  all  the  common  people,  the  chaste  as  well  as  the  sinful,  adul- 
terers, homicides,  thieves,  perjurers,  and  robbers;  indeed,  every 
class  of  the  Christian  profession,  nay,  also,  women  and  those  in- 
fluenced by  the  spirit  of  penance — all  joyfully  entered  upon  this 
expedition.    .    .    . 

In  the  year  of  the  Incarnation  of  the  Lord,  1096,  in  the  fourth 
Indiction,  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  the  reigon  of  Henry  IV,  third 
august  Emperor  of  the  Romans,  and  in  the  forty-third  year  of  the 
Empire,  in  the  reign  of  Pope  Urban  II,  formerly  Odoard,  on  the 
eighth  day  of  March,  Walter,  surnamed  the  Penniless,  a  well- 
known  soldier,  set  out,  as  a  result  of  the  preaching  of  Peter  the 
Hermit,  with  a  great  company  of  Prankish  foot-soldiers  and  only 
about  eight  knights.  On  the  beginning  of  the  journey  to  Jerusalem 
he  entered  into  the  kingdom  of  Hungary.  When  his  intention,  and 
the  reason  for  his  taking  this  journey  became  known  to  Lord  Colo- 
man,^  most  Christian  king  of  Hungary,  he  was  kindly  received  and 
was  given  peaceful  transit  across  the  entire  realm,  with  permission 
to  trade.  And  so  without  giving  offence,  and  without  being  at- 
tacked, he  set  out  even  to  Belgrade,  a  Bulgarian  city,  passing  over 
to  Malevilla,  where  the  realm  of  the  king  of  Hungary  ends.  Thence 
he  peacefully  crossed  the  Morava  river. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  49 

But  sixteen  of  Walter's  company  remained  in  Malevilla,  that  they 
might  purchase  arms.  Of  this  Waker  was  ignorant,  for  he  had 
crossed  long  before.  Then  some  of  the  Hungarians  of  perverse 
minds,  seeing  the  absence  of  Walter  and  his  army,  laid  hands  upon 
those  sixteen  and  robbed  them  of  arms,  garments,  gold  and  silver  and 
so  let  them  depart,  naked  and  eii^pty-handed.  Then  these  distressed 
pilgrims,  deprived  of  arms  and  other  things,  hastened  on  their  way 
to  Belgrade,  which  has  been  mentioned  before,  where  Walter  with 
all  his  band  had  pitched  tents  for  camp.  They  reported  to  him  the 
misfortune  which  had  befallen  them,  but  Walter  heard  this  with 
equanimity,  because  it  would  take  too  long  to  return  for  vengeance. 

On  the  very  night  when  those  comrades,  naked  and  empty-handed, 
were  received,  Walter  sought  to  buy  the  necessaries  of  Hfe  from 
a  chief  of  the  Bulgarians  and  the  magistrate  of  the  city;  but  these 
men,  thinking  it  a  pretense,  and  regarding  them  as  spies,'  forbade 
the  sale  of  any  thing  to  them.  Wherefore,  Walter  and  his  com- 
panions, greatly  angered,  began  forcibly  to  seize  and  lead  away  the 
herds  of  cattle  and  sheep,  which  were  wandering  here  and  there 
through  the  fields  in  search  of  pasture.  As  a  result,  a  serious  strife 
arose  between  the  Bulgarians  and  the  pilgrims  who  were  driving 
away  the  flocks,  and  they  came  to  blows.  However,  while  the 
strength  of  the  Bulgarians  was  growing  even  to  one  hundred  and 
forty,  some  of  the  pilgrim  army,  cut  off  from  the  multitude  of 
their  companions,  arrived  in  flight  at  a  chapel.  But  the  Bulgarians, 
their  army  growing  in  number,  while  the  band  of  Walter  was  weak- 
ening and  his  entire  company  scattered,  besieged  the  chapel  and 
burned  sixty  who  were  within ;  on  most  of  the  others,  who  escaped 
from  the  enemy  and  the  chapel  in  defense  of  their  lives,  the  Bul- 
garians inflicted  grave  wounds. 

After  this  calamity  and  the  loss  of  his  people,  and  after  he  had 
passed  eight  days  as  a  fugitive  in  the  forests  of  Bulgaria,  Walter, 
leaving  his  men  scattered  everywhere,  withdrew  to  Nish,  a  very 
wealthy  city  in  the  midst  of  the  Bulgarian  realm.  There  he  found 
the  duke  and  prince  of  the  land  and  reported  to  him  the  injury 
and  damage  which  had  been  done  him.  From  the  duke  he  obtained 
justice  for  all;  nay,  more,  in  reconciliation  the  duke  bestowed  upon 
him  arms  and  money,  and  the  same  lord  of  the  land  gave  him 
peaceful  conduct  through  the  cities  of  Bulgaria,  Sofia,  PhiHppopolis, 
and  Adrianople,  and  also  license  to  trade. 

He  went  down  with  all  his  band,  even  to  the  imperial  city,  Con- 
stantinople, which  is  the  capital  of  the  entire  Greek  empire.  And 
when  he  arrived  there,  with  all  possible  earnestness  and  most  hum- 
ble petition  he  implored  from  the  Lord  Emperor  himself  permission 


50  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

to  delay  peacefully  in  his  kingdom,  with  license  to  buy  the  neces- 
saries of  life,  until  he  should  have  as  his  companion  Peter  the 
Hermit,  upon  whose  admonition  and  persuasion  he  had  begun  this 
journey.  And  he  also  begged  that,  when  the  troops  were  united, 
they  might  cross  in  ships  over  the  arm  of  the  sea  called  the  Strait 
of  St.  George,  and  thus  they  would  be  able  to  resist  more  safely 
the  squadrons  of  the  Turks  and  the  Gentiles.  The  outcome  was 
that  the  requests  made  of  the  Lord  Emperor,  Alexius  by  name, 
were  granted. 

Not  long  after  these  events,  Peter  and  his  large  army,  innumer- 
able as  the  sands  of  the  sea — an  army  which  he  had  brought  to- 
gether from  the  various  realms  of  the  nations  of  the  Franks,  Swa- 
bians,  Bavarians,  and  Lotharingians — were  making  their  way  to 
Jerusalem.  Descending  on  that  march  into  the  kingdom  of  Hun- 
gary, he  and  his  army  pitched  their  tents  before  the  gate  of  Oeden- 
burg.  .  .  . 

Peter  heard  this  report  and,  because  the  Hungarians  and  Bul- 
garians were  fellow  Christians,  absolutely  refused  to  believe  so 
great  crime  of  them,  until  his  men,  coming  to  Mdevilla,  saw  hang- 
ing from  the  walls  the  arms  and  spoils  of  the  sixteen  companions 
of  Walter  who  had  stayed  behind  a  short  time  before,  and  whom 
the  Hungarians  had  treacherously  presumed  to  rob.  But  when  Peter 
recognized  the  injury  to  his  brethren,  at  the  sight  of  their  arms  and 
spoils,  he  urged  his  companions  to  avenge  their  wrongs. 

These  sounded  the  trumpet  loudly,  and  with  upraised  banners 
they  rushed  to  the  walls  and  attacked  the  enemy  with  a  hail  of 
arrows.  In  such  quick  succession  and  in  such  incredible  numbers 
did  they  hurl  them  in  the  face  of  those  standing  on  the  walls  that 
the  Hungarians,  in  no  wise  able  to  resist  the  force  of  the  besieging 
Franks,  left  the  walls,  hoping  that  within  the  city  they  might  be  able 
to  withstand  the  strength  of  the  Gauls.  Godfrey,  surnamed  Burel — 
a  native  of  the  city  Etampes,  master  and  standard-bearer  of  two 
hundred  foot-soldiers,  himself  a  foot-soldier,  and  a  man  of  great 
strength — seeing  the  flight  of  the  Hungarians  away  from  the  walls, 
then  quickly  crossed  over  the  walls  by  means  of  a  ladder  he  chanced 
to  find  there.  Reinald  of  Broyes,  a  distinguished  knight,  clad  in 
helmet  and  coat  of  mail,  ascended  just  after  Godfrey;  soon  all  th» 
knights,  as  well  as  the  foot-soldiers,  hastened  to  enter  the  city.  The 
Hungarians,  seeing  their  own  imminent  peril,  gathered  seven  thou- 
sand strong  for  defense;  and,  having  passed  out  through  another 
gate  which  looked  toward  the  east,  they  stationed  themselves  on  the 
summit  of  a  lofty  crag,  beyond  which  flowed  the  Danube,  where 
they  were  invincibly  fortified.     A  very  large  part  of  these  were 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  51 

unable  to  escape  quickly  through  the  narrow  passage,  and  they  fell 
before  the  gate.  Some  who  hoped  to  find  refuge  on  the  top  of 
the  mountain  were  cut  down  by  the  pursuing  pilgrims ;  still  others, 
thrown  headlong  from  the  summit  of  the  mountain,  were  buried 
in  the  waves  of  the  Danube,  but  many  escaped  by  boat.  About 
four  thousand  Hungarians  fell  there,  but  only  a  hundred  pilgrims, 
not  counting  the  wounded,  were  killed  at  that  same  place. 

This  victory  won,  Peter  remained  with  all  his  followers  in  the 
same  citadel  five  days,  for  he  found  there  an  abundance  of  grain, 
flocks  of  sheep,  herds  of  cattle,  a  plentiful  supply  of  wine,  and  an 
infinite  number  of  horses.  .  .  . 

When  Peter  learned  of  the  wrath  of  the  King  and  his  very  form- 
idable gathering  of  troops,  he  deserted  Malevilla  with  all  his  follow- 
ers and  planned  to  cross  the  Morava  with  all  spoils  and  flocks  and 
herds  of  horses.  But  on  the  whole  bank  he  found  very  few  boats, 
only  one  hundred  and  fifty,  in  which  the  great  multitude  must  pass 
quickly  over  and  escape,  lest  the  King  should  overtake  them  with 
a  great  force.  Hence  many  who  were  unable  to  cross  in  boats  tried 
to  cross  on  rafts  made  by  fastening  poles  together  with  twigs.  But 
driven  hither  and  thither  in  these  rafts  without  rudders,  and  at 
times  separated  from  their  companions,  many  perished,  pierced  with 
arrows  from  the  bows  of  the  Patzinaks,  who  inhabited  Bulgaria. 
As  Peter  saw  the  drowning  and  destruction  which  was  befalling  his 
men,  he  commanded  the  Bavarians,  the  Alemanni,  and  the  other 
Teutons,  by  their  promise  of  obedience  to  come  to  the  aid  of  their 
Prankish  brethren.  They  were  carried  to  that  place  by  seven  rafts ; 
then  they  sank  seven  small  boats  of  the  Patzinaks  with  their  oc- 
cupants, but  took  only  seven  men  captive.  They  led  these  seven 
captives  into  the  presence  of  Peter  and  killed  them  by  his  order. 

When  he  had  thus  avenged  his  men,  Peter  crossed  the  Morava 
river  and  entered  the  large  and  spacious  forests  of  the  Bulgarians 
with  supplies  of  food,  with  every  necessary,  and  with  the  spoils 
from  Belgrade.  And  after  a  delay  of  eight  days  in  those  vast 
woods  and  pastures,  he  and  his  followers  approached  Nish,  a  city 
very  strongly  fortified  with  walls.  After  crossing  the  river  before 
the  city  by  a  stone  bridge,  they  occupied  the  field,  pleasing  in  its 
verdure  and  extent,  and  pitched  their  tents  on  the  banks  of  the  river. 

Peter,  obedient  to  the  mandate  of  the  Emperor,  advanced  from 
the  city  of  Sofia  and  withdrew  with  all  his  people  to  the  city  Philip- 
popolis.  When  he  had  related  the  entire  story  of  his  misfortune 
in  the  hearing  of  all  the  Greek  citizens,  he  received,  in  the  name  of 
Jesus  and  in  fear  of  God,  very  many  gifts  for  him.    Next,  the  third 


S2  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

day  after,  he  withdrew  to  Adrianopole,  cheerful  and  joyful  in  the 
abundance  of  all  necessaries.  There  he  tarried  in  camp  outside  the 
walls  of  the  city  only  two  days,  and  then  withdrew  after  sunrise  on 
the  third  day.  A  second  message  of  the  Emperor  was  urging  him  to 
hasten  his  march  to  Constantinople,  for,  on  account  of  the  reports 
about  him,  the  Emperor  was  burning  with  desire  to  see  this  same 
Peter.  When  they  had  come  to  Constantinople,  the  army  of  Peter 
was  ordered  to  encamp  at  a  distance  from  the  city,  and  license  to 
trade  was  fully  granted.  .  .  . 

B.  Folcmar  and  Gottschalk.     (May- July,  1096.) 

{Albert.)  Not  long  after  the  passage  of  Peter,  a  certain  priest, 
Gottschalk  by  name,  a  Teuton  in  race,  an  inhabitant  of  the  Rhine 
country,  inflamed  by  the  preaching  of  Peter  with  a  love  and  a  desire 
for  that  same  journey  to  Jerusalem,  by  his  own  preachings  like- 
wise stirred  the  hearts  of  very  many  peoples  of  diverse  nations  to 
go  on  that  journey.  He  assembled  from  the  various  regions  of 
Lorraine,  eastern  France,  Bavaria,  and  Alemannia,  more  than  fif- 
teen thousand  persons  of  military  station,  as  well  as  ordinary  foot- 
soldiers,  who,  having  collected  an  inexpressible  amount  of  money, 
together  with  other  necessaries,  are  said  to  have  continued  on  their 
way  peacefully,  even  to  the  kingdom  of  Hungary. 

When  they  arrived  at  the  gate  of  Wieselhurg  and  its  fortress, 
they  were  honorably  received  by  the  favor  of  King  Coloman.  They 
were  likewise  granted  permission  to  buy  the  necessaries  of  life,  and 
peace  was  commanded  on  both  sides  by  an  order  of  the  King,  lest 
any  outbreak  should  arise  from  so  large  an  army.  But  as  they 
delayed  there  for  several  days,  they  began  to  roam  about,  and 
the  Bavarians  and  Swabians,  spirited  peoples,  together  with  other 
thoughtless  persons,  drank  beyond  measure  and  violated  the  peace 
which  had  been  commanded.  Little  by  little  they  took  away  from 
the  Hungarians  wine,  grain,  and  all  other  necessaries;  finally,  they 
devastated  the  fields,  killing  sheep  and  cattle,  and  also  destroying 
those  who  resisted,  or  who  wished  to  drive  them  out.  Like  a  rough 
people,  rude  in  manners,  undisciplined  and  haughty,  they  commit- 
ted very  many  other  crimes,  all  of  which  we  cannot  relate.  As 
some  who  were  present  say,  they  transfixed  a  certain  Hungarian 
youth  in  the  market  place  with  a  stake  through  his  body.  Com- 
plaints of  this  matter  and  of  other  wrongs  were  brought  to  the 
ears  of  the  King  and  their  own  leaders.  .  .  . 

When  Gottschalk  and  the  other  sensible  men  heard  this,  they 
trusted  with  pure  faith  in  these  words,  and  also  because  the  Hun- 
garians were  of  the  Christian  profession,  they  counselled  the  entire 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  53 

assembly  to  give  their  arms  in  satisfaction  to  the  King,  according  to 
this  command.    Thus  everything  would  return  to  peace  and  concord. 

And  yet,  when  all  their  arms  had  been  placed  under  lock  and 
key,  the  Hungarians  proved  false  regarding*  all  the  faith  and 
clemency  which  they  had  promised  that  the  King  would  show  to 
the  people;  nay,  rather  they  fell  upon  them  with  cruel  slaughter, 
cut  down  the  defenceless  and  unarmed  and  inflicted  upon  them 
frightful  slaughter,  to  such  an  extent  (as  those  affirm  for  a  truth 
who  were  present  and  barely  escaped)  that  the  entire  plain  of  Bel- 
grade was  filled  by  the  bodies  of  the  slain  and  was  covered  with 
their  blood.     Few  escaped  from  that  martyrdom. 

(Ekkehard.)  Now,  as  has  been  said,  a  band  followed  Folcmar 
through  Bohemia.  At  the  city  of  Neitra,  in  Pannonia,  an  uprising 
took  place,  in  which  a  part  were  killed,  and  a  part  were  taken 
prisoners,  while  the  very  few  survivors  are  wont  to  testify  that  the 
sign  of  the  cross,  appearing  in  the  heavens  above  them,  delivered 
them  from  imminent  death. 

Then  Gottschalk,  not  a  true,  but  a  false  servant  of  God,  entered 
Hungary  with  his  followers,  and  that  not  without  injury  to  East 
Noricum.  Next,  under  an  astonishing  glamour  of  false  piety,  he 
fortified  a  certain  town  situated  on  a  height  and  placed  a  garrison 
there  and  began,  with  the  rest  of  his  company,  to  ravage  Pannonia 
round  about.  This  town,  forsooth,  was  captured  by  the  natives 
without  delay,  and  great  numbers  of  the  band  having  been  killed 
or  taken  prisoners,  the  rest  were  dispersed,  and  he  himself,  a  hire- 
ling, not  the  shepherd  of  the  flock,  was  driven  away  from  there  in 
disgrace. 

C.  Emico.     (May- August,  1096.) 

(Ekkehard.)  Just  at  that  time,  there  appeared  a  certain  soldier, 
Emico,  Count  of  the  lands  around  the  Rhine,  a  man  long  of  very 
ill  repute  on  account  of  his  tyrannical  mode  of  life.  Called  by 
divine  revelation,  like  another  Saul,  as  he  maintained,  to  the  prac- 
tice of  religion  of  this  kind,  he  usurped  to  himself  the  command 
of  almost  twelve  thousand  cross  bearers.  As  they  were  led  through 
the  cities  of  the  Rhine  and  the  Main  and  also  the  Danube,  they  either 
utterly  destroyed  the  execrable  race  of  the  Jews  wherever  they 
found  them  (being  even  in  this  matter  zealously  devoted  to  the 
Christian  religion)  or  forced  them  into  the  bosom  of  the  Church. 
When  their  forces,  already  increased  by  a  great  number  of  men  and 
women,  reached  the  boundary  of  Pannonia,  they  were  prevented  by 
well  fortified  garrisons  from  entering  that  kingdom,  which  is  sur- 


54  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

rounded  partly  by  swamps  and  partly  by  woods.  For  rumor  had 
reached  and  forewarned  the  ears  of  King  Coloman;  a  rumor  that, 
to  the  minds  of  the  Teutons,  there  was  no  difference  between  kill- 
ing pagans  and  Hungarians.  And  so,  for  six  weeks  they  besieged 
the  fortress  Wieselhurg  and  suffered  many  hardships  there;  yet, 
during  this  very  time,  they  were  in  the  throes  of  a  most  foolish 
civil  quarrel  over  which  one  of  them  should  be  King  of  Pannonia. 
Moreover,  while  engaged  in  the  final  assault,  although  the  walls 
had  already  been  broken  through,  and  the  citizens  were  fleeing,  and 
the  army  of  the  besieged  were  setting  fire  to  their  own  town,  yet, 
through  the  wonderful  providence  of  Almighty  God,  the  army  of 
pilgrims,  though  victorious,  fled.  And  they  left  behind  them  all 
their  equipment,  for  no  one  carried  away  any  reward  except  his 
wretched  Hfe. 

And  thus  the  men  of  our  race,  zealous,  doubtless,  for  God,  though 
not  according  to  the  knowledge  of  God,  began  to  persecute  other 
Christians  while  yet  upon  the  expedition  which  Christ  had  pro- 
vided for  freeing  Christians.  They  were  kept  from  fraternal  blood- 
shed only  by  divine  mercy ;  and  the  Hungarians,  also,  were  freed. 
This  is  the  reason  why  some  of  the  more  guileless  brethren,  igno- 
rant of  the  matter,  and  too  hasty  in  their  judgment,  were  scandal- 
ized and  concluded  that  the  whole  expedition  was  vain  and 
fooHsh.  .  .  . 

{Albert.)  At  the  beginning  of  summer  in  the  same  year  in  which 
Peter  and  Gottschalk,  after  collecting  an  army,  had  set  out,  there 
assembled  in  like  fashion  a  large  and  innumerable  host  of  Chris- 
tians from  diverse  kingdoms  and  lands;  namely,  from  the  realms 
of  France,  England,  Flanders,  and  Lorraine.  ...  I  know  not 
whether  by  a  judgment  of  the  Lord,  or  by  some  error  of  mind, 
they  rose  in  a  spirit  of  cruelty  against  the  Jewish  people  scattered 
throughout  these  cities  and  slaughtered  them  without  mercy,  espe- 
cially in  the  Kingdom  of  Lorraine,  asserting  it  to  be  the  beginning 
of  their  expedition  and  their  duty  against  the  enemies  of  the  Chris- 
tian faith.  This  slaughter  of  Jews  was  done  first  by  citizens  of 
Cologne.  These  suddenly  fell  upon  a  small  band  of  Jews  and 
severely  wounded  and  killed  many;  they  destroyed  the  houses  and 
synagogues  of  the  Jews  and  divided  among  themselves  a  very  large 
amount  of  money.  When  the  Jews  saw  this  cruelty,  about  two  hun- 
dred in  the  silence  of  the  night  began  flight  by  boat  to  Neuss.  The 
pilgrims  and  crusaders  discovered  them,  and  after  taking  away  all 
their  possessions,  inflicted  on  them  similar  slaughter,  leaving  not 
even  one  alive. 

Not  long  after  this,  they  started  upon  their  journey,  as  they  had 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  55 

vowed,  and  arrived  in  a  great  multitude  at  the  city  of  Mainz.  There 
Count  Emico,  a  nobleman,  a  very  mighty  man  in  this  region,  was 
awaiting,  with  a  large  band  of  Teutons,  the  arrival  of  the  pilgrims 
who  were  coming  thither  from  diverse  lands  by  the  King's  highway. 

The  Jews  of  this  city,  knowing  of  the  slaughter  of  their  breth- 
ren, and  that  they  themselves  could  not  escape  the  hands  of  so 
many,  fled  in  hope  of  safety  to  Bishop  Rothard.  They  put  an  in- 
finite treasure  in  his  guard  and  trust,  having  much  faith  in  his  pro- 
tection, because  he  was  Bishop  of  the  city.  Then  that  excellent 
Bishop  of  the  city  cautiously  set  aside  the  incredible  amount  of 
money  received  from  them.  He  placed  the  Jews  in  the  very  spa- 
cious hall  of  his  own  house,  away  from  the  sight  of  Count  Emico 
and  his  followers,  that  they  might  remain  safe  and  sound  in  a  very 
secure  and  strong  place. 

But  Emico  and  the  rest  of  his  band  held  a  council  and,  after 
sunrise,  attacked  the  Jews  in  the  hall  with  arrows  and  lances. 
Breaking  the  bolts  and  doors,  they  killed  the  Jews,  about  seven  hun- 
dred in  number,  who  in  vain  resisted  the  force  and  attack  of  so 
many  thousands.  They  killed  the  women,  also,  and  with  their 
swords  pierced  tender  children  of  whatever  age  and  sex.  The 
Jews,  seeing  that  their  Christian  enemies  were  attacking  them  and 
their  children,  and  that  they  were  sparing  no  age,  likewise  fell  upon 
one  another,  brother,  children,  wives,  and  sisters,  and  thus  they 
perished  at  each  other's  hands.  Horrible  to  say,  mothers  cut  the 
throats  of  nursing  children  with  knives  and  stabbed  others,  prefer- 
ring them  to  perish  thus  by  their  own  hands  rather  than  to  be  killed 
by  the  weapons  of  the  uncircumcised. 

From  this  cruel  slaughter  of  the  Jews  a  few  escaped ;  and  a  few 
because  of  fear,  rather  than  because  of  love  of  the  Christian  faith, 
were  baptized.  With  very  great  spoils  taken  from  these  people, 
Count  Emico,  Clarebold,  Thomas,  and  all  that  intolerable  company 
of  men  and  women  then  continued  on  their  way  to  Jerusalem,  di- 
recting their  course  towards  the  Kingdom  of  Hungary,  where  pas- 
sage along  the  royal  highway  was  usually  not  denied  the  pilgrims. 
But  on  arriving  at  Wieselhurg,  the  fortress  of  the  King,  which  the 
rivers  Danube  and  Leytha  protect  with  marshes,  the  bridge  and 
gate  of  the  fortress  were  found  closed  by  command  of  the  King 
of  Hungary,  for  great  fear  had  entered  all  the  Hungarians  because 
of  the  slaughter  which  had  happened  to  their  brethren.   .    .    . 

But  while  almost  everything  had  turned  out  favorably  for  the 
Christians,  and  while  they  had  penetrated  the  walls  with  great 
openings,  by  some  chance  or  misfortune,  I  know  not  what,  such 
great  fear  entered  the  whole  army  that  they  turned  in  flight,  just 


56  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

as  sheep  are  scattered  and  alarmed  when  wolves  rush  upon  them. 
And  seeking  a  refuge  here  and  there,  they  forgot  their  companions. 

Emico  and  some  of  his  followers  continued  in  their  flight  along 
the  way  by  which  they  had  come.  Thomas,  Clarebold,  and  several  of 
their  men  escaped  in  flight  toward  Carinthia  and  Italy.  So  the 
hand  of  the  Lord  is  believed  to  l^ave  been  against  the  pilgrims,  who 
had  sinned  by  excessive  impurity  and  fornication,  and  who  had 
slaughtered  the  exiled  Jews  through  greed  of  money,  rather  than 
for  the  sake  of  God's  justice,  although  the  Jews  were  opposed  to 
Christ.  The  Lord  is  a  just  judge  and  orders  no  one  unwilHngly, 
or  under  compulsion,  to  come  under  the  yoke  of  the  Catholic  faith. 

There  was  another  detestable  crime  in  this  assemblage  of  way- 
faring people,  who  were  foolish  and  insanely  fickle.  That  the  crime 
was  hateful  to  the  Lord  and  incredible  to  the  faithful  is  not  to  be 
doubted.  They  asserted  that  a  certain  goose  was  inspired  by  the 
Holy  Spirit,  and  that  a  she-goat  was  not  less  filled  by  the  same 
Spirit.  These  they  made  their  guides  on  this  holy  journey  to  Jeru- 
salem; these  they  worshipped  excessively;  and  most  of  the  people 
following  them,  like  beasts,  believed  with  their  whole  minds  that 
this  was  the  true  course.  May  the  hearts  of  the  faithful  be  free 
from  the  thought  that  the  Lord  Jesus  wished  the  Sepulchre  of  His 
most  sacred  body  to  be  visited  by  brutish  and  insensate  animals,  or 
that  He  wished  these  to  become  the  guides  of  Christian  souls, 
which  by  the  price  of  His  own  blood  He  deigned  to  redeem  from 
the  filth  of  idols !  .  .  . 

3.  The  Main  Body. 
A.  Composition. 

(Fulcher.)  It  is  fitting  to  keep  in  mind  the  names  of  the  leaders 
of  the  Crusades.  Hugh  the  Great,^  brother  of  the  King  of  France, 
was  the  first  hero  to  cross  the  sea.  He  landed  with  his  force  at 
Durazzo,  a  city  in  Bulgaria;  but  imprudently  venturing  forth  with 
too  small  an  army,  he  was  there  captured  by  the  inhabitants  and 
taken  to  the  Emperor  of  Constantinople,  where  he  was  kept  for  1 
long  time,  not  altogether  free.  After  him,  Bohemund  of  Apulia,® 
son  of  Robert  Guiscard  of  Norman  extraction,  journeyed  with  his 
army  over  the  same  route;  next,  Godfrey,  Duke  of  Lorraine,^  passed 
with  a  great  force  through  Hungary.  Raymond,^®  Count  of  Prov- 
ence, with  Goths  and  Gascons,  and  also  with  Adhemar,  Bishop  of 
Puy,  crossed  through  Dalmatia.  Peter  the  Hermit,  gathering  to 
himself  a  crowd  of  foot-soldiers,  but  few  knights,  first  passed 
through  Hungary;  afterwards  the  satrap  of  this  horde  was  Walter 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  ^  57 

the  Penniless,  who,  together  with  many  of  his  good  soldiers,  was 
killed  by  the  Turks  between  the  cities  of  Nicomedia  and  Nicaea. 
Then  in  the  month  of  October,  Robert,  Count  of  Normandy ,^^  and 
son  of  William,  King  of  England,  started  out,  after  having  gathered 
a  large  army  of  Normans,  Angles^^  and  Bretons.  With  him  went 
Stephen,  Count  of  Blois,^^  his  brother-in-law,  and  Robert,  Count 
of  Flanders,^*  together  with  many  other  nobles.  Therefore,  since 
such  a  multitude  came  from  all  Western  countries,  little  by  little, 
and  day  by  day,  the  army  increased  to  such  a  very  great  number 
that,  when  finally  convened,  it  formed  an  infinite  host  from  many 
regions  and  of  many  tongues.  However,  they  did  not  unite  into 
a  single  army  until  we  arrived  at  Nicaea. 

(Gesta.)  Soon  they  departed  from  their  homes  in  Gaul,  and  then 
formed  three  groups.  One  party  of  Franks,  namely,  Peter,  the  Her- 
mit, Duke  Godfrey,  Baldwin,  his  brother,^®  and  Baldwin,  Count  of 
the  Mount,^^  entered  the  region  of  Hungary.  These  most  powerful 
knights,  and  many  others  whom  I  do  not  know,  went  by  the  way 
which  Charles  the  Great,  wonder-working  king  of  France,  long 
ago  had    made,  even  to  Constantinople.     .     .     . 

The  second  party — to  wit,  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  and  the 
Bishop  of  Puy — entered  the  region  of  Slavonia.  The  third  division, 
however,  went  by  the  ancient  road  to  Rome.  In  this  division  were 
Bohemund,  Richard  of  Principati,  Robert,  Count  of  Flanders,  Rob- 
ert the  Norman,  Hugh  the  Great,  Everard  of  Puiset,  Achard  of 
Montmerle,  Ysoard  of  Mousson,  and  many  others.  Next,  they  went 
to  the  port  of  Brindisi,  or  Bari,  or  Otranto.  Then  Hugh  the  Great, 
and  William,  son  of  Marchisus,  took  to  the  sea  at  the  port  of  Bari 
and,  crossing  the  strait,  came  to  Durazzo.  But  the  governor  of 
thie  place,  his  heart  touched  with  evil  design,  took  these  most  re- 
nowned men  captive  immediately  upon  hearing  that  they  had  landed 
there  and  ordered  them  to  be  conducted  carefully  to  the  Emperor  at 
Constantinople,  where  they  should  pledge  loyalty  to  him. 

B.  Godfrey's  march  to  Constantinople.     (August   15    (?) -Decem- 
ber 23,  1096.) 

(Albert.)  After  the  departure  of  Peter  the  Hermit  and  the  most 
dire  destruction  of  his  army;  after  the  killing  of  the  distinguished 
soldier  Walter  the  Penniless,  and  the  grievous  disaster  to  his  army  ; 
shortly  after  the  cruel  slaughter  of  the  priest,  Gottschalk,  and  of 
his  army ;  after  the  misfortune  of  Hartmann,  Count  of  Alemannia, 
of  Emico,  and  all  the  other  brave  men  and  leaders  from  the  land 
of  Gaul  (to  wit,  Drogo  of  Nesle  and  Clarebold  of  Vendeuil)  ;  and 
after  the  cruel  destruction  of  the  army  of  Clarebold  at  the  gate  of 


58  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Wieselburg  in  the  Kingdom  of  Hungary — after  all  these  things,  the 
very  noble  Godfrey,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  and  his  brother  Baldwin, 
Werner  of  Grez,  a  kinsman  of  the  Duke,  and  Baldwin  of  Burg, 
likewise  a  kinsman,  Reinard,  Count  of  Toul,  and  Peter  his  brother. 
Dodo  of  Cons,  Henry  of  Ascha,  and  his  brother,  Godfrey,  set  out,^^ 
in  the  same  year,  in  the  middle  of  the  month  of  August.  While 
making  a  journey  in  direct  march  to  Jerusalem,  they  halted  in  their 
course  near  Tollenburg  in  the  realm  of  Austria,  where  the  Leytha 
terminates  the  kingdom  of  Gaul  ^^  and  separates  it  from  the  Austrian 
realm.  They  remained  there  three  weeks  in  the  month  of  Septem- 
ber, to  hear  and  to  understand  why  sedition  had  arisen;  why  the 
army  had  perished  a  few  days  before;  why  those  whom  they  met 
returning  in  despair  had  been  turned  from  their  purpose  of  going 
to  Jerusalem  with  their  chiefs  and  leaders. 

Finally,  after  hearing  very  many  evil  rumors,  they  discussed  what 
should  first  be  done  to  investigate  the  cruel  attack  which  the  Hun- 
garians had  made  against  their  fellow  Christians;  and  with  what 
circumspection  and  deliberation  the  investigation  should  be  made. 
After  having  considered  the  matter  at  length,  it  seemed  to  all  d 
practical  plan  to  send  from  those  celebrated  leaders  only  Godfrey 
of  Ascha  to  investigate  so  wicked  and  criminal  a  slaughter.  (They 
decided  thus)  because  he  was  known  to  Coloman,  King  of  Hun- 
gary, having  been  sent  some  time  before  as  ambassador  of  Duke 
Godfrey  to  this  same  king.  They  sent  with  him  twelve  others 
chosen  from  the  retinue  of  the  Duke — ^Baldwin,  Stahelo,  it  is  said, 
and  others  whose  names  are  unknown.  .  .  . 

The  King  struck  a  treaty  with  Duke  Godfrey,  and  all  the  chiefs 
of  his  kingdom  were  bound  by  oath  not  to  do  harm  to  the  pilgrims 
who  were  to  pass  that  way.  When,  therefore,  these  agreements  had 
been  confirmed  on  both  sides,  the  King,  upon  the  advice  of  his  men, 
demanded  as  hostages,  Baldwin,  the  brother  of  the  Duke,  his  wife 
and  family.  This  the  Duke  agreed  to  fulfil  without  dispute.  After 
eight  days,  the  embassy  was  dismissed,  and  the  Duke  ordered  the 
army  to  hasten  to  the  fortress  Oedenburg,  and  to  pitch  their  tents 
on  the  banks  of  the  river  near  the  marshes.  .  .  .  Finally,  Baldwin, 
having  put  aside  all  doubt,  consented  to  become  a  hostage  and  to 
be  taken  into  exile  for  the  safety  of  his  brethren. 

And  thus,  when  so  distinguished  a  leader  had  become  a  hostage, 
and  when  the  King  had  returned  with  him  to  Pannonia,  the  entire 
army,  by  order  and  permission  of  the  King,  was  led  over  the  bridge 
across  the  marsh,  and  camp  was  pitched  near  the  river  Leytha.  Then, 
after  camp  was  pitched,  and  after  all  were  settled  at  rest,  Duke 
Godfrey  appointed  heralds  to  announce  to  each  house  and  tent  that. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  59 

under  sentence  of  death,  they  should  neither  touch  nor  take  by  force 
anything  in  the  Kingdom  of  Hungary,  and  should  stir  up  no  quar- 
rel, but  that  everything  should  be  exchanged  for  a  just  price.  Simi- 
larly, the  King  commanded  that  it  be  proclaimed  throughout  his 
realm  that  the  army  was  to  obtain  every  abundance  of  necessary 
things,  bread,  wine,  corn,  oil,  beasts  of  the  field,  and  flying  creatures 
of  the  sky;  and  he  commanded,  under  penalty  of  life,  that  the 
Hungarians  should  not  burden  and  enrage  the  army  by  unjust  sell- 
ing, but,  rather,  should  make  all  buying  easy  for  them. 

And  so,  day  by  day,  in  quiet  and  in  peace,  with  full  measure  and 
just  sale,  the  Duke  and  his  people  crossed  the  Kingdom  of  Hungary 
and  arrived  at  the  river  Drave.  A  heap  of  wood  was  gathered  and 
a  large  raft  was  made,  on  which  they  crossed  the  river.  Without 
delay  the  King,  coming  from  the  left  with  a  very  powerful  band  of 
horsemen,  together  with  Baldwin  and  all  the  other  hostages,  ar- 
rived at  that  place  which  is  called  Francavilla}^  There  they  re- 
mained three  days,  purchasing  the  necessaries  of  life  of  which  the 
army  was  in  need.  Then  they  all  went  to  Malevilla  and  spent  five 
days  near  the  Save. 

There  it  became  known  to  the  Duke  and  to  the  other  leaders  of 
the  army  that  an  intolerable  force  of  the  Emperor  of  Constantinople 
was  present  to  prohibit  the  passage  of  the  pilgrims  through  the 
Kingdom  of  Bulgaria.  The  Duke,  therefore,  and  all  the  leaders 
entered  upon  a  plan  to  send  a  part  of  the  army  across  the  river  to 
drive  back  the  hostile  soldiers  of  the  Emperor,  while  the  people 
were  crossing  the  river.  Not  more  than  three  boats  were  found 
there.  In  these  a  thousand  knights  in  armour  were  carried  across 
to  take  possession  of  the  shore.  All  the  rest  of  the  multitude  gained 
the  other  bank  of  the  river  by  means  of  rafts  made  of  wood  and 
bound  together  by  twigs. 

Scarcely  had  the  people  and  their  chiefs  crossed  the  stream,  when, 
behold,  the  King  appeared  with  all  his  retinue,  and  Baldwin,  the 
brother  of  the  Duke,  his  wife,  and  all  the  hostages.  There  he  re- 
stored the  hostages  to  the  Duke.  Next,  after  very  affectionately 
favoring  the  Duke  and  his  brother  with  many  gifts  and  the  kiss  of 
peace,  he  returned  to  the  land  of  his  own  kingdom.  But  the  Duke 
and  all  his  army,  having  settled  on  the  opposite  bank,  passed  the 
night  in  the  hospitality  of  the  village  Belgrade  in  Bulgaria — a  city 
which  the  army  of  Peter  the  Hermit  had  plundered  and  burned  not 
long  before.  But  when  morning  came,  the  Duke  and  his  army 
arose  and  advanced  into  the  immense  and  indescribable  forests  in  the 
Kingdom  of  Bulgaria. 

There  legates  of  the  Emperor  met  them,  bearing  a  message  in 


6o  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

these  words:  "Alexius,  Emperor  of  Constantinople,  of  the  King- 
dom of  the  Greeks,  to  Duke  Godfrey  and  his  fellow  princes;  sin- 
cere affection.  I  ask,  most  Christian  Duke,  that  you  do  not  suffer 
your  people  to  plunder  or  to  lay  waste  my  lands  and  kingdom  which 
you  have  entered,  but  that  you  secure  the  privilege  of  buying.  By 
our  order  you  will  find  everything  in  abundance  for  buying  and 
selling."  Upon  hearing  this  message,  the  Duke  promised  to  obey  in 
all  things  the  mandate  of  the  Emperor.  Thereupon,  it  was  pro- 
claimed to  all  that  thereafter  they  should  touch  nothing  with  undue 
violence,  except  food  for  their  horses.  And  so,  peacefully  crossing 
over  at  the  request  of  the  Emperor,  they  arrived  at  his  fortress, 
Nish,  where  a  wonderful  abundance  of  food-stuff,  grain,  barley, 
wine,  and  oil,  and  very  much  game  were  brought  to  the  Duke  as  the 
gift  of  the  Emperor.  To  the  others  was  granted  the  privilege  of 
buying  and  selling.  There,  indeed,  for  four  days  they  were  re- 
freshed with  every  abundance  and  pleasure.  After  those  days,  the 
Duke  with  all  his  army  departed  to  Sofia,  where  he  was  supplied 
by  the  Emperor  with  gifts  no  less  rich.  Leaving  there  after  some 
days,  he  went  down  to  Philippopolis,  a  famous  city;  there  during 
eight  days  he  likewise  received  as  gifts  from  the  Emperor  every 
abundance  of  necessary  things. 

There  a  message  was  brought  to  him  that  the  Emperor  held  in 
chains  and  prison  Hugh  the  Great,  brother  of  the  King  of  France, 
Drogo,  and  Clarebold.  When  he  had  heard  this,  the  Duke  sent  an 
embassy  to  the  Emperor,  demanding  that  the  Emperor  should  re- 
store to  liberty  those  princes  of  his  land  whom  he  was  holding 
captive;  otherwise,  he  himself  could  not  keep  faith  and  friendship 
with  the  Emperor.  When  Baldwin,  Count  of  Hainault,  and  Henry 
of  Ascha  found  out  that  an  embassy  was  to  be  sent  to  the  Emperor, 
they  anticipated  the  journey  to  Constantinople  by  going  out  at  day- 
break, without  the  knowledge  of  the  Duke,  in  order  that  by  pre- 
ceding the  legates  they  might  receive  greater  gifts  from  the  Em- 
peror. The  Duke,  hearing  this,  took  it  ill;  but,  conceaHng  his  wrath, 
he  set  out  to  Adrianople.  After  crossing  a  river  by  swimming  his 
horses,  he  pitched  his  tents  and  passed  the  night  there.  On  the 
next  day,  a  bridge  which  crosses  a  river  in  the  middle  of  the  city 
was  forbidden  to  him  and  his  followers  by  the  inhabitants.  Then 
arising  and  hastening  to  Salahria,  they  pitched  their  tents  in  pleas- 
ant meadows.  There  the  messengers  of  the  Duke,  who  had  re- 
turned from  the  Emperor,  reported  that  he  had  not  given  up  the 
captive  princes.  Thereupon  the  Duke  and  all  his  company  burned 
with  wrath;  and  they  refused  any  longer  to  keep  faith  and  treaty 
of  peace  with  him.     Immediately,  by  a  command  of  the  Duke,  all 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  6i 

that  land  was  given  over  in  plunder  to  the  alien  pilgrims  and 
knights,  who,  delaying  there  for  eight  days,  laid  waste  the  whole 
region. 

But  the  Emperor,  upon  learning  that  the  country  had  been  laid 
waste,  sent  to  the  Duke  Rudolph  Peeldelan  and  Rotger,  son  of 
Dagobert,  very  eloquent  men,  who  were  of  the  region  and  kinship 
of  the  Franks.  He  asked  that  the  army  should  cease  from  plunder- 
ing and  devastating  his  realm;  and  he  said  that  without  delay  he 
would  give  back  the  captives  whom  the  Duke  demanded.  Then  the 
Duke  was  pleased  with  the  message  of  the  Emperor;  and,  after  en- 
tering upon  a  plan  with  the  other  leaders,  he  moved  his  camp  and 
forbade  plunder. 

C.  March  of  the  West  Franks  into  Southern  Italy.     (Late  Septem- 
ber-November, 1096.) 

(Fulcher.)  Then  we  West  Franks  traversed  Gaul,  and,  travelling 
through  Italy,  came  to  Lucca,  a  far-famed  city.  Near  there  we  met 
Pope  Urban.  Robert  the  Norman,  and  Stephen,  Count  of  Blois, 
talked  with  him,  and  others  who  wished  likewise.  Having  received 
his  blessing,  we  joyfully  advanced  to  Rome.  And  when  we  had  en- 
tered the  church  of  St.  Peter,  we  found  before  the  altar  the  sup- 
porters of  Wibert,  that  pseudo-pope,  who,  sword  in  hand,  wickedly 
seized  the  offerings  placed  on  the  altar.  Others,  too,  ran  about  on 
the  roof  of  St.  Peter's  itself  and  threw  stones  down  where  we 
were  prostrate,  praying.  For  when  they  saw  any  one  faithful  to 
Urban,  they  straightway  wished  to  kill  him.  In  one  tower  of  the 
church  were  adherents  of  Pope  Urban,  who  were  guarding  it  well 
in  faithfulness  to  him  and,  as  far  as  they  could,  were  resisting  his 
adversaries.  We  grieved  much  to  see  such  an  outrage  committed  in 
that  place;  but  we  could  do  nothing  except  to  desire  that  it  be 
avenged  by  God.  Many  who  had  come  thus  far  with  us  waited  no 
longer,  but  at  once,  with  disgraceful  cowardice,  returned  to  their 
homes. 

We,  however,  travelling  through  the  center  of  Campagnia, 
reached  Bari,  a  rich  seaport  town.  There  we  addressed  our  sup- 
plications to  God  in  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas.  Then  coming  to 
port,  we  decided  to  cross  at  once.  But  because  we  lacked  seamen, 
and  because  fortune  might  play  us  false,  and  because,  furthermore, 
it  was  winter  time,  which  exposed  us  to  dangers,  Robert,  Count  of 
Normandy,  was  obliged  to  withdraw  into  Calabria;  and  there  he 
spent  the  whole  winter  season.  Robert,  Count  of  Flanders,  how- 
ever, with  his  followers  crossed  over.  Then  many  of  the  Cru- 
saders, abandoned  by  their  leaders,  and  fearing  future  want,  sold 


62  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

their  weapons  there  and,  taking  up  again  their  pilgrim's  staves, 
ignominiously  returned  to  their  homes.  This  desertion  debased 
them  before  God  and  man,  and  it  redounded  to  their  shame. 

D.  Bohemund's  march  to  Constantinople.  (October  26,  1096- April 
10,  1097.) 

(Gesta.)  But  Bohemund,  powerful  in  battle,  who  was  engaged 
in  the  siege  of  Amalfi  on  the  sea  of  Salerno,  heard  that  a  countless 
host  of  Christians  from  among  the  Franks  had  come  to  go  to  the 
Sepulchre  of  the  Lord,  and  that  they  were  prepared  for  battle 
against  the  pagan  horde.  He  then  began  to  inquire  closely  what 
fighting  arms  these  people  bore,  and  what  sign  of  Christ  they 
carried  on  the  way,  or  what  battle-cry  they  shouted.  The  following 
replies  were  made  to  him  in  order:  "They  bear  arms  suitable  for 
battle;  on  the  right  shoulder,  or  between  both  shoulders,  they  wear 
the  cross  of  Christ ;  the  cry,  'God  wills  it !  God  wills  it !  God  wills 
it!'  they  shout  in  truth  with  one  voice."  Moved  straighway  by  the 
Holy  Spirit,  he  ordered  the  most  precious  cloak  which  he  had  with 
him  cut  to  pieces,  and  straightway  he  had  the  whole  of  it  made  into 
crosses.  Thereupon,  most  of  the  knights  engaged  in  that  siege 
rushed  eagerly  to  him,  so  that  Count  Roger  remained  almost  alone. 

Returning  again  to  his  own  land.  Lord  Bohemund  diligently  pre- 
pared himself  to  undertake  in  true  earnest  the  journey  to  the  Holy 
Sepulchre.  At  length,  he  crossed  the  sea  with  his  army.  With  him 
were  Tancred,  son  of  Marchisus,^*^  Richard  of  Principati,  and 
Rainulf,  his  brother,  Robert  of  Anse,  Herman  of  Cannae,  Robert 
of  Surdsi  Valley,^^  Robert,  son  of  Tostanus,  Hunfred,  son  of  Raoul, 
Richard,  son  of  Count  Rainulf,  the  Count  of  Roscignoh,^^  with  his 
brothers,  Boellus  of  Chartres,  Albered  of  Cagnano,  and  Hunfred  of 
Mt.  Scaglioso.  All  of  these  crossed  the  sea  to  do  service  for  Bohe- 
mund and  landed  in  the  region  of  Bulgaria,  where  they  found  a 
very  great  abundance  of  grain,  wine,  and  bodily  nourishment. 
Thence  descending  into  the  valley  of  Andronopoli,^^  they  waited 
for  his  forces,  until  all  had  likewise  crossed  the  sea.  Then  the  wise 
Bohemund  ordered  a  council  with  his  people,  comforting  and  ad- 
monishing all  (with  these  words)  :  *'Seignors,  take  heed  all  of  you, 
for  we  are  pilgrims  of  God.  We  ought,  therefore,  to  be  better  and 
more  humble  than  before.  Do  not  plunder  this  land,  since  it  be- 
longs to  Christians,  and  let  no  one,  at  the  cost  of  blessing,  take 
more  than  he  needs  to  eat." 

Departing  thence,  we  journeyed  hrough  great  plenty  from  villa 
to  villa,  city  to  city,  fortress  to  fortress,  until  we  reached  Castoria. 
There  we  solemnly  celebrated  the  nativity  of  the  Lord.     We  re- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  63 

mained  there  for  several  days  and  sought  a  market,  but  the  people 
were  unwilling  to  accord  it  to  us,  because  they  feared  us  greatly, 
thinking  that  we  came  not  as  pilgrims,  but  to  devastate  their  land 
and  to  kill  them.  Wherefore  we  took  their  cattle,  horses,  asses,  and 
everything  that  we  found.  Leaving  Castoria,  we  entered  Pelagonia, 
in  which  there  was  a  certain  fortified  town  of  heretics.  This  we 
attacked  from  all  sides  and  it  soon  yielded  to  our  sway.  Thereupon, 
we  set  it  on  fire  and  burned  the  camp  with  its  inhabitants,  that  is, 
the  congregation  of  heretics.  Later,  we  reached  the  river  Vardar. 
And  then  Lord  Bohemund  went  across  with  his  people,  but  not 
with  all,  for  the  Count  of  Roscignolo  with  his  brothers  remained 
behind. 

Thereupon,  an  army  of  the  Emperor  came  and  attacked  the  Count 
with  his  brothers  and  all  who  were  with  them.  Tancred,  hearing 
of  this,  went  back  and,  hurling  himself  into  the  river,  reached  the 
others  by  swimming;  and  two  thousand  went  into  the  river  fol- 
lowing Tancred.  At  length,  they  came  upon  the  Turcopoles^*  and 
Patzinaks  struggling  with  our  men.  They  (Tancred  and  his  men) 
charged  the  enemy  suddenly  and  bravely  and  overcame  them  glori- 
ously. Several  of  them  they  seized  and  led  them,  bound,  into  the 
presence  of  Bohemund,  who  spoke  to  them  as  follows:  "Where- 
fore, miserable  men,  do  you  kill  Christ's  people  and  mine?  I  have 
no  quarrel  with  your  Emperor."  They  replied,  ''We  cannot  do 
otherwise;  we  have  been  placed  in  the  service  of  the  Emperor, 
and  whatever  he  commands  we  must  fulfill."  Bohemund  allowed 
them  to  depart  unpunished.  This  battle  was  fought  in  the  fourth 
day  of  the  week,  which  is  the  beginning  of  the  fast.  Through  all, 
blessed  is  the  Lord!    Amen. 

The  unhappy  Emperor  sent  one  of  his  own  men,  whom  he 
greatly  loved,  and  whom  they  call  Corpalatius,^^  together  with  our 
envoys,  to  conduct  us  in  security  through  his  land  until  we  should 
come  to  Constantinople.  And  as  we  paused  before  their  cities,  he 
ordered  the  inhabitants  to  offer  us  a  market,  just  as  those  also  did 
of  whom  we  have  spoken.  Indeed,  they  feared  the  most  brave  host 
of  Lord  Bohemund  so  greatly  that  they  permitted  none  of  us  to 
enter  the  walls  of  the  city.  Our  men  wanted  to  attack  and  seize 
a  certain  fortified  town  because  it  was  full  of  all  kinds  of  goods. 
But  the  renowned  man,  Bohemund,  refused  to  consent,  not  only  in 
justice  to  the  land,  but  also  because  of  his  pledge  to  the  Emperor. 
Therefore,  he  was  greatly  angered  on  this  account  with  Tancred 
and  all  the  rest.  This  happened  toward  evening.  When  morning 
came,  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  came  out,  and,  in  procession,  bear- 
ing crosses  in  their  hands,  they  came  into  the  presence  of  Bohe- 


64  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

mund.  Delighted,  he  received  them ;  and  with  gladness  he  permitted 
them  to  depart.  Next  we  came  to  a  certain  town,  which  is  called 
Serrhae,  where  we  fixed  our  tents  and  had  a  market  sufficient  for 
that  time.  There  the  learned  Bohemund  made  a  very  cordial  agree- 
ment with  two  Corpalatii;  and  out  of  regard  for  their  friendship, 
as  well  as  in  justice  to  the  land,  he  ordered  all  the  stolen  animals 
which  our  men  had  to  be  returned.  The  Corpalatius  promised  him 
that  he  would  despatch  messengers  to  return  the  animals  to  their 
owners  in  order.  Then  we  proceeded  from  castle  to  castle  and 
from  villa  to  villa  to  the  city  of  Rusa.  The  people  of  the  Greeks 
came  out,  bringing  us  the  greatest  market,  and  went  joyfully  to 
meet  Lord  Bohemund.  There  we  pitched  our  tents  in  the  fourth  day 
of  the  week  before  the  feast  of  the  Lord. 

There,  also,  the  learned  Bohemund  left  all  his  host  and  went  on 
ahead  to  speak  with  the  Emperor  at  Constantinople.  He  gave  com- 
mands to  his  vassals,  saying,  "Approach  the  city  gradually.  I, 
however,  will  go  on  in  advance."  And  he  took  with  him  a  few 
knights.  Tancred  remained  at  the  head  of  the  army  of  Christ,  and, 
seeing  the  pilgrims  buying  food,  he  said  to  himself  that  he  would 
go  oif  the  road  and  lead  his  people  where  they  would  live  happily. 
At  length  he  entered  a  certain  valley,  filled  with  goods  of  all  kinds 
that  are  suitable  nourishment  for  the  body,  and  in  it  we  most  de- 
voutly celebrated  Easter. 

E.  The  march  of  Raymond  of  Toulouse  and  Bishop  Adhemar  of 
Puy.     (October   (?)    1096- April  21,   1097.) 

(Raymond.)  While  advancing  into  the  land  of  Slavonia  they 
suffered  many  losses  on  the  way,  especially  because  it  was  then 
winter.  For  Slavonia  was  such  a  desert  and  so  pathless  and 
mountainous  that  we  saw  in  it  neither  wild  animals,  nor  birds 
for  three  weeks.  The  inhabitants  of  the  region  were  so  boorish  and 
rude  that  they  were  unwilling  to  trade  with  us,  or  to  furnish  us 
guidance,  but  instead  fled  from  their  villages  and  their  castles.  In- 
deed, they  even  butchered  like  cattle,  or,  as  if  they  had  done  much 
harm,  the  feeble  aged  and  the  weak  poor,  who,  because  of  their 
weakness,  followed  our  army  at  a  distance.  Nor  was  it  easy  amidst 
steep  mountains  and  thick  woods  for  our  armed  knights  to  pursue 
the  unarmed  brigands  who  were  acquainted  with  the  country.  But 
they  suffered  them  constantly,  unable  either  to  fight  or  to  keep  from 
fighting.  Let  us  not  pass  over  a  certain  illustrious  act  of  the  Count. 
When  the  Count  with  some  of  his  knights  had  been  hedged  about 
for  some  little  time  by  the  Slavonians,  he  made  a  charge  upon  them 
and  captured  as  many  as  six  of  them.     And  when,  on  this  account, 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  65 

the  Slavonians  pressed  upon  him  the  more  violently,  and  the  Count 
was  compelled  to  follow  the  army,  he  ordered  the  eyes  of  some  of 
them  (the  prisoners)  to  be  torn  out,  the  feet  of  others  cut  off,  and 
the  nose  and  hands  of  still  others  to  be  slashed,  so  that  while  the 
pursuers  were  thus  moved  at  the  sight  and  preoccupied  with  their 
sorrow,  the  Count  could  safely  escape  with  his  companions.  And 
thus,  by  the  grace  of  God  he  was  delivered  from  the  straits  of 
death  and  this  difficult  situation. 

Indeed,  what  courage  and  wisdom  the  Count  displayed  in  this 
region  is  not  easy  to  relate!  For  we  were  in  Slavonia  for  almost 
forty  days,  during  which  time  we  encountered  clouds  so  dense  that 
we  could  feel  them  and  push  them  before  us  with  a  slight  movement. 
Amidst  all  this,  the  Count  was  fighting  constantly  at  the  rear  and 
ever  defending  his  people.  He  was  never  the  first,  but  always  the 
last,  to  encamp,  and  though  the  others  went  to  rest  at  midday,  or 
at  evening,  the  Count  often  did  so  at  midnight,  or  at  cockcrow.  At 
length,  through  the  compassion  of  God,  the  labor  of  the  Count,  and 
the  advice  of  the  Bishop,  the  army  so  crossed  (Slavonia)  that  we 
lost  no  one  there  from  hunger,  and  no  one  in  open  battle.  On  that  * 
account,  I  bear  witness,  God  wanted  his  army  to  cross  Slavonia,  [ 
in  order  that  the  boorish  men  who  did  not  know  God,  upon  recog- 
nizing  the  valor  and  patience  of  His  knights,  might  either  lose  some- 
thing of  their  wildness  or  be  brought  without  excuse  to  God's 
judgment.  And  then,  after  many  labors,  we  came  to  the  king  of  the 
Slavonians  at  Scutari.  The  Count  swore  friendship  with  him  and 
gave  him  a  large  tribute,  so  that  the  army  might  buy  or  seek  nec- 
essaries in  security.  But  this  was  a  (vain)  expectation,  for  we  did 
penance  enough  for  the  peace  we  had  sought  when  thereafter  the 
Slavonians,  raging  in  their  usual  manner,  killed  our  men  and  took 
from  the  unarmed  what  they  could.  We  sought  not  vengeance,  but 
a  place  of  refuge.    So  much  about  Slavonia. 

We  came  to  Durazzo.  We  believed  we  were  in  our  own  country, 
thinking  that  the  Emperor  and  his  satellites  were  our  brothers  and 
helpmates.  They,  indeed,  raging  in  the  manner  of  lions,  attacked 
a  peaceful  people  who  thought  of  nothing  less  than  arms.  They 
butchered  them  in  secret  places;  they  stole  what  they  could  by 
night,  in  the  woods,  and  in  villages  remote  from  the  camp.  Al- 
though they  raged  thus,  their  leader  promised  peace.  But  during 
the  intervals  of  peace,  they  killed  Pontius  Reinald  and  mortally 
wounded  his  brother,  Peter,  and  these  were  most  noble  princes. 
However,  when  an  opportunity  was  presented  to  us  for  revenge, 
we  chose  to  continue  the  journey,  not  to  avenge  our  wrongs.  On 
the  way,  we  had  letters  from  the  Emperor  about  peace,  brotherhood. 


66  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

and,  as  I  may  also  say,  about  alliance;  this,  however,  was  a  snare 
in  words.  For  in  front  and  behind,  to  right  and  to  left,  Turks  and 
Cumans,  Uzi,  Tanaces,^^  Patzinaks,  and  Bulgarians  were  lying  in 
ambush  for  us. 

On  a  certain  day,  moreover,  when  we  were  in  the  valley  of  Pela- 
gonia,  the  Bishop  of  Puy,  who,  in  order  to  find  a  comfortable  rest- 
ing place,  had  withdrawn  a  little  distance  from  the  camp,  was  cap- 
tured by  the  Patzinaks.  They  knocked  him  down  from  his  mule, 
robbed  him,  and  beat  him  severely  on  the  head.  But  since  so  great 
a  pontiff  was  still  necessary  to  the  people  of  God,  through  God's 
mercy  he  was  saved  to  life.  For  one  of  the  Patzinaks,  in  order  to 
obtain  gold  from  him,  protected  him  from  the  others.  Meanwhile, 
the  noise  was  heard  in  the  camp;  and  so,  between  the  delay  of  the 
enemy  and  the  attack  of  his  friends,  he  was  rescued. 

When  we  had  come  amidst  treachery  of  this  fashion  to  a  certain 
fortress  called  Bucinat/"  the  Count  learned  that  the  Patzinaks  in- 
tended to  attack  our  army  in  the  passes  of  a  certain  mountain. 
Staying  in  hiding  with  some  of  his  knights,  he  came  upon  the 
Patzinaks,  and,  after  killing  several  of  them,  he  turned  the  rest  to 
flight.  Meanwhile,  pacifying  letters  from  the  Emperor  reached  us, 
(and  yet)  by  his  evil  design  the  enemy  surrounded  us  on  -all  sides. 
When  we  came  to  Thessalonica,  the  Bishop  was  ill  and  remained  in 
the  city  with  a  few  men. 

After  this,  we  came  to  a  certain  city,  Rusa  by  name,  where,  since 
its  citizens  were  plainly  disposed  to  do  us  evil,  our  usual  patience 
was  somewhat  disturbed.  So,  taking  up  arms,  we  destroyed  the 
outer  walls,  seized  great  plunder,  and  forced  the  city  to  surrender; 
then,  having  taken  our  standards  into  the  city  and  shouted  'Tou- 
louse !"  which  was  the  battle  cry  of  the  Count,  we  departed. 

We  came  to  another  city,  called  Rodosto.  When  knights  in  the 
pay  of  the  Emperor  there  sought  to  carry  out  his  vengeance  upon 
us,  many  of  them  were  killed  and  a  quantity  of  plunder  taken. 
There,  also,  the  envoys  whom  we  had  sent  ahead  to  the  Emperor 
came  to  us  and,  having  received  money  from  him,  promised  that 
everything  boded  well  for  us  with  the  Emperor.  What  more?  The 
message  (brought)  by  our  envoys  and  those  of  the  Emperor  was 
that  the  Count,  leaving  his  army  behind,  should  hasten  unarmed 
and  with  a  few  men  to  the  Emperor.  For  they  said  that  Bohemund, 
the  Duke  of  Lorraine,  the  Count  of  Flanders,  and  other  princes 
made  this  prayer :  that  the  Count  should  hasten  to  agree  with  the 
Emperor  about  the  march  to  Jerusalem ;  that  the  Emperor,  having 
taken  the  cross,  should  also  become  leader  in  the  army  of  God.  In 
addition  to  this,  they  reported  that  the  Emperor  had  said  that  he 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  (i'j 

would  make  all  arrangements  with  the  Count,  both  about  themselves 
and  whatever  else  should  be  necessary  for  the  journey.  They  an- 
nounced, furthermore,  that  a  battle  was  imminent,  and  that  without 
the  support  of  so  great  a  man  it  would  probably  be  unfavorable; 
that  the  Count  should  therefore  go  ahead  with  a  few  men,  so  that 
when  his  army  should  arrive,  everything  would  have  been  arranged 
with  the  Emperor,  and  there  would  be  no  delay  for  anyone.  At 
length,  the  Count  was  persuaded  to  go  ahead  of  his  army,  in  this 
instance,  alone,  leaving  his  guard  behind  him  in  the  camp.  And 
thus  he  went  unarmed  to  Constantinople. 

F.  Robert  of  Normandy  and  Stephen  of  Blois  on  the  way  to  Con- 
stantinople.    (April  5-May  14,  1097.) 

(Fulcher.)  Then  in  the  month  of  March,  1097,,  as  soon  as  spring 
had  returned,  the  Norman  Count  and  Count  Stephen  of  Blois  with 
his  followers  (for  he  likewise  was  awaiting  an  opportune  time), 
returne'd '  again  to  the  coast.  When  the  fleet  was  ready  on  the 
Nones  of  April,  which  happened  that  year  to  be  the  feast  of  Easter, 
they  embarked  at  the  port  of  Brindisi.  Oh  how  incomprehensible 
and  unsearchable  are  the  judgments  of  God!^^  For  among  all  these 
ships  we  saw  one  which  was  suddenly  split  through  the  middle 
from  no  apparent  cause.  Then  about  four  hundred  of  both  sexes 
were  drowned,  concerning  whom  joyous  praises  at  once  went  up  to 
God.  For  when  those  standing  around  had  collected  as  many  as 
possible  of  the  dead  bodies,  the3iv,found  on  the  shoulders  of  some 
signs  of  the  cross.  For  since  they  had  worn  the  cross  on  their 
clothes  while  living,  it  was  the  will  of  God  that  that  same  victorious 
sign  of  faith  should  remain  on  the  skin  of  those  prematurely  cut 
off  by  death  while  in  His  service.  So  it  was  very  fitting  for  such 
a  miracle  to  prove  to  those  who  witnessed  it  that  the  dead  had 
already  received  everlasting  peace  by  the  mercy  of  God;  thus,  in 
very  truth,  that  was  evidently  fulfilled  which  is  written,  "But  the 
just  man,  even  if  he  die  too  soon,  shall  nevertheless  be  at  rest."^^ 
O'f  the  rest  of  our  companions  already  struggling  with  death,  few 
survived.  Their  horses  and  their  mules  were  swallowed  up  by  the 
waves,  and  much  money  also  was  lost.  At  the  sight  of  this  disaster 
we  were  much  afraid,  so  much  so  that  many  weak  hearted,  who  had 
not  yet  embarked,  returned  to  their  homes,  giving  up  the  journey, 
and  saying  that  never  again  would  they  trust  themselves  to  the 
treacherous  sea. 

As  for  us,  however,  we  trusted  implicitly  in  Almighty  God  and 
launched  out  upon  the  sea,  with  flags  flying  aloft,  and  many  trumpets 
sounding,  and  a  gentle  breeze  blowing.     For  three  days  the  wind 


68  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

failed  us,  and  we  were  detained  in  the  midst  of  the  billows.  On 
the  fourth  day,  we  reached  land,  about  ten  miles  from  the  city 
of  Durazzo.  Our  fleet,  however,  anchored  at  two  ports.  Then 
joyfully  we  again  resumed  the  dry  land  and  advanced  beyond  the 
above  mentioned  city.  So  we  passed  by  the  regions  of  Bulgaria, 
over  steep  mountains  and  desert  places.  Then  we  all  came  to  the 
rapid  river,  called  by  the  natives  the  River  of  the  Demon,^^  and 
appropriately  so.  For  in  this  river  we  saw  many  people,  who 
hoped  to  wade  across  step  by  step,  perish  suddenly,  engulfed  by  the 
strong  force  of  the  torrent ;  and  none  of  those  looking  on  were  able 
to  save  them.  Wherefore,  moved  by  compassion,  we  shed  many 
tears,  and  had  not  knights  with  their  mighty  battle  steeds  brought 
aid  to  the  foot-soldiers,  many  of  them  would  there  have  lost  their 
lives  in  the  same  manner.  Then  we  pitched  our  tents  near  the 
bank  and  there  we  spent  one  night.  Great  mountains,  uninhabited, 
were  about  us  on  all  sides.  Hardly  had  the  morning  dawned,  when 
the  war  trumpets  sounded,  and,  resuming  our  way,  we  descended  the 
mountain  called  Bagora.  Afterwards  passing  by  the  mountain  and 
the  towns  Ochrida,  Bitolia,  Wodena,  and  Stella,^^  we  came  to  the 
river  called  Vardar.  And  what  could  not  usually  be  done  except 
by  boat,  we  did  by  the  help  of  God;  we  waded  across.  The  day 
following  we  camped  before  the  city  of  Thessalonica,  a  city  rich  in 
goods  of  all  kinds.  After  a  four  days  delay  here,  we  travelled 
through  Macedonia,  through  the  valley  of  the  Strymon,  and  through 
Crisopolis  and  Christopolis,  Praetoria,^^  Messinopolis,  Maera,  Traia- 
nopolis,  Neapolis,  Panedor,  Rodosto,  and  Heraclea,  Silivri,  and 
Natura;  and  we  arrived  at  Constantinople.  Pitching  our  tents  be- 
fore this  city,  we  rested  fourteen  days. 


CHAPTER  III 

Alexius  and  the  Crusaders 

(The  conduct  of  Alexius  and  the  people  of  his  empire  toward  the  Cru- 
saders, as  they  passed  through  the  land  on  their  way  to  Constantinople, 
seemed  incomprehensible  to  the  Latins  at  the  time  and  has  been  more  or  less 
baffling  to  all  later  writers.  There  is  some  doubt  as  to  whether  or  noK- 
Alexius  had  sent  a  definite  appeal  for  help  to  the  West  at  this  time.  Chalan-  I  /  \ 
don,  whose  study  of  the  reign  of  Alexius  represents  probably  the  most  /  y^ 
authoritative  modern  investigation  of  the  subject,  maintains  the  thesis  that  / 
Aio^;iTy  i^j^  jJ^  ^all  tor  help,  and  that  the  empireiri  innf^  Yrrr  hrrT'^TTmnp^  * 
of  aid  than  at  any  time  since.  Tn7T.i  Certainly,  the  Emperor's  conduct  ap- 
pears more  intelligible  if  the  Crusaders  can  be  regarded  as  his  uninvited 
guests.  Their  not  infrequent  acts  of  violence  may  even  have  led  him  to 
suspect  their  motives,  which  suspicion  the  presence  of  Bohemund  and  his 
Normans  from  southern  Italy — old  foes  of  the  Eastern  Empire — only  served 
to  strengthen.  Possibly  there  were  other  causes,  also,  to  arouse  the  Emperor. 
Kohler  has  suggested  that  Urban,  in  arousing  the  expedition,  cherished  the 
hope  of  gaining  the  submission  of  the  Greek  Church,  either  as  a  reward  for 
this  help,  or  by  intimidation  and  force,  if  necessary.^  But  whether  or  not 
there  was  any  just  cause  for  the  Emperor's  suspicions,  the  statements  of 
his  daughter,  together  with  his  own  unquestionable  zeal  to  hasten  each  band 
away  from  Constantinople  and  across  the  Bosporus  before  the  next  band 
arrived,  indicates  very  clearly  that  he  did  distrust  the  Latins.  And  yet,  as 
one  reads  the  Latin  accounts,  it  is  difficult  to  find  in  them  evidence  of  guile 
toward  Alexius  or  a  covert  design  upon  the  possession  of  his  empire.  The 
constant  combination  of  friendly  messages  from  the  Emperor  and  rough 
treatment  from  his  soldiers  aroused  a  good  deal  of  distrust  on  the  part  of 
the  Crusaders,  but  at  first  they  seemed  to  give  the  Emperor  the  benefit  of 
the  doubt. 

For  almost  every  event  narrated  in  this  chapter  there  is  testimony  from 
at  least  two  independent  writers.  The  fate  of  the  Peasants'  Crusade,  though 
not  described  by  an  eye-witness,  is  quite  fully  treated  by  both  Anna  and 
Albert,  as  well  as  by  the  Anonymous,  and  Fulcher's  mention  of  the  heap  of 
bones  near  Nicomedia  serves  as  a  graphic  confirmation  of  their  statements. 
Anna's  account  of  Hugh's  experiences  is  confirmed  only  by  the  brief  men- 
tion of  his  plight  by  Fulcher  and  Albert.  The  rather  brief  statement  of  the 
Anonymous  about  Godfrey's  dealings  with  Alexius  is  too  condensed  to  settle 
the  disparities  between  the  accounts  of  Anna  and  Albert,  and  the  reader 
must  draw  his  own  inferences.  The  identity  of  the  Raoul  mentioned  by 
Anna  is  somewhat  uncertain.  He  could  not  have  been  Robert  of  Flanders, 
who  was  with  the  other  leaders  both  at  Constantinople  and  Nicaea.     The 


70  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

shipment  of  troops  to  Syria  by  water  did  occur  in  the  Crusade  of  iioi, 
which  Anna  may  very  easily  have  confused  with  earlier  events.  Her  ac- 
count of  Bohemund  and  of  Raymond,  also,  is  colored  by  her  knowledge  of 
later  events,  but  the  versions  given  by  the  Anonymous,  Raymond,  and  the 
others  serve  to  establish  the  actual  occurrences  fairly  well.  For  the  arrival 
and  treatment  of  Robert  of  Normandy  and  Stephen  of  Blois  at  Constanti- 
nople Fulcher's  statements  and  those  in  Stephen's  letter  furnish  ample  evi- 
dence. The  siege  and  capture  of  Nicaea  is  the  most  fully  attested  event  in 
the  history  of  the  First  Crusade.  Certain  minor  incidents  in  the  siege,  how- 
ever, are  related  by  only  one  or  two  of  the  writers  who  were  in  the  imme- 
diate vicinity,  and  the  connection  of  the  various  chroniclers  with  one  band 
or  the  other  must  be  borne  in  mind.  Throughout  the  whole  chapter  the 
contrast  of  western  and  eastern  civilization,  as  evidenced  by  the  frequent 
naive  expressions  of  wonder  and  amazement,  on  the  one  hand,  and  blase 
contempt  and  horror,  on  the  other,  forms  an  interesting  background  to  the 
progress  of  events,) 

I.  Alexius  and  the  Peasants  Crusade.  Fate  of  the  Peasants:'  Cru- 
sade.    (August  I -October  4,  1096.) 

{Anna.)  .  .  .  Moreover,  Alexius  was  not  yet,  or  very  slightly, 
rested  from  his  labors  when  he  heard  rumors  of  the  arrival  of  in- 
numerable Prankish  armies.  He  feared  the  incursions  of  these 
people,  for  he  had  already  experienced  the  savage  fury  of  their 
attack,  their  fickleness  of  mind,  and  their  readiness  to  approach 
anything  with  violence.  .  .  . 

And  finally,  he  kept  ever  in  mind  this  information,  which  was 
often  repeated  and  most  true — that  they  were  known  to  be  always 
immoderately  covetous  of  anything  they  strove  after  and  to  break 
very  easily,  for  any  reason  whatsoever,  treaties  which  they  had 
made.  Accordingly,  he  did  not  indulge  in  any  rest,  but  made  ready 
his  forces  in  every  way,  so  that  when  occcasion  should  demand  he 
would  be  ready  for  battle.  For  it  was  a  matter  greater  and  more 
terrible  than  famine  which  was  then  reported.  Forsooth,  the  whole 
West,  and  as  much  of  the  land  of  barbarian  peoples  as  lies  beyond 
the  Adriatic  Sea  up  to  the  Pillars  of  Hercules — all  this,  changing 
its  seat,  was  bursting  forth  into  Asia  in  a  solid  mass,  with  all  its 
belongings,  taking  its  march  through  the  intervening  portion*  of 
Europe. 

A  certain  Gaul,  Peter  by  name,  surnamed  Kuku-Peter,^  had  set 
out  from  his  home  to  adore  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  After  suffering 
many  dangers  and  wrongs  from  the  Turks  and  Saracens,  who  were 
devastating  all  Asia,  he  returned  to  his  own  country  most  sorrow- 
fully. He  could  not  bear  to  see  himself  thus  cut  ofif  from  his  pro- 
posed pilgrimage  and  intended  to  undertake  the  expedition  a  sec- 
ond time.  .  .  . 


THE  FIRST   CRUSADE  71 

After  Peter  had  promoted  the  expedition,  he,  with  80,000  foot- 
soldiers  and  100,000  knights,  was  the  first  of  all  to  cross  the  Lom- 
bard strait.  Then  passing  through  the  territory  of  Hungary,  he 
arrived  at  the  queenly  city.  For,  as  anyone  may  conjecture  from 
the  outcome,  the  race  of  the  Gauls  is  not  only  very  passionate  and 
impetuous  in  other  ways,  but,  also,  when  urged  on  by  an  impulse, 
cannot  thereafter  be  checked.  Our  Emperor,  aware  of  what  Peter 
had  suffered  from  the  Turks  before,  urged  him  to  await  the  ar- 
rival of  the  other  counts. 

(Gesta.)  But  the  above-mentioned  Peter  was  the  first  to  reach 
Constantinople,  on  the  Kalends  of  August,  and  with  him  was  a  very 
large  host  of  Alemanni.  There  he  found  assembled  Lombards,  and 
Longobards,  and  many  others.  The  Emperor  had  ordered  such  a 
market  as  was  in  the  city  to  be  given  to  these  people.  And  he  said 
to  them,  "Do  not  cross  the  Strait  until  the  chief  host  of  the  Chris- 
tians has  come,  for  you  are  not  so  strong  that  you  can  do  battle 
with  the  Turks."  The  Christians  conducted  themselves  badly,  in- 
asmuch as  they  tore  down  and  burned  buildings  of  the  city  and 
carried  off  the  lead  with  which  the  churches  were  constructed  and 
sold  it  to  the  Greeks.  The  Emperor  was  enraged  thereat  an3 
ordered  them  to  cross  the  Strait.  After  they  had  crossed,  they  did 
not  cease  doing  all  manner  of  evil,  burning  and  plundering  houses 
and  churches.  At  length  they  reached  Nicomedia,  where  the  Lom- 
bards and  Longobards  and  Alemanni  separated  from  the  Franks  be- 
cause the  Franks  were  constantly  swelled  with  arrogance. 

The  Lombards  and  Longobards  chose  a  leader  over  themselves 
whose  name  was  Reinald.  The  Alemanni  did  likewise.  They  en- 
tered Romania*  and  proceeded  for  four  days  beyond  the  city  of 
Nicaea.  They  found  a  certain  fortress,  Xerogord^  by  name,  which 
was  empty  of  people,  and  they  seized  it.  In  it  they  found  an  ample 
supply  of  grain,  wine,  and  meat,  and  an  abundance  of  all  goods. 
The  Turks,  accordingly,  hearing  that  the  Christians  were  in  the 
fortress,  came  to  besiege  it.  Before  the  gate  of  the  fortress  was  a 
cistern,  and  at  the  foot  of  the  fortress  was  a  fountain  of  running 
water,  near  which  Reinald  went  out  to  trap  the  Turks.  But  the 
Turks,  who  came  on  the  day  of  the  Dedication  of  St.  Michael,® 
found  Reinald  and  those  who  were  with  him  and  killed  many  of 
them.  Those  who  remained  alive  fled  to  the  fortress,  which  the 
Turks  straightway  besieged,  thus  depriving  them  of  water.  Our 
people  were  in  such  distress  from  thirst  that  they  bled  their  horses 
and  asses  and  drank  the  blood ;  others  let  their  girdles  and  handker- 
chiefs down  into  the  cistern  and  squeezed  out  the  water  from  them 
into  their  mouths ;  some  urinated  into  one  another's  hollowed  hands 


^^2  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

and  drank ;  and  others  dug  up  the  moist  ground  and  lay  down  on 
their  backs  and  spread  the  earth  over  their  breasts  to^  relieve  the 
excessive  dryness  of  thirst.  The  bishops  and  priests,  indeed,  con- 
tinued to  comfort  our  people,  and  to  admonish  them  not  to  yield, 
saying,  "Be  everywhere  strong  in  the  faith  of  Christ,  and  do  not 
fear  those  who  persecute  you,  just  as  the  Lord  saith,  *Be  not  afraid 
of  them  that  kill  the  body,  but  are  not  able  to  kill  the  soul'  "^  This 
distress  lasted  for  eight  days.  Then  the  lord  of  the  Alemanni  made 
an  agreement  with  the  Turks  to  surrender  his  companions  to  them ; 
and,  feigning  to  go  out  to  fight,  he  fled  to  them,  and  many  with 
him.  Those,  however,  who  were  unwilling  to  deny  the  Lord  re- 
ceived the  sentence  of  death;  some,  whom  they  took  alive,  they 
divided  among  themselves,  like  sheep ;  some  they  placed  as  a  target 
and  shot  with  arrows ;  others  they  sold  and  gave  away,  like  animals. 
Some  they  took  captive  to  their  own  home,  some  to  Chorosan,  some 
to  Antioch,  others  to  Aleppo,  or  wherever  Ihey  themselves  lived. 
These  were  the  first  to  receive  a  happy  martyrdom  in  the  name  of 
the  Lord  Jesus. 

Next,  the  Turks,  hearing  that  Peter  the  Hermit  and  Walter  the 
Penniless  were  in  Civitote,  which  is  located  above  the  city  of  Nicaea, 
went  there  with  great  joy  to  kill  them  and  those  who  were  with 
them.  And  when  they  had  come,  they  encountered  Walter  with 
his  men,  (all  of)  whom  the  Turks  soon  killed.  But  Peter  the 
Hermit  had  gone  to  Constantinople  a  short  while  before  because  he 
was  unable  to  restrain  that  varied  host,  which  was  not  willing  to 
listen  either  to  him  or  to  his  words.  The  Turks,  indeed,  rushed 
upon  these  people  and  killed  many  of  them.  Some  they  found 
sleeping,  some  lying  down,  others  naked — all  of  whom  they  killed. 
With  these  people  they  found  a  certain  priest  celebrating  mass, 
whom  they  straightway  martyred  upon  the  altar.  Those  who  could 
escape  fled  to  Civitote;  others  hurled  themselves  headlong  into  the 
sea,  while  some  hid  in  the  forests  and  mountains.  But  the  Turks, 
pursuing  them  to  the  fortress,  collected  wood  to  burn  them  with 
the  fort.  The  Christians  who  were  in  the  fort,  therefore,  set  fire 
to  the  wood  that  had  been  collected,  and  the  fire,  turning  in  the  di- 
rection of  the  Turks,  cremated  some  of  them;  but  from  the  fire  the 
Lord  delivered  our  people  at  that  time.  Nevertheless,  the  Turks 
took  them  alive  and  divided  them,  just  as  they  had  done  the  others, 
and  scattered  them  through  all  these  regions,  some  to  Chorosan,  and 
others  to  Persia.  This  all  happened  in  the  month  of  October.  The 
Emperor,  upon  hearing  that  the  Turks  had  so  scattered  our  people, 
was  exceedingly  glad  and  sent  for  them  (the  Turks)  and  had  them 
cross  the  Strait.  After  they  were  across,  he  purchased  all  their 
arms.  .  .  . 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE     ,  73 

(Albert.)  The  Emperor  was  moved  by  compassion  on  hearing 
this  humble  narrative  and  ordered  two  hundred  gold  besants  to  be 
given  to  Peter;  of  that  money  which  was  called  tartaron  he  dis- 
bursed one  measure  for  his  army.  After  that,  Peter  retired  from 
the  conference  and  from  the  palace  of  the  Emperor.  Although  un- 
der the  kind  protection  of  the  Emperor,  he  rested  only  five  days  in 
the  fields  and  lands  near  Constantinople,  where  Walter  the  Penni- 
less had  likewise  pitched  his  tents.  Becoming  companions  from  that 
very  day,  thereafter  their  troops,  arms,  and  all  necessary  provisions 
were  joined  together.  Next,  after  five  days,  they  moved  their  tents 
and,  with  the  aid  of  the  Emperor,  passed  by  boat  over  the  Strait 
of  St.  George.  Entering  the  confines  of  Cappadocia,  they  advanced 
through  mountainous  country  into  Nicomedia  and  there  passed  the 
night.  After  this,  they  pitched  camp  at  the  port  called  Civitote. 
There  merchants  were  constantly  bringing  ships  laden  with  supplies 
of  wine,  corn,  oil,  and  barley,  and  with  abundance  of  cheese,  selling 
all  to  the  pilgrims  with  just  measure. 

While  they  were  rejoicing  in  this  abundance  of  necessities  and 
were  resting  their  tired  bodies,  there  came  messengers  from  the  most 
Christian  Emperor.  Because  of  the  danger  of  ambushes  and  at- 
tacks from  the  Turks,  they  forbade  Peter  and  his  whole  army  from 
marching  towards  the  mountainous  region  of  the  city  of  Nicaea, 
until  a  greater  number  of  Christians  should  be  added  to  their  num- 
ber. Peter  heard  the  message,  and  he  with  all  the  Christian  people 
assented  to  the  counsel  of  the  Emperor.  They  tarried  there  for  the 
course  of  two  months,  feasting  in  peace  and  joy,  and  sleeping  secure 
from  all  hostile  attacks. 

And  so  two  months  later,  having  become  wanton  and  unrestrained 
because  of  ease  and  an  inestimable  abundance  of  food,  heeding  not 
the  voice  of  Peter,  but  against  his  will,  they  entered  into  the  region 
of  the  city  of  Nicaea  and  the  realms  of  Soliman.®  They  took  as 
plunder  cattle,  sheep,  goats,  the  herds  of  the  Greek  servants  of  the 
Turks,  and  carried  them  off  to  their  fellows.  Peter,  seeing  this, 
was  sorrowful  in  heart,  knowing  that  they  did  it  not  with  impunity. 
Whereupon  he  often  admonished  them  not  to  seize  any  more  booty 
contrary  to  the  counsel  of  the  Emperor,  but  in  vain  did  he  speak  to 
a  foolish  and  rebellious  people.  .  .  . 

But  the  Teutons,  seeing  that  affairs  turned  out  so  well  for  the 
Romans  and  the  Franks,  and  that  they  returned  unhindered  so  many 
times  with  their  booty,  were  inflamed  with  an  inordinate  desire  for 
plunder.  About  three  thousand  foot-soldiers  were  collected  and 
about  two  hundred  knights.  .  .  . 

And  thus,  after  all  the  stronghold  had  been  captured  and  its  in- 


74  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

habitants  driven  out,  they  rejoiced  in  the  abundance  of  food  found 
there.  And  exulting  in  that  victory,  they  in  turn  gave  counsel  that, 
by  remaining  in  that  fortress,  they  could  easily  obtain,  through  their 
own  valor,  the  lands  and  principality  of  Soliman;  that  they  would 
gather  from  all  sides  booty  and  food,  and  thus  could  easily  weaken 
Soliman,  until  the  promised  army  of  the  great  leaders  should  ap- 
proach. Soliman,  the  leader  and  chief  of  the  army  of  the  Turks, 
having  heard  of  the  arrival  of  the  Christians,  and  of  their  plunder 
and  booty,  assembled  from  all  Romania  and  the  terrjtoix_of_Cho- 
rqsan  fifteen  thousand  of  his  Turks,  most  agile  archefs,  very  skilful 
in  the  use  of  bows  of  horn  and  bone.  .  .  .  Next,  it  is  said,  that 
after  sunrise  on  the  third  day,  Soliman  with  his  followers  arrived 
from  Nicaea  at  the  fortress  which  the  Teutons  had  invaded.  .  .  . 

Therefore,  the  Turks,  unable  to  drive  out  the  Alemanni  with  this 
assault  and  shower  of  arrows,  gathered  all  kinds  of  wood  at  the 
very  gate  of  the  fortress.  They  set  fire  to  it  and  burned  the  gate 
and  very  many  buildings  which  were  within  the  citadel.  As  the  heat 
of  the  flames  became  greater,  some  were  burned  to  death;  others, 
hoping  for  safety,  leaped  from  the  walls.  But  the  Turks  who  were 
outside  the  walls  cut  down  with  swords  those  who  were  fleeing 
and  took  captive  about  two  hundred  who  were  pleasing  in  appear- 
ance and  youthful  in  body ;  all  the  others  they  destroyed  with  sword 
and  arrow.  .  .  . 

In  the  meantime,  the  truth  was  discovered  and  tumult  arose 
among  the  people.  The  foot-soldiers  came  in  a  body  to  Reinald  of 
Broyes,  Walter  the  Penniless,  to  Walter  of  Breteuil,  also,  and  to 
Folker  of  Orleans,  who  were  leaders  of  Peter's  army,  to  urge  them 
to  rise  in  a  body  in  vindication  of  their  brethren  and  against  the 
audacity  of  the  Turks.  But  they  positively  refused  to  go  without 
the  presence  and  the  counsel  of  Peter.  Then  Godfrey  Burel,  master 
of  the  foot-soldiers,  upon  hearing  their  response,  asserted  that  the 
timid  by  no  means  avail  so  much  in  war  as  the  bold ;  and  in  sharp 
words  he  frequently  reproached  those  men  who  prevented  their 
other  companions  from  pursuing  the  Turks  to  avenge  their  breth- 
ren. On  the  other  hand,  the  leaders  of  the  legion,  unable  to  endure 
his  insults  and  reproaches  any  longer,  or  those  of  their  own  fol- 
lowers, were  deeply  moved  by  wrath  and  indignation  and  promised 
that  they  would  go  against  the  strength  and  wiles  of  the  Turks, 
even  if  it  should  happen  that  they  died  in  battle. 

Nor  was  there  delay ;  at  dawn  on  the  fourth  day,  all  the  knights 
and  foot-soldiers  throughout  the  entire  camp  were  ordered  to  arm 
themselves,  to  sound  the  trumpets,  and  to  assemble  for  battle.  Only 
the  unarmed,  the  countless  sick,  and  the  women  remained  in  camp. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  75 

But  all  the  armed  men,  to  the  number  of  25,000  foot-soldiers  and 
500  knights  in  armor,  pressed  on  their  way  together  toward  Nicaea, 
in  order  to  avenge  their  brethren  by  provoking  Soliman  and  the  rest 
of  the  Turks  to  engage  in  battle.  And  so,  divided  and  arrayed  in 
six  battle  lines,  with  standards  uplifted  in  each,  they  advanced  on 
the  right  and  on  the  left. 

Boasting  and  shouting  with  vehement  tumult  and  great  clamor, 
they  had  scarcely  advanced  through  the  aforesaid  forest  and  moun- 
tain region  three  miles  from  the  port  of  Civitote,  their  halting  place, 
(Peter  being  absent  and  unaware  of  all  this),  when  lo !  SoHman, 
with  all  his  intolerable  following,  entered  that  same  forest  from  the 
opposite  side.  He  was  coming  down  from  the  city  of  Nicaea  to 
fall  suddenly  upon  the  Gauls  in  camp,  intending  at  the  point  of  the 
sword  to  wipe  out  and  destroy  them,  unaware  and  unprepared. 
Upon  hearing  the  approach  and  the  violent  outcry  of  the  Chris- 
tians, he  marvelled  greatly  what  this  tumult  meant,  for  all  that 
the  Christians  had  decided  was  unknown  to  him.  Finding  out 
straightway  that  they  were  pilgrims,  Soliman  addressed  his  men 
as  follows :  *' Behold  the  Franks,  against  whom  we  were  marching, 
are  at  hand.  Let  us  withdraw  from  the  forest  and  the  mountains 
into  the  open  plain,  where  we  may  freely  engage  in  battle  with  them, 
and  they  can  find  no  refuge."  Accordingly,  this  was  done  without 
delay,  at  Soliman's  command,  and  in  deep  silence  they  withdrew 
from  the  forest  and  the  mountains. 

But  the  Franks,  unaware  of  Soliman's  approach,  advanced  from 
the  forest  and  the  mountains  with  shouting  and  loud  clamor.  There 
they  first  beheld  the  battle  lines  of  Soliman  in  the  midst  of  the  field, 
awaiting  them  for  battle.  When  they  had  seen  the  Turks,  they 
began  to  encourage  one  another  in  the  name  of  the  Lord.  .  .  . 

There  Walter  the  Penniless  fell,  pierced  by  seven  arrows  which 
had  penetrated  his  coat  of  mail.  Reinald  of  Broyes  and  Folker  of 
Chartres,  men  of  the  greatest  renown  in  their  own  lands,  fell  in  like 
martyrdom,  destroyed  by  the  enemy,  though  not  without  great 
slaughter  of  the  Turks.  But  Walter  of  Breteuil,  son  of  Waler- 
amnus,  and  Godfrey  Burel,  master  of  the  foot-soldiers,  having 
slipped  away  in  flight  through  briars  and  thickets,  turned  back 
along  the  narrow  path  where  the  entire  band,  withdrawn  from  bat- 
tle, had  gathered  together.  When  the  flight  and  desertion  of  these 
men  became  known,  all  turned  in  flight,  hastening  their  course 
towards  Civitote  along  the  same  route  by  which  they  had  come,  but 
with  little  defense  against  the  enemy. 

And  so  the  Turks,  rejoicing  in  the  pleasing  success  of  victory, 
were  destroying  the  wretched  band  of  pilgrims,  whom  they  followed 


^(^  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

for  a  distance  of  three  miles,  killing  them  even  at  the  camp  of 
Peter.  And  going  within  the  tents,  they  destroyed  with  the  sword 
whomever  they  found,  the  weak  and  the  feeble,  clerics,  monks,  old 
women,  nursing  children,  persons  of  every  age.  But  they  led  away 
young  girls  whose  face  and  form  was  pleasing  in  their  eyes,  and 
beardless  youths  of  comely  countenance.  They  carried  off  to  Nicaea 
money,  garments,  mules,  horses,  and  all  valuable  things,  as  well 
as  the  tents  themselves. 

But  above  the  shore  of  the  sea,  near  the  aforesaid  Civitote,  was 
an  ancient,  deserted  fortress.  Towards  that  fortress  three  thousand 
pilgrims  rushed  in  flight.  They  entered  the  ruined  fortress  in  hope 
of  defense.  But  finding  no  gates  or  other  obstacles,  and  anxious 
and  deprived  of  aid,  they  piled  up  their  shields  for  a  gate,  along 
with  a  huge  pile  of  rocks ;  and  with  lances,  wooden  bows,  and  sling- 
stones,  they  bravely  defended  themselves  from  the  enemy.  But  the 
Turks,  seeing  that  they  were  having  but  little  success  in  killing 
those  inside,  surrounded  the  fortress,  which  was  without  a  roof, 
on  all  sides.  They  aimed  their  arrows  high,  so  that,  as  they  fell 
from  the  air  in  a  shower,  they  would  strike  the  bodies  of  the  en- 
closed Christians,  destroying  the  poor  wretches;  and  that  all  the 
others,  at  the  sight  of  this,  might  be  compelled  to  surrender.  In 
this  way  very  many  are  said  to  have  been  wounded  and  killed  there ; 
but  the  rest,  fearing  yet  more  cruel  treatment  from  the  impious 
enemy,  could  not  be  compelled  to  come  out  either  by  force  or  by 
arms.  .  .  . 

The  Emperor  was  moved  with  pity  when  he  had  heard  from 
Peter  about  the  siege  and  the  fall  of  his  men.  So  he  summoned 
the  Turcopoles  and  all  the  nations  of  his  kingdom,  and  commanded 
them  to  go  in  all  haste  across  the  Strait  to  the  aid  of  the  fugitive 
and  besieged  Christians,  and  to  drive  the  assaulting  Turks  from 
the  siege.  But  the  Turks,  having  learned  of  the  Emperor's  edict, 
moved  from  the  fortress  at  midnight  with  their  Christian  captives 
and  very  great  spoils,  and  so  the  pilgrim  soldiers  who  had  been  shut 
up  and  besieged  by  the  impious  (Turks)  were  freed.  .  .  . 

(Anna.)  But  relying  on  the  multitude  of  those  who  followed 
him,  Peter  did  not  heed  the  warning  and,  after  crossing  the  strait, 
pitched  camp  at  a  little  town  called  Helenopolis. 

But  since  there  were  also  Normans  in  his  army,  estimated  at 
about  ten  thousand  men,  these,  separating  themselves  from  the 
rest  of  the  body,  devastated  the  region  lying  around  the  city  of 
Nicaea,  rioting  most  cruelly  in  every  way.  For  they  tore  some  of 
the  children  apart,  limb  from  limb  and,  piercing  others  through 
with  wooden  stakes,   roasted  them  in  fire;  likewise,   upon  those 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  ^y 

advanced  in  years  they  inflicted  every  kind  of  torture.  When 
those  in  the  city  saw  this  being  done,  they  opened  the  gates  and 
went  out  against  them.  As  a  result,  a  fierce  battle  took  place,  in 
which,  since  the  Normans  fought  ferociously,  the  citizens  were 
hurled  back  into  the  fortress.  The  Normans,  after  gathering  up  all 
the  plunder,  again  returned  to  Helenopolis.  There  a  quarrel  arose 
between  themselves  and  the  other  pilgrims  who  had  not  gone  off 
with  them,  a  thing  which  usually  happens  in  lan  affair!  of  this  kind, 
envy  inflaming  the  wrath  of  those  left  behind,  and  a  riotous  fight 
followed  the  quarrel.  The  fierce  Normans  again  separated  (from 
the  others)  and  captured  Xerogord  on  their  way  at  the  first  attacks 

When  this  was  learned,  the  Sultan  sent  Elchanes  against  them 
with  a  suitable  number  of  troops.  When  he  reached  them,  he  re- 
captured Xerogord,  killed  some  of  the  Normans  with  the  sword,  and 
carried  off  the  rest  as  captives,  planning  at  the  same  time,  also,  an 
attack  upon  those  who  had  remained  with  Kuku-Peter.  And  he  set 
ambushes  at  opportune  places  into  which,  when  they  left  for  Nicaea, 
they  would  unexpectedly  fall  and  be  killed.  But  knowing  also  of 
the  avarice  of  the  Gauls,  he  had  summoned  two  men  of  bold  spirit 
and  ordered  them  to  go  to  the  camp  of  Kuku-Peter  to  announce 
that  the  Normans  had  captured  Nicaea  and  were  now  sacking  it  to 
the  utmost.  This  report,  brought  to  the  camp  of  Peter,  excited  all 
violently;  for  when  the  mention  of  plunder  and  riches  was  heard, 
they  straightway  set  out  in  tumult  on  the  road  which  leads  to 
Nicaea,  forgetful  of  their  military  training  and  of  observing  dis- 
cipline in  going  out  to  battle.  For  the  Latins  are  not  only  most 
fond  of  riches,  as  we  said  above,  but  when  they  give  themselves  to 
raiding  any  region  for  plunder,  are  also  no  longer  obedient  to 
reason,  or  any  other  check.  Accordingly,  since  they  were  neither 
keeping  order  nor  forming  into  lines,  they  fell  into  the  ambush  of 
the  Turks  around  Draco  and  were  wretchedly  cut  to  pieces.  In- 
deed, so  great  a  multitude  of  Gauls  and  Normans  were  cut  down 
by  the  Ishmaelite  sword  that  when  the  dead  bodies  of  the  killed, 
which  were  lying  all  about  in  the  place,  were  brought  together, 
they  made  a  very  great  mound,  or  hill,  or  look-out  place,  lofty  as  a 
mountain,  and  occupying  a  space  very  conspicuous  for  its  width 
and  depth.  So  high  did  that  mound  of  bones  tower,  that  some 
barbarians  of  the  same  race  as  the  killed  later  used  the  bones  of  the 
slain  instead  of  stones  in  constructing  a  wall,  thus  making  that 
fortress  a  sort  of  sepulchre  for  them.  It  stands  to  this  day,  an 
enclosure  of  walls  built  with  mixed  rocks  and  bones. 

And  thus,  after  all  had  been  wiped  out  in  the  slaughter,  Peter 
returned  with  only  a  few  to  Helenopolis.    The  Turks,  in  their  de- 


78  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

sire  to  get  him  into  their  power,  again  beset  him  with  an  ambush. 
But  when  the  Emperor  heard  of  the  whole  affair  and  learned  how 
great  was  the  slaughter  of  men,  he  held  it  very  wrong  that  Peter 
should  also  be  taken.  Immediately,  therefore,  he  summoned  Cata- 
calon  Constantine  Euphorbenus,^  of  whom  mention  has  often  been 
made  in  this  history,  and  sent  him  with  suitable  forces  on  war- 
vessels  across  the  sea  as  a  succour  to  Peter.  When  the  Turks  saw 
him  approach,  they  fled.  .  .  . 

2.  The  Emperor's  treatment  of  Hugh.  (October,  1096-January, 
1097.) 

(Anna.)  As  we  said  above,  there  were  among  the  Latins  such 
men  as  Bohemund  and  his  fellow  counsellors,  who,  eager  to  obtain 
the  Roman  Empire  for  themselves,  had  been  looking  with  avarice 
upon  it  for  a  long  time.  Seeing  an  opening  for  their  plans  in  the 
expedition  which  was  promoted  by  Peter,  they  stirred  up  this  huge 
movement;  and,  in  order  to  deceive  the  more  simple,  they  feigned 
a  crusade  against  the  Turks  to  regain  the  Holy  Sepulchre  and  sold 
all  their  possessions.  Moreover,  a  certain  Hugh,  brother  of  the 
King  of  France,  who  conducted  himself  with  the  spirit  of  a  navatus 
on  account  6f  his  wealth  and  power,  and  the  nobility  of  his  birth, 
decided  to  leave  his  fatherland,  as  if  to  set  out  for  the  Holy  Sepul- 
chre. Upon  reaching  this  decision,  he  looked  forward  to  a  most 
glorious  meeting  and  announced  in  letters  full  of  swollen  insolence 
to  the  Emperor: 

''Know,  O  King,  that  I  am  King  of  Kings,  and  superior  to  all 
who  are  under  the  sky.  You  are  now  permitted  to  greet  me,  on 
my  arrival,  and  to  receive  me  with  magnificence,  as  befits  my  no- 
bility." 

At  this  time  the  Governor^"  of  Durazzo  was  John,  son  of  Isaac, 
the  Sebastocrator,^^  of  whom  we  have  spoken  above.  Nicolaus 
Maurocatacalon,  in  command  of  the  fleet,  had  arranged  his  ships  at 
stations  around  the  port  of  Durazzo,  so  that  he  could  make  excur- 
sions and  watch  the  seas,  lest,  perchance,  pirate  ships  might  se- 
cretly approach.  To  each  of  these  men,  therefore,  the  Emperor, 
after  hearing  this  letter  (from  Hugh),  immediately  sent  a  message, 
bidding  the  Governor  of  Durazzo  watch  closely  by  land  and  sea 
for  the  arrival  of  this  man,  upon  whose  coming  a  messenger  was  to 
be  sent  quickly  to  the  Emperor.  Hugh,  however,  was  to  be  re- 
ceived magnificently.  He  further  ordered  the  commander  of  the 
fleet  to  be  constantly  alert  and  on  the  watch  with  every  faculty 
awake,  not  with  his  usual  negligence. 

Meanwhile  Hugh  reached  the  seacoast  of  Longobardy;  there  he 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

sent  envoys  to  the  Governor  of  Durazzo,  twenty-four  in  number, 
each  decorated  with  gold  and  red  breastplates.  Along  with  them 
went  Count  Carpenter  and  that  Helia  who  had  fled  from  the  Em- 
peror at  Thessalonica.  These  men  addressed  the  following  message 
to  the  Governor : 

''Be  it  known  to  you,  O  Governor,  that  our  lord,  Hugh,  will  soon' 
be  here,  bringing  with  him  from  Rome  the  golden  banner  of  St. 
Peter;  moreover,  know  that  he  is  the  highest  leader  of  all  the 
armies  of  France.  Prepare  yourself,  therefore,  to  receive  him  and 
the  army  obeying  him  according  to  the  dignity  of  his  power;  and 
gird  yourself  about  to  meet  him." 

While  they  were  thus  commanding  the  Governor,  Hugh,  as  it  is 
said,  came  from  Rome  into  Longobardy ;  and  leaving  Bari  toward 
Illyricum,  he  was  caught  by  a  most  awful  storm  and  lost  the  greater 
number  of  his  ships,  together  with  their  oarsmen  and  passengers. 
The  little  boat  in  which  he  saved  himself  was  cast  up  by  the  waves, 
as  though  they  spewed  it  forth,  on  the  seacoast  which  lies  half 
way  between  Durazzo  and  another  place  called  Palus.  It,  too,  was 
half  cut  to  pieces.  Two  men,  who  were  on  tne  watch  for  his  ar- 
rival, met  him  after  he  had  been  saved  and  pressed  him  with  these 
words:  "The  Governor  is  awaiting  your  arrival,  desiring  very 
miich  to  enjoy  your  coming."  Thereupon,  Hugh  immediately  asked 
for  a  horse,  and  one  of  those  men,  dismounting  from  his  horse, 
very  dutifully  gave  it  over  to  him.  As  a  result,  the  Governor,  after 
seeing  that  Hugh  was  safe,  was  the  first  to  greet  him  and  asked 
whither,  and  whence,  and  what  dangers  and  evils  had  befallen  him 
in  sailing.  And  when  he  had  been  set  upon  his  feet  and  refreshed 
with  kind  words,  the  Governor  then  put  before  him  a  well-prepared 
feast.  After  dinner  hie  loosed  him,  but  did  not  yet  permit  him  to 
walk  about  freely,  for  all  these  things  had  been  quickly  announced 
to  the  Emperor,  and  the  Governor  was  waiting  to  find  out  his 
commands  from  him. 

When  the  Emperor  was  informed,  he  quickly  sent  Butumites  to 
Epidamnus,  which  we  have  often  called  Durazzo,  with  orders 
to  bring  Hugh  back  with  him  and  not  to  return  by  the  direct  road, 
but,  by  turning  aside,  to  bring  him  to  Constantinople  through  Philip- 
popolis;  for  he  was  afraid  of  the  forces  and  thrdngs  of  Gauls  who 
followed.  The  Emperor  treated  him  honorably  with  all  kindness 
and  gave  him,  in  addition,  considerable  sums  of  money.  He  im- 
mediately urged  the  man  to  attach  himself  to  him  (the  Emperor), 
and  to  bind  himself  by  the  customary  oaths  of  the  Latins.  .  .  . 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

3.  Godfrey  at  Constantinople.     (December,  1096-May,  1097.) 

{Gesta.)  Duke  Godfrey  was  the  first  of  all  the  seignors  to 
come  to  Constantinople  with  a  great  army.  He  arrived  two  days 
before  the  Nativity  of  Our  Lord  and  camped  outside  the  city, 
until  the  iniquitous  Emperor  ordered  him  to  be  lodged  in  a  suburb 
of  the  city.  And  when  the  Duke  had  been  so  lodged,  he  used 
to  send  his  squires,  under  pledge,  day  by  day  to  fetch  hay  and 
other  necessities  for  the  horses.  When  now  they  planned  to  go 
wherever  they  wished,  on  the  strength  of  their  pledge,  the  evil 
Emperor  placed  a  watch  upon  them  and  commanded  his  Turcopoles 
and  Patzinaks  to  attack  and  kill  them.  Thereupon,  when  Bald- 
win, brother  of  the  Duke,  heard  of  this,  he  placed  himself  in  am- 
bush and  then  found  them  killing  his  people.  He  attacked  them 
in  great  anger  and,  God  helping,  overcame  them.  Capturing  sixty 
of  them,  he  killed  some  and  presented  the  rest  to  the  Duke,  his 
brother.  When  the  Emperor  had  heard  of  this,  he  was  exceedingly 
angry.  Then  the  Duke,  seeing  that  the  Emperor  was  enraged, 
went  with  his  men  out  of  the  suburb  and  encamped  outside  the  city. 
Moreover,  toward  evening  the  Emperor  ordered  his  forces  to  at- 
tack the  Duke  and  the  people  of  Christ.  The  unconquered  Duke  and 
the  knights  of  Christ  pursued  these,  killed  seven  of  them,  and  drove 
the  rest  even  to  the  gates  of  the  city.  The  Duke,  returning  to  his 
tents,  remained  there  for  five  days,  until  he  had  entered  into  an 
agreement  with  the  Emperor.  The  Emperor  told  him  to  cross  the 
Strait  of  St.  George,  and  promised  to  have  every  kind  of  market 
there,  just  as  at  Constantinople,  and  to  distribute  alms  to  the  poor, 
upon  which  they  could  live. 

{Albert.)  With  his  entire  band  of  pilgrims  Godfrey  withdrew 
to  the  city  of  Constantinople  itself.  There,  after  pitching  their 
tents,  they  lodged,  a  strong  and  powerful  band,  protected  by  armor 
and  all  warlike  equipment.  And,  behold,  at  the  meeting  Hugh, 
Drogo,  William  Carpenter,  and  Clarebold,  set  free  by  the  Emperor, 
were  present,  rejoicing  because  of  the  arrival  of  the  Duke  and  of 
his  multitudes,  and  meeting  the  embrace  of  the  Duke  and  of  the 
others  with  many  a  kiss.  And,  likewise,  the  above  mentioned  mes- 
senger of  the  Emperor  met  the  Duke,  asking  him  to  come  to  the 
palace  of  the  Emperor  with  some  of  the  chiefs  of  his  army,  that 
he  might  hear  the  word  of  the  King.  The  rest  of  his  multitude 
should  remain  outside  the  walls  of  the  city.  Scarcely  had  the 
Duke  received  the  message  when,  behold,  some  strangers  from  the 
land  of  the  Franks  appeared  by  stealth  in  his  camp.  The  strangers 
cautioned  the  Duke  very  strongly  to  beware  of  the  wiles  and  al- 
luring appearance  of  the  Emperor,  and  by  no  means  to  go  to  the  Em- 


.      ^ 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  8i 

peror  because  of  some  flattering  promise,  but  to  sit  outside  the 
walls  and  listen  carefully  to  all  which  the  Emperor  should  propose 
to  him.  Thereupon,  the  Duke,  so  warned  by  the  strangers,  and 
taught  by  the  deception  of  the  Greeks,  did  not  go  to  the  Emperor. 

For  this  reason,  the  Emperor,  moved  by  a  violent  indignation  to- 
wards the  Duke  and  all  his  army,  refused  them  the  privilege  of 
buying  and  selling.  But  when  Baldwin,  brother  of  the  Duke, 
learned  of  the  wrath  of  the  Emperor  and  saw  the  need  of  the 
people  and  their  very  great  lack  of  necessaries,  he  pleaded  with  the 
Duke  and  the  leaders  to  plunder  again  the  region  and  lands  of  the 
Greeks,  and  to  collect  spoils  and  food,  until  the  Emperor,  com- 
pelled by  this  damage,  should  again  grant  the  privilege  of  buying 
and  selHng.  Therefore,  when  the  Emperor  saw  devastation  and 
misfortune  befalling  the  lands  of  his  kingdom,  he  once  more  gave 
to  all  the  privilege  of  buying  and  selling. 

It  was  the  time  of  the  Nativity  of  the  Lord.  At  that  festal  time, 
and  in  those  days  of  peace  and  joy,  it  seemed  to  all  praiseworthy, 
good,  and  acceptable  before  God  that  peace  should  be  restored  on 
both  sides  between  the  household  of  the  Emperor  and  the  Duke 
and  all  the  mighty  ones  of  the  army.  And  so,  when  peace  had  been 
made,  they  withheld  their  hands  from  all  plunder  and  hurt.  Ac- 
cordingly, during  those  four  holy  days  they  rested  in  all  quiet  and 
happiness  before  the  walls  of  the  city  Constantinople. 

Four  days  after,  the  legation  of  the  Emperor  went  to  the  Duke 
asking,  for  the  sake  of  the  Emperor  and  his  entreaties,  that  he  would 
move  his  camp,  and  with  his  army  lodge  in  the  houses  situated  on 
the  shore  of  the  Strait,  so  that  their  tents  might  not  become  wet 
and  worn  from  wintry  cold  and  snow,  which  was  threatening  in 
that  rainy  season.  Finally,  the  Duke  and  all  the  other  leaders 
yielded  to  the  will  of  the  Emperor,  and,  after  moving  their  tents, 
they,  with  all  the  Christian  army,  lodged  in  the  castles  and  turreted 
buildings  which  were  along  the  shore  for  a  distance  of  thirty  miles. 
From  that  day  on  successively  they  found  and  bought  every  abun- 
dance of  food  and  necessities  by  order  of  the  Emperor. 

Shortly  after,  an  embassy  of  the  Emperor  again  appeared  before 
the  Duke,  urging  him  to  go  and  learn  what  the  Emperor  had  to  say. 
This  the  Duke  absolutely  refused  to  do,  having  been  warned  by  the 
strangers  of  the  craftiness  of  the  Emperor.  But  he  sent  to  him 
as  messengers  the  distinguished  men  Conon,  Count  of  Montaigu, 
Baldwin  of  Burg,  and  Godfrey  of  Ascha,  who  were  to  make  ex- 
cuses for  him,  speaking  in  this  manner:  "Duke  Godfrey  to  the 
Emperor;  trust  and  obedience.  Willingly  and  eagerly  would  I 
come  before  you  to  look  upon  the  wealth  and  glory  of  your  house- 


82  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

hold,  were  it  not  that  many  evil  rumors,  which  have  come  to  my 
ears'  regarding  you,  have  terrified  me.  However,  I  know  not 
whether  these  reports  have  been  invented  and  spread  about  from 
envy  or  malice  towards  you."  The  Emperor,  hearing  this,  warmly 
protested  his  innocence  of  all  these  charges,  saying  that  never  should 
the  Duke  or  any  of  his  followers  fear  any  artifice  on  his  part,  but 
that  he  would  serve  and  honor  the  Duke  as  his  son,  and  the  Duke's 
associates  as  his  friends.  Then  the  messengers  of  the  Duke,  on 
their  return,  reported  favorably  on  all  the  good  and  faithful  prom- 
ises which  they  had  heard  from  the  Emperor's  lips.  But  the  Duke, 
still  placing  little  faith  in  the  honeyed  promises  of  the  Emperor, 
again  refused  him  a  conference.  And  so,  between  these  messages 
back  and  forth,  fifteen  days  rolled  away. 

Therefore  the  Emperor,  recognizing  the  firmness  of  the  Duke 
and  that  he  could  not  be  lured  before  him,  again  took  offense  and 
withdrew  the  privilege  of  buying  barley,  and  fish,  and  then  bread, 
so  that  the  Duke,  thus  coerced,  could  not  refuse  to  enter  the  pres- 
ence of  the  Emperor.  The  Emperor,  unsuccessful  in  changing  th^ 
Duke's  mind,  one  day  had  five  hundred  Turcopoles  armed  with 
bows  and  quivers  taken  in  ships  across  the  strait.  Early  in  the 
morning,  they  shot  the  soldiers  of  the  Duke  with  arrows;  some 
they  killed,  others  they  wounded,  keeping  them  all  from  the  shore, 
so  that  they  could  not  there  buy  the  usual  food. 

This  cruel  report  was  carried  immediately  to  the  chair  of  the 
Duke.  He  thereupon  ordered  the  trumpets  to  be  sounded  and  all 
the  people  to  arm  themselves  and  return  to  the  city  of  Constanti- 
nople itself,  and  there  to  replace  their  tents.  After  the  trumpets 
had  been  sounded  at  this  command  of  the  Duke,  all  rushed  to  arms. 
They  laid  waste  the  buildings  and  towers  in  which  they  had  been 
lodged,  setting  fire  to  some,  pulling  others  to  pieces,  thus  causing 
irreparable  damage  to  Constantinople. 

Finally,  when  the  report  of  this  great  fire  and  destruction  had 
reached  the  palace,  the  Duke  became  excessively  alarmed,  fearing 
that  when  the  flaming  buildings  and  the  noise  of  a  moving  army 
had  been  noticed,  the  knights  and  archers  of  the  Emperor  would 
suddenly  seize  the  bridge  over  which  they  had  come  from  the  city 
of  Constantinople  to  the  palatial  residences.  Therefore,  without 
delay  he  sent  Baldwin,  his  brother,  with  five  hundred  armored 
knights  to  seize  the  bridge,  lest  any  force  of  the  Emperor,  an- 
ticipating him,  should  destroy  it,  and  thus  deny  the  pilgrims  pas- 
sage back  and  forth. 

Baldwin  had  scarcely  taken  a  stand  on  the  middle  of  the  bridge, 
when,  behold,  from  right  and  left,  Turcopoles  (the  soldiers  of  the 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  83 

Emperor  brought  over  on  the  ships)  rushed  upon  them  from  all 
sides  with  arrows  and  fiercely  attacked  them.  Baldwin,  unable  to 
resist  from  the  bridge,  hastened  to  escape  their  arrows  by  going 
across  the  bridge.  Along  the  dry  shore  he  swiftly  betook  himself 
to  the  other  side  of  the  bridge,  (hoping)  to  hold  it  and  keep  watch 
upon  the  walls  of  the  lord  and  master  of  the  city  while  the  entire 
army  passed  over  that  bridge,  and  the  Duke  with  his  men  kept 
guard  from  the  rear.  In  the  meantime,  from  the  gates  opposite 
St.  Argenteus  an  infinite  band  of  Turcopoles  and  soldiers  of  every 
kind,  equipped  with  bows  and  arms  of  every  description,  ran  for- 
ward to  attack  Baldwin  and  the  whole  band  of  Christian  people. 
But  in  the  appointed  place  Baldwin,  immovable  and  unconquered, 
withstood  their  every  attack  from  early  morning  even  to  vespers, 
until  the  people  were  taken  across  the  bridge  and  lodged  in  the 
camps  placed  before  the  walls  of  the  city.  Baldwin,  with  his  five 
hundred  knights,  advanced  fiercely  upon  these  same  Turcopoles 
who  had  come  out  from  the  gates  and  were  attacking  the  people. 
Both  sides  having  engaged  in  heavy  battle,  very  many  fell  on  this 
side  and  that,  and  very  many  horses  of  the  Franks  perished  by 
arrows.  But  Baldwin,  conquering  at  last,  forced  these  harried 
and  fleeing  soldiers  of  the  Emperor  to  go  inside  the  gates.  Then 
the  Turcopoles  and  soldiers  of  the  Emperor,  indignant  that  they 
had  been  beaten  and  put  to  flight  in  war,  rushed  forth  again  from 
the  gates  in  larger  numbers  to  harass  and  attack  the  army. 

Then  the  Duke  arrived  and,  since  it  was  night,  brought  an  end  to 
the  fight,  advising  his  brother  to  return  to  camp  with  all  his  forces, 
and  to  keep  his  men  from  fighting  during  the  night.  Likewise,  the 
Emperor  himself,  fearing  that  the  tempest  of  war  would  become 
more  and  more  violent,  and  that  his  soldiers  would  fail  and  perish 
in  the  darkness  of  evening,  commanded  peace  to  be  made,  rejoicing 
that  the  Duke  had  been  willing  to  withdraw  his  army  from  battle. 

But  after  sunrise  the  next  day,  the  people,  surging  forth  at  the 
command  of  the  Duke,  wandered  about  plundering  the  lands  and 
kingdom  of  the  Emperor  for  six  days,  so  that,  to  say  the  least,  the 
pride  of  the  Emperor  and  his  men  seemed  to  be  humbled.  When 
this  became  known,  the  Emperor  began  to  grieve  and  lament  because 
his  lands  and  kingdom  were  being  thus  devastated.  Taking  coun- 
sel immediately,  he  sent  a  message  to  the  Duke  to  the  effect  that  he 
should  prohibit  plunder  and  fire,  and  that  he  himself  would  give 
satisfaction  in  every  respect  to  the  Duke.  The  message  ran  as  fol- 
lows: "Let  enmity  between  you  and  us  cease.  Let  the  Duke, 
upon  receiving  hostages  as  a  pledge  from  me,  advance  without  any 
doubt  that  he  will  come  and  return  unharmed,  assured  of  all  the 


84  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

honor  and  glory  which  we  are  able  to  give  him  and  his  people." 
The  Duke  graciously  agreed,  provided  hostages  were  given  to  whom 
he  could  trust  his  life  and  safety;  then  without  doubt  he  would 
come  to  the  Emperor,  freely  to  speak  by  word  of  mouth. 

Hardly  had  the  legates  of  the  Emperor  departed  after  this  re- 
sponse of  the  Duke,  when,  behold,  certain  other  legates,  coming 
to  the  same  Duke  from  Bohemund,  greeted  him,  speaking  thus: 
**Bohemund,  the  most  wealthy  prince  of  Sicily  and  Calabria,  asks 
that  you  by  no  means  enter  into  peace  with  the  Emperor;  but  that 
you  withdraw  to  Adrianople  and  Philippopolis,  cities  of  the  Bul- 
garians, and  pass  the  winter  there.  You  may  be  certain  that  this 
same  Bohemund  will  come  to  your  aid  with  all  his  troops  early  in 
the  month  of  March,  to  attack  the  Emperor  and  to  invade  his 
kingdom."  After  he  had  heard  the  message  of  Bohemund,  the  Duke 
put  off  answering  it  until  the  next  day.  Then,  upon  the  counsel  of 
his  followers,  he  replied  that  neither  for  gain  nor  for  the  destruc- 
tion of  Christians  had  he  left  his  country  and  kindred,  but,  rather, 
in  the  name  of  Christ  to  pursue  the  way  to  Jerusalem.  He  wished 
to  accompHsh  this  and  to  fight  the  designs  of  the  Emperor,  pro- 
vided he  could  regain  and  keep  his  favor  and  good  will.  The 
messengers  of  Bohemund,  upon  learning  the  reply  and  intention  of 
the  Duke,  were  graciously  commended  by  him  and  returned  to  the 
country  of  Apulia,  reporting  all  as  they  had  heard  it  from  the 
lips  of  the  Duke. 

Learning  of  this  new  embassy  and  suggestion  from  Bohemund, 
the  Emperor  yet  more  earnestly  urged  the  Duke  and  his  friends  to 
enter  upon  an  agreement  with  him;  he  would  give  his  most  be- 
loved son,  John,  as  hostage,  on  condition  that  they  would  make 
peace,  would  pass  through  the  country  quietly,  and  would  meet  him 
in  conference  face  to  face.  Furthermore,  he  would  favor  Godfrey 
and  his  followers  with  the  privilege  of  buying  all  necessaries.  When 
the  Duke  learned  that  these  promises  of  the  Emperor  had  been 
made  in  the  form  of  a  decree,  he  moved  his  camp  from  the  wall  of 
the  city  by  the  advice  of  his  council  and  again  withdrew  across  the 
bridge  to  take  lodging  in  the  fortified  dwellings  on  the  strait.  He 
admonished  all  his  people  to  remain  at  peace,  and  to  purchase  what- 
ever was  necessary  without  disturbance. 

On  the  following  day,  he  commanded  Conon,  Count  of  Mon- 
taigu,  and  Baldwin  of  Burg,  most  noble  men  and  skilled  in  speak- 
ing, to  come  before  him.  He  then  confidently  directed  them  to  re- 
ceive as  hostage  the  Emperor's  son,  which  was  done.  When,  there- 
fore, the  Emperor's  son  had  been  brought  and  placed  in  faithful 
custody  under  the  power  of  the  Duke  and  his  men,  the  Duke  was 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  ,  85 

carried  at  once  by  boat  through  the  Strait  to  Constantinople.  Ac- 
companied by  the  distinguished  men,  Werner  of  Grez,  Peter  of 
Dampierre,  and  the  other  leaders,  he  boldly  advanced  to  the  Court 
of  the  Emperor  and  stood  before  him,  that  he  might  hear  his  word 
and  reply  to  him  by  word  of  mouth.  Baldwin,  however,  by  no 
means  entered  then  into  the  palace  of  the  Emperor,  but  remained 
on  the  shore  with  the  multitude. 

Upon  seeing  the  magnificence  of  the  Duke  and  all  his  men,  hon- 
orably clad,  as  they  were,  in  splendid  and  rich  apparel  of  purple 
and  gold,  bordered  with  ermine  white  as  snow,  with  martin,  and 
other  kinds  of  fur,  such  as  the  princes  of  Gaul,  especially,  wear, 
the  Emperor  heartily  admired  their  pomp  and  splendor.  He  first 
graciously  received  the  Duke,  then  all  his  chiefs  and  companions, 
whom  he  honored  with  the  kiss  of  peace.  Moreover,  the  Emperor 
sat  in  majesty  upon  his  throne,  according  to  his  custom,  and  did 
not  rise  to  give  the  kiss  to  the  Duke,  or  anyone.  But  the  Duke, 
together  with  his  men,  bowed  with  bended  knees  to  kiss  so  glorious 
and  great  an  Emperor.  When  at  last  all  had  received  the  kiss, 
according  to  their  rank,  he  spoke  to  the  Duke  in  these  words :  "I 
have  heard  that  you  are  the  most  mighty  knight  and  prince  in  your 
land,  a  man  most  prudent  and  of  perfect  trust.  In  the  presence  of 
this  multitude  and  more  to  come,  I,  therefore,  take  you  for  my 
adopted  son;  and  all  that  I  possess  I  place  in  your  power,  that 
through  you  my  empire  and  lands  may  be  saved  and  freed." 

The  Duke,  appeased  and  seduced  by  these  friendly  and  lofty  words 
of  the  Emperor,  not  only  recognized  himself  as  his  son,  according 
to  the  custom  of  the  country,  but,  likewise,  giving  him  his  hand, 
declared  himself  his  vassal,  together  with  the  princes  then  present, 
who  followed  the  Duke  in  the  ceremony.  Nor  was  there  delay. 
Invaluable  gifts  of  all  kinds  were  brought  from  the  treasury  of 
the  Emperor,  both  gold  and  silver,  purples,  mules,  and  horses,  and 
all  that  he  held  valuable.  So,  indeed,  the  Emperor  and  the  Duke 
were  bound  by  the  indissoluble  bond  of  perfect  faith  and  friend- 
ship, from  the  time  of  the  Nativity  of  the  Lord,  when  the  agreement 
took  place,  even  to  a  few  days  before  Pentecost.  Every  week,  four 
men,  bearing  gold  besants,  with  ten  measures  of  money  called  tar- 
taron,  were  sent  from  the  palace  of  the  Emperor  to  the  Duke  to 
provide  sustenance  for  the  soldiers.  Wonderful  to  relate!  All, 
that  the  Duke  distributed  to  his  men  from  the  gifts  of  the  Emperor 
was  forthwith  returned  to  the  treasury  of  the  Emperor  in  exchange 
for  food.  Nor  is  this  to  be  wondered  at,  for  none  but  the  Emper- 
or's wares  (such  as  wine,  and  oil,  as  well  as  grain,  barley,  and  every 
kind  of  food)  were  in  that  whole  kingdom.    And  thus  the  treasury 


86  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

of  the  Emperor  was  always  filled  with  gold  and  could  not  be  emptied 

by  any  extravagance.  j    t_    -n.  i     u  a 

After  peace  and  concord  between  the  Emperor  and  the  Duke  had 
been  made  on  the  conditions  we  have  named,  the  Duke,  still  more 
certain  of  the  Emperor's  faith  and  friendship,  returned  to  lodge  in 
the  buildings  on  the  Strait  and  sent  back  with  honor  the  Emperor's 
son,  who  had  remained  a  hostage  up  to  this  time.  On  the  day 
following,  it  was  announced  through  the  entire  army,  by  order  of 
the  Duke,  that  peace  and  honor  should  be  shown  to  the  Emperor  and 
to  all  in  his  command,  and  that  justice  should  be  preserved  in  trans- 
actions of  buying  and  selling.  Similarly,  the  Emperor  proclaimed 
in  all  his  realm  that  no  one,  under  penalty  of  death,  should  harm 
or  defraud  any  one  of  the  army,  but  that  they  should  sell  all  things 
with  just  weight  and  measure  to  the  pilgrims,  and,  indeed,  should 
lessen  the  price. 

After  these  events,  at  the  beginning  of  Lent,  the  Emperor  sum- 
moned the  Duke  into  his  presence  and  begged  him,  on  his  pledge 
of  friendship,  to  cross  the  sea  and  pitch  his  tents  in  Cappadocia,  on 
account  of  the  buildings  which  his  incorrigible  people  were  de- 
stroying. The  Duke  graciously  assented  to  this,  and,  after  cross- 
ing the  river  and  pitching  camp,  he  and  his  people  tarried  on  the 
plains  of  Cappadocia. 

After  this,  everything  was  gradually  sold  more  dearly  to  the 
pilgrims,  but,  nevertheless,  the  gifts  of  the  Emperor  to  the  Duke 
were  not  at  all  diminished,  for  he  feared  him  greatly.  But  the 
Duke,  seeing  the  difficulty  of  buying  necessaries  and  unable  to  en- 
dure the  clamor  of  his  people,  went  often  by  ship  to  the  Emperor 
and  complained  to  him  about  the  high  price  of  food  stuffs.  Then 
the  Emperor,  as  though  unaware  of  this,  and  unwilling  to  have  it 
occur,  again  lightened  the  burden  for  all  the  pilgrims. 

(Anna.)  At  that  time,  too,  came  Count  Godfrey,  who  had 
crossed  the  sea  with  the  other  counts  and  was  accompanied  by  an 
army  of  10,000  knights  and  70,000  foot-soldiers.  He  established 
his  force  about  the  Propontis,  his  camp  extending  from  the  bridge 
which  was  opposite  Cosmidion  up  to  St.  Phocas.  While  the  Emp- 
eror urged  him  to  cross  the  strait  of  the  Propontis,  he  went  on  from 
day  to  day  contriving  one  excuse  or  another  and  put  off  the  mat- 
ter. The  real  reason,  to  state  the  matter  simply,  was  that  he  was 
awaiting  the  arrival  of  Bohemund  and  the  other  counts.  For, 
though  in  the  beginning  Peter  had  aroused  this  great  expedition 
to  adore  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  the  other  counts,  Bohemund  above 
all,  were  cherishing  in  mind  the  old  grudge  against  the  Emperor  and 
were  awaiting  a  favorable  opportunity  to  take  vengeance  on  him 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  87 

for  the  splendid  victory  which  he  had  gained  over  Bohemund  v^hen 
the  latter  engaged  him  in  battle  at  Larissa.  And  dreaming  that  if 
they  were  of  one  mind  they  could  take  Constantinople  itself,  they 
had  combined  with  the  same  thought  and  purpose  of  which  we  have 
often  made  mention  above.  Thus,  apparently  they  were  making 
an  expedition  to  Jerusalem;  in  reality,  however,  they  wanted  to^^ 
divest  the  Emperor  of  his  kingdom  and  take  Constantinople.  But 
the  Emperor,  long  since  acquainted  with  their  wiles,  by  letter  or- 
dered forces  of  Gentiles  with  their  leaders  to  be  stationed  by  squad- 
rons from  the  Athyras  river  up  to  Philea,  a  seaport  on  the  Black 
Sea.  (He  also  ordered  them)  to  watch  in  ambush  for  anyone  sent, 
perchance,  by  Godfrey  to  Bohemund  and  the  rest  of  the  counts  who 
were  following,  or  by  these,  in  turn,  to  him,  and  to  deny  these 
messengers  all  passage. 

In  the  meantime,  while  this  was  going  on,  the  following  incident 
occurred,  somewhat  in  this  way.  The  Emperor  had  summoned  be- 
fore him  some  of  the  counts  who  had  come  with  Godfrey,  in  order 
to  urge  that  they  consent  to  persuade  Godfrey  to  carry  out  the 
promise  which  he  had  made  under  oath.  While  the  time  was  thus 
being  dragged  out  longer  (than  expected),  for  the  reason  that  the 
Latin  race  is  by  nature  exceedingly  garrulous  and  wordy,  there 
was  reported  to  these  people  the  false  rumor  that  the  counts  had 
been  taken  into  custody  at  the  Emperor's  command.  Thereupon, 
the  Latin  legions  surged  together  in  a  huge  crowd  and  moved  upon 
Byzantium  and  without  delay  utterly  destroyed  the  palaces  which  ^ 
are  situated  toward  the  swamp  called  Argyra.  At  the  same  time  "" 
they  tried  the  walls  of  the  city,  not  with  siege  machines,  for  they 
were  not  at  hand,  but,  trusting  in  their  multitude,  they  resorted  to  a 
piece  of  insolence:  they  dared  to  set  fire  to  the  lower  gate  of  the 
palace  located  near  the  Temple,  which  had  been  built  in  olden 
times  by  one  of  the  Emperors  under  the  invocation  of  Nicolaus, 
the  greatest  of  the  holy  pontiffs. 

At  the  sight  of  the  Latin  legions,  not  only  did  all  of  the  basest 
class,  the  foolish  and  the  unwarlike,  groan,  cry  out,  and  beat  their 
breasts  in  their  fear,  not  knowing  what  else  to  do ;  but  even  the 
zealous  adherents  of  the  Emperor,  mindful  of  that  Friday  on  which 
the  seizure  of  the  city  had  formerly  taken  place,^^  feared  the  pres- 
ent day  lest  vengeance  should  fall  violently  upon  them  for  the  deeds 
committed  at  that  time.  However,  all  who  had  any  acquaintance 
with  military  practice  and  skill  poured  in  at  the  regal  palace, 
each  man  coming  by  himself.  But  the  Emperor  neither  armed  his'^ 
sides  with  breastplate  of  scale-armor,  his  left  hand  with  a  shield, 
his  right  with  a  spear,  nor  girded  himself  about  with  a  sword; 


88  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

but,  clothed  in  royal  raiment,  he  seated  himself  upon  the  imperial 
throne,  as  though  secure.  Thus,  on  the  one  hand,  he  reassured  all, 
injecting  courage  into  their  hearts  by  his  happy  look,  and,  on  the 
other,  he  discussed  with  his  advisers  and  military  leaders  plans  for 
coming  events.  First  of  all,  he  absolutely  refused^  to  have  any 
armed  band  led  outside  of  the  walls  against  the  Latins,  this  for  a 
twofold  reason:  First,  because  this  was  the  most  sacred  of  days, 
for  it  was  Friday  of  the  greatest,  of  Holy,  Week,  when  the  Saviour 
had  undergone  ignominious  death  for  all.  In  the  second  place,  he 
refused  to  engage  in  civil  war  between  Christians.  Therefore,  by 
means  of  frequent  messengers  to  the  Latins  he  wished  to  bring 
about  the  cessation  of  the  undertaking  which  they  had  begun,  say- 
ing :  "Remember  that  on  this  day  there  died  for  us  the  Lord,  who 
for  the  sake  of  our  salvation  did  not  fear  to  endure  the  cross,  nails 
and  the  lance,  punishments  befitting  criminals.  But  if  your  desire 
for  a  fight  is  so  great,  we,  too,  will  stand  ready  after  the  coming 
day  of  the  Lord's  resurrection." 

But  the  Latins  were  so  far  from  yielding  to  him  that  they  closed 
their  ranks  and  threw  missies  in  such  profusion  that  they  struck 
across  the  chest  one  of  the  men  standing  near  the  Emperor's  throne. 
At  the  sight  of  this,  most  of  those  who  were  standing  near  fell  back, 
here  and  there,  from  the  Emperor,  while  he,  meanwhile,  remained 
on  his  throne,  not  only  without  any  sign  of  fear,  but  likewise  re- 
assuring them  and  chiding  them  greatly  for  their  fear.  All  ad- 
mired his  presence  of  mind. 

Finally,  when  he  saw  that  the  Latins,  bereft  of  all  shame,  were 
invading  the  walls  of  the  city  and  scorning  his  useful  counsel, 
he  first  summoned  his  son-in-law,  Nicephorus,^^  and  commanded 
him  to  take  with  him  the  strongest  men  and  those  skilled  in  shoot- 
ing arrows  and  go  to  the  top  of  the  wall.  He  advised  him,  at  the 
same  time,  to  hurl  down  weapons  on  the  Latins  as  frequently  as 
possible,  but,  for  the  most  part,  harmlessly,  with  bad  aim,  in  order 
to  frighten  them,  not  to  kill  them.  For,  as  was  said  above,  the 
Emperor  respected  the  religious  significance  of  the  day  and  did  not 
wish  to  engage  in  civil  war  between  Christians.  At  the  same 
time,  he  ordered  some  other  chosen  leaders  (each  with  his  co- 
horts, most  of  them  provided  with  bows,  but  some  armed  with 
long  lances)  to  charge  forth  suddenly  from  the  gate  which  is  close 
to  St.  Romanus,  thus  presenting  the  appearance  of  violence  to  the 
enemy.  The  battle  line  was  so  arranged  that  each  spearman  should 
march  protected  on  each  side  by  bowmen  armed  with  shields.  Thus 
arrayed,  they  were  ordered  to  advance  against  the  enemy  at  a  slow 
pace,  and   archers,   instructed  to  turn  about   frequently   here  and 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  89 

there,  were  sent  ahead  to  wound  the  Gauls  at  close  quarters.  Now, 
when  the  two  lines  were  a  slight  distance  apart,  they  were  then  to 
order  those  bowmen  who  had  spearmen  at  their  side  to  use  their 
bows  carefully,  aiming  at  the  horses  of  the  enemy,  sparing  the 
riders ;  and  it  was  further  ordered  that  the  spearmen  should  charge 
with  loose  reins  upon  the  Latins  and  with  the  full  weight  of  their 
horses.  He  gave  that  order  with  this  in  mind,  that  when  their 
horses  were  wounded,  the  violence  of  the  Gallic  attack  would  lan- 
guish and  the  Romans  would  not  easily  be  pursued  by  the  knights ; 
and  this,  also,  which  he  especially  desired,  that  as  little  Christian 
blood  as  possible  should  be  shed.  These  men  with  ready  courage 
did  what  they  had  been  commanded  by  the  Emperor,  and,  after  the 
gates  had  been  suddenly  opened,  they  rushed  against  the  enemy, 
now  giving  free  rein  to  their  horses,  now  checking  them.  Thus  they 
killed  many  of  the  enemy ;  a  few  of  our  men  were  wounded  in  this 
affair  that  day.  ...  At  length  the  Emperor  sent  in  his  own  forces 
and  scattered  and  routed  the  legions  of  the  Latins. 

On  the  next  day,  Hugh  set  out  to  meet  Godfrey  and  counselled 
him  to  make  peace  with  the  Emperor,  if  he  did  not  want  to  try  the 
warlike  skill  of  the  latter  anew,  to  his  own  hurt,  but  especially  to 
pledge  that  he  would  keep  inviolate  his  faith  to  the  Emperor.  God- 
frey received  him  very  bitterly  saying,  "Have  not  you,  who  came 
from  home  in  the  spirit  and  surroundings  of  a  king,  with  great 
forces  and  wealth,  now  debased  yourself  from  highest  dignity  to 
the  condition  and  lot  of  a  humble  client?  And  then,  as  if  this  were 
some  great  and  distinguished  deed,  you  have  come  to  urge  me,  too, 
to  this  same  fate!"  In  reply  to  him  Hugh  said,  'Tn  the  first  place, 
we  ought  not  to  have  departed  from  our  own  lands,  and  we  ought 
to  have  stayed  away  from  those  of  others;  but  after  we  have  come 
hither  to  this  place,  where  we  may  have  necessities  by  the  benevo- 
lent care  and  providence  of  him  who  rules  here,  our  business  will 
not  turn  out  happily  unless  we  accede  to  his  counsels  and  demands." 

When  Hugh  had  returned,  the  matter  only  made  worse,  the  Emp- 
eror, informed  through  other  sources  that  the  rest  of  the  counts  who 
were  following  Godfrey  c.t  a  distance  were  already  near,  sent  chosen 
leaders  with  their  forces  to  the  army  of  Godfrey  with  orders  to 
persuade  him,  but,  if  necessary,  to  compel  him  to  cross  the  Strait. 
When  the  Latins  saw  them  coming,  without  delay  or  even  question 
of  what  was  wanted,  they  sprang  up  immediately  to  blows  and  bat- 
tle. There  occurred  a  most  bitter  conflict  between  them,  in  which 
many  on  both  sides  fell.  Those  of  our  men  who  rushed  too  boldly 
into  the  fray  were  wounded,  but,  as  the  Romans  were  conducting 
themselves  valiantly,  the  Latins  turned  their  backs.     And  thus,  at 


go  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

length  Godfrey  after  a  short  time  obeyed  the  Emperor.  He  came 
to  him  and  in  solemn  manner  took  the  oath  which  was  demanded 
of  him:  that  whatever  cities,  lands,  or  fortresses  he  should  thence- 
forth capture  from  the  barbarians  (which  cities,  lands,  or  fortresses 
had  formerly  belonged  to  the  Emperor)  he  would  in  good  faith 
hand  over  to  the  military  leaders  or  prefects  who  should  be  sent  by 
the  Emperor  for  this  very  purpose.  When  this  had  been  confirmed 
by  oath,  Godfrey  was  enriched  with  great  gifts  by  the  Emperor; 
he  was  received  in  the  imperial  palace  and  magnificently  dined  at 
the  royal  table.  He  then  crossed  the  Strait  and  pitched  his  camp  at 
Pelecamun,^'  the  Emperor  seeing  to  it  that  an  ample  supply  of  ne- 
cessities was  provided  everywhere. 

4.  Alexius  and  the  minor  leaders.     (February-April,  1097?) 

(Anna.)      After   this,   there   arrived   shortly   a   count   who   was 
called  Raoul.^^    He  encamped  with  the  counts  of  his  following  near 
the  Propontis,  close  to  the  monastery  called  the  Patriarch's;  the 
rest  of  his  forces  he  spread  out  even  to  Sosthenium  itself.     More- 
over, as  he,  like  Godfrey,  was  putting  off  the  day  of  crossing,  await- 
ing the  arrival  of  the  other  forces  and  counts  who  were  yet  to 
come,  the  Emperor,  conjecturing  rightly  about  the  future,   feared 
that  they  would  arrive  and  took  care  with  every  act  and  counsel  to 
hasten  the  transportation  of  these  men.    For  this  task  he  summoned 
Opus,  a  man  second  to  none  in  valor,  prudence,  and  military  knowl- 
edge, and  ordered  him  to  go  with  other  valiant  troops  by  land  to  the 
camp  of  Raoul.     He  commanded  him  to  use  every  means  which 
necessity  should  demand  to  compel  him  and  all  his  men  to  cross  the 
Strait.    When  Opus  saw  that  Raoul  was  by  no  means  ready  to  obey 
the  Emperor,  nay,  was  even  insolent  and  haughty,  offering  many 
threats  against  the  Emperor,  he  made  ready  his  arms  and  drew  up 
a  line  of  battle,  hoping,  perchance,  to  terrify  the  barbarians  with 
this  sight  and  thus  to  induce  them  to  cross  to  the  other  shore.     But 
Raoul  and  his  Gauls  drew  up  their  lines  quicker  than  the  v^ord  and 
immediately   entered   into   a   great   battle   with   Opus.      By  chance 
Pegasius  arrived  at  that  very  time  with  ships  in  which  to  take  the 
forces  to  Asia.     Watching  the  fight  on  shore  from  the  sea,  and 
seeing  that  the  Gauls  were  charging  the  Roman  army  too  fiercely, 
he   disembarked  and   attacked  the   Gauls   from  the   rear.     Hence, 
many   were  killed,   and  very  many   were  wounded.     Thus   it  was 
brought  about  that  those  who  survived  the  battle  now  sought  pas- 
sage over  to  the  other  side.     But  the  Emperor,  with  his  most  far- 
sighted  caution,  foresaw  that  when  Raoul's  knights  sliould  tell  God- 
frey what  had  befallen  them,  they  would  arouse  the  latter  against 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  91 

himself.  So  he  very  freely  granted  their  request,  but  when  they 
had  been  placed  on  ship,  he  took  them  by  sea  to  the  Sepulchre  of 
the  Lord,  the  very  thing  which  they  especially  sought.  He  like- 
wise sent  messages  to  those  counts  who  were  even  then  expected 
and  held  forth  words  of  good-will,  bidding  them  expect  every  good ; 
and  so,  when  they  came  to  Constantinople,  they  did  with  alacrity 
all  that  was  demanded  of  them.    But  so  much  for  Count  Raoul. 

Following  the  latter  closely  came  an  innumerable  multitude  gath- 
ered from  almost  all  the  provinces  and  lands  of  Gaul,  together  with 
the  kings,  dukes,  counts,  and  even  bishops,  who  led  them.  The 
Emperor  sent  his  men  out  to  meet  them  and  received  them  with 
words  full  of  grace,  for  he  was  conspicuous  for  his  foresight  of 
what  was  to  happen  and  for  seizing  with  dexterity  upon  the  means 
useful  for  the  occasion.  In  addition,  he  bade  men  appointed  for 
this  purpose  see  that  there  was  an  abundance  of  food-stuffs  and 
needed  articles  ready  everywhere  for  the  coming  armies,  lest  any 
occasion,  or  pretext,  be  afforded  them  for  venturing  upon  any  hos- 
tile act  whatsoever.  However,  as  they  flowed  together  at  Con- 
stantinople, one  might  have  likened  them  to  the  stars  of  the  sky, 
or  to  the  sands  which  have  been  cast  up  on  shores  of  the  sea.  Truly, 
as  Homer  said,  there  were  as  many  heads  of  men  as  there  are  leaves 
and  flowers  that  fall  in  the  autumn.  All  these  were  hastening  to 
reach  the  city  of  Constantine.  Nay,  even  though  I  desire  to  report 
the  names  of  their  leaders  themselves,  I  cannot  bring  them  to  mind 
to  set  down;  for  my  tongue  becomes  dumb,  partly  at  the  barbarous 
names,  which  it  is  not  possible  to  pronounce  because  of  their  un- 
explained sound,  and  partly,  as  I  look  back,  at  the  huge  number 
of  them.  But  what  would  be  gained  by  taking  the  trouble  to  write 
the  names  of  such  a  multitude,  the  very  sight  of  whom  wearied 
those  who  were  there? 

The  armies  which  reached  the  city  at  the  same  time  were  located 
by  the  Emperor's  command  near  the  monastery  of  Cosmidion,  the 
camp  extending  so  widely  that  it  touched  the  Temple  itself.  Not 
nine  heralds  restrained  this  throng  by  shouting,  as  in  ancient  times 
they  restrained  the  Greeks,  but  valiant  sturdy  knights,  who  fol- 
lowed the  multitude  of  Latins  in  sufficient  number,  gave  ample  as- 
surance that  they  would  heed  the  commands  of  the  Emperor.  He 
desired  them  to  subscribe  to  the  same  oath  by  which  Godfrey  had 
bound  himself  and  called  them  before  him,  one  by  one,  to  discuss 
with  them  separately  what  he  wished.  Those  whom  he  found  more 
amenable  he  used  as  intercessors  in  overcoming  the  reluctance  of 
the  more  obstinate.  Nevertheless,  since  those  who  were  awaiting 
the  impending  arrival  of  Bohemund  were  not  won  over,  but  were 


92  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

thinking  up  new  demands  to  be  made  from  the  Emperor  and  adding 
additional  demands  to  those  already  made,  the  Emperor  very  easily 
frustrated  the  designs  which  were  concealed  by  them.  Approach- 
ing them  in  various  ways,  he  at  length  compelled  them  to  yield  to 
the  oath  of  Godfrey,  who  had  been  summoned  across  the  water 
from  Pelecamim  in  order  to  be  present  at  the  taking  of  the  solemn 
oath. 

When  all  were  assembled  for  this  purpose,  Godfrey  likewise  pres- 
ent, and  the  oath  had  already  been  taken,  a  certain  one  of  the 
counts,  a  noble,  forsooth,  mounted  the  Emperor's  throne  and  seated 
himself  on  it.  The  Emperor  refrained  from  saying  anything  against 
the  man,  for  he  had  long  been  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  un- 
wonted arrogance  of  the  Latins.  Count  Baldwin,  however,  ap- 
proached and,  grasping  the  man  by  the  hand,  shook  him  and,  with 
much  cursing,  said :  ''You  are  not  permitted  on  solemn  oath  to  do 
anything  like  this  here,  especially  after  you  have  professed  service 
to  the  Emperor,  for  it  is  not  customary  for  Roman  Emperors  to 
let  their  subjects  share  their  throne.  Sworn  servants,  moreover, 
should  observe  the  customs  of  the  land  in  which  they  are."  Upon 
hearing  this,  the  man  said  nothing,  indeed,  to  Baldwin,  but  gazing 
on  the  Emperor  with  angry  eyes,  he  muttered  to  Kimself  in  his 
native  tongue  words  like  these,  ''Behold,  how  boorish  a  person  sits 
here  alone,  while  such  dukes  as  we  stand  about  him!"  The  motion 
of  the  Latin  man's  lips  did  not  escape  the  Emperor,  who  immedi- 
ately called  an  interpreter  acquainted  with  his  tongue.  When  he 
learned  the  meaning  of  the  speech,  he  said  nothing  to  the  Latin 
then,  ]jut  kept  his  words  in  mind.  When  the  ceremony  was  over 
and  the  counts  were  saying  farewell  to  the  Emperor,  one  by  one, 
as  they  were  about  to  leave,  he  had  the  very  arrogant  and  impudent 
Latin  summoned  and  asked  him  who,  and  whence  he  was,  and  of 
what  race  he  was  born. 

He  answered :  "I  am  a  pure  Frank  of  noble  birth.  Moreover, 
I  know  one  (thing).  In  the  section  of  the  country  where  I  was 
born  stands  a  temple,  built  long  ago,  in  which  any  person  who 
wishes  to  engage  in  battle  with  someone,  and  does  not  hesitate  to 
give  his  name  freely  in  professing  this  boldness,  is  wont  to  implore 
the  aid  of  the  saint,  delaying  there  until  an  adversary  appears  who 
dares  to  join  hands  with  him.  In  this  meeting  place  I  remained  for 
a  long  time,  awaiting  someone  to  contend  with  me;  but  there  was 
never  anyone  who  dared." 

The  Emperor,  hearing  these  things,  replied:  *'Well,  if  in  your 
quest  of  an  adversary  you  did  not  then  find  one,  the  time  is  now 
at  hand  which  will  afford  you  more  than  enough  opponents.     How- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  93 

ever,  I  advise  you  not  to  place  yourself  either  among  those  who 
bring  up  the  rear  line  of  battle  or  among  those  who  precede  the 
standards,  but  that  you  take  a  place  between  the  first  and  last 
ranks.  For  I  know  from  long  experience  the  manner  of  fighting 
among  the  Turks." 

And  he  gave  this  salutary  advice  not  only  to  him,  but  also  to  all 
the  others,  to  whom  he  told  what  was  about  to  happen,  urging 
strongly  that  they  should  not  pursue  the  Turks  too  eagerly,  since  by 
the  will  of  God  they  would  conquer  these  barbarians  anyway.  He 
urged,  also,  that  they  should  look  out  for  ambushes,  lest  they  fall 
into  them  and  be  killed.  So  much  may  be  said  about  Godfrey  and 
Raoul  and  the  others  following  them. 

5.  Bohemund  and  the  Emperor.     (April  lO-May,  1097.) 

(Gesta.)  When  the  Emperor  heard  that  the  most  honorable 
man,  BohemtHid,  had  come  to  him,  he  commanded  that  he  be  re- 
ceived with  honor  and  carefully  lodged  outside  the  city  .  When  he 
had  been  so  lodged,  the  evil  Emperor  sent  for  him  to  come  to  speak 
with  him  in  secret.  Thither,  also,  came  Duke  Godfrey  with  his 
brother,  and  at  length  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  approached  the  city. 
Then  the  Emperor  in  anxious  and  fervid  rage  was  pondering  some 
way  by  which  they  might  seize  these  knights  of  Christ  adroitly  and 
by  fraud.  But  Divine  Grace  disclosing  (his  plans),  neither  time 
nor  place  was  found  by  him,  or  his  men,  to  do  them  ill.  At  last, 
all  the  noble  leaders  who  were  at  Constantinople  were  assembled. 
Fearing  lest  they  should  be  deprived  of  their  country,  they  decided 
in  their  counsels  and  ingenious  calculations  that  our  dukes,  counts, 
or  all  the  leaders,  ought  to  make  an  oath  of  fealty  to  the  Emperor. 
These  absolutely  refused  and  said:  "It  is  indeed  unworthy  of  us, 
and,  furthermore,  it  seems  to  us  unjust  to  swear  an  oath  to  him." 
Perchance  we  shall  yet  often  be  deceived  by  our  leaders.  In  the 
end,  what  were  they  to  do?  They  say  that  under  the  force  of 
necessity  they  humiliated  themselves,  willy-nilly,  to  the  will  of  the 
most  unjust  Emperor.  To  that  most  mighty  man  Bohemund,  how- 
ever, whom  he  greatly  feared  because  in  times  past  he  (Bohemund) 
had  often  driven  him  from  the  field  with  his  army,^®  the  Emperor 
said  that,  if  he  willingly  took  the  oath  to  him,  he  would  give  him, 
in  return,  land  in  extent  from  Antioch  fifteen  days  journey,  and 
eight  in  width.  And  he  (the  Emperor)  swore  to  him  in  such  wise 
that,  if  he  loyally  observed  that  oath,  he  would  never  pass  beyond 
his  own  land.^^  Knights,  so  brave  and  so  sturdy,  why  did  they  do 
this?  For  the  reason  that  they  were  constrained  by  much  necessity. 
The  Emperor  also  gave  to  all  our  men  a  pledge  of  security.     He 


94  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

likewise  took  oath  that  he,  together  with  his  army,  would  come  with 
us,  by  land  and  by  sea ;  that  he  would  afford  us  faithfully  a  market 
by  land  and  sea,  and  that  he  would  diligently  make  good  our  losses ; 
in  addition,  that  he  did  not  wish,  and  would  not  permit,  any  of  our 
pilgrims  to  be  disturbed  or  come  to  grief  on  their  way  to  the 
Holy  Sepulchre. 

(Anna.)  But  when  Bohemund  had  arrived  at  Apri  with  his 
companions,  realizing  both  that  he  was  not  of  noble  birth,  and  that 
for  lack  of  money  he  had  not  brought  with  him  a  large  enough 
army,  he  hastened,  with  only  ten  Gauls,  ahead  of  the  other  counts 
and  arrived  at  Constantinople.  He  did  this  to  win  the  favor  of 
the  Emperor  for  himself,  and  to  conceal  more  safely  the  plans 
which  he  was  concocting  against  him.  Indeed,  the  Emperor,  to 
whom  the  schemes  of  the  man  were  known,  for  he  had  long  since 
become  acquainted  with  the  hidden  and  deceitful  dealings  of  this 
same  Bohemund,  took  great  pains  to  arrange  it  so  that  before  the 
other  counts  should  come  he  would  speak  with  him  alone.  Thus 
having  heard  what  Bohemund  had  to  say,  he  hoped  to  persuade  him 
to  cross  before  the  others  came,  lest,  joined  with  them  after  their 
coming,  he  might  pervert  their  minds. 

When  Bohemund  had  come  to  him,  the  Emperor  greeted  hini 
with  gladness  and  inquired  anxiously  about  the  journey  and  where 
he  had  left  his  companions.  Bohemund  responded  to  all  these 
things  as  he  thought  best  for  his  own  interests,  affably  and  in  a 
friendly  way,  while  the  Emperor  recalled  in  a  familiar  talk  his  bold 
undertakings  long  ago  around  Durazzo  and  Larissa  and  the  hostili- 
ties between  them  at  that  time.  Bohemund  answered^  *'Then  I 
confess  I  was  your  enemy,  then  I  was  hostile.  But,  behold,  I  now 
stand  before  you  like  a  deserter  to  the  ranks  of  the  enemy !  I  am 
a  friend  of  your  Majesty."  The  Emperor  proceeded  to  scrutinize 
the  man,  considering  him  cautiously  and  carefully  and  drawing  out 
what  was  in  his  mind.  As  soon  as  he  saw  that  Bohemund  was  ready 
to  consent  to  swear  an  oath  of  fealty  to  him,  he  said,  '*You  must 
be  tired  from  the  journey  and  should  retire  to  rest.  We  will  talk 
tomorrow  about  anything  else." 

So  Bohemund  departed  to  Cosmidion,  where  hospitality  was  pre- 
pared for  him,  and  he  found  a  table  richly  laden  with  an  abundance 
of  food  and  condiments  of  all  kinds.  Then  the  cooks  came  and 
showed  him  the  uncooked  flesh  of  animals  and  birds,  saying:  ''We 
have  prepared  this  food  which  you  see  on  the  table  according  to  our 
skill  and  the  custom  of  this  region;  but  if,  perchance,  these  please 
you  less,  here  is  food,  still  uncooked,  which  can  be  prepared  just 
as   you   order."     The   Emperor,  because   of   his   almost   incredible 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  95 

tact  in  handling  men,  had  commanded  that  this  be  done  and  said 
by  them;  For,  since  he  was  especially  expert  in  penetrating  the 
secrets  of  minds  and  in  discovering  the  disposition  of  a  man,  he 
very  readily  understood  that  Bohemund  was  of  a  shrewd  and 
suspicious  nature;  and  he  foresaw  what  happened.  For,  lest  Bohe- 
mund should  conceive  any  suspicion  against  him,  the  Emperor  had 
ordered  that  raw  meats  be  placed  before  him,  together  with  the 
cooked,  thus  easily  removing  suspicion.  Neither  did  his  conjec- 
ture fail,  for  the  very  shrewd  Bohemund  took  the  prepared  food, 
without  even  touching  it  with  the  tips  of  his  fingers,  or  tasting  it, 
and  imm6diately  turned  around,  concealing,  nevertheless,  the  suspi- 
cion which  occurred  to  him  by  the  following  ostentatious  show  of 
liberality.  For  under  the  pretext  of  courtesy  he  distributed  all 
the  food  to  those  standing  around;  in  reality,  if  one  understood 
rightly,  he  was  dividing  the  cup  of  death  among  them.  Nor  did  he 
conceal  his  cunning,  so  much  did  he  hold  his  subjects  in  contempt; 
for  he  this  day  used  the  raw  meat  which  had  been  offered  to  him 
and  had  it  prepared  I5y  his  own  cooks  after  the  manner  of  his 
country.  On  the  next  day  he  asked  his  men  whether  they  were 
well.  Upon  their  answering  in  the  affirmative,  that  they  were  in- 
deed very  well,  that  not  even  one  felt  even  the  least  indisposed,  he 
disclosed  his  secret  in  his  reply:  "Remembering  a  war,  once  car- 
ried on  by  me  against  the  Emperor,  and  that  strife,  I  feared  lest 
perchance  he  had  intended  to  kill  me  by  putting  deadly  poison  in 
my  food." 

Such  a  man  was  Bohemund.     Never,  indeed,  have  I  seen  a  man^ 
so  dishonest.    In  everything,  in  his  words  as  well  as  in  his  deeds,  he 
never  chose  the  right  path;  and  when  anyone  deviates   from  the 
moderation  of  virtue,  it  makes  little  difference  to  whatsoever  ex-^ 
treme  he  goes,  for  he  is  always  far  from  honesty. 

For  the  rest,  the  Emperor  then  summoned  Bohemund  and  ex- 
acted from  him  the  usual  oath  of  the  Latins.  The  latter,  knowing 
well  his  own  resources,  and  realizing  that  he  was  neither  of  noble 
birth  nor  well  supplied  by  fortune  with  wealth,  for  he  had  no 
great  force,  but  only  a  moderate  numiber  of  Gauls  with  him,  and 
being,  besides,  dishonest  in  character,  readily  submitted  himself  to 
the  will  of  the  Emperor. 

After  this,  the  Emperor  saw  to  it  that  a  room  in  the  palace  was 
so  filled  with  a  collection  of  riches  of  all  kinds  that  the  very  floor 
was  covered  with  costly  raiment,  and  with  gold  and  silver  coins, 
and  certain  other  less  valuable  things,  so  much  so  that  one  was  not 
able  even  to  walk  there,  so  hindered  was  he  by  the  abundance  of 
these  things.    The  Emperor  ordered  the  guide  suddenly  and  unex- 


96  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

pectedly  to  open  the  doors,  thus  reveahng  all  this  to  Bohemund, 
Amazed  at  the  spectacle,  Bohemund  exclaimed:  "If  such  riches 
were  mine,  long  ago  I  would  have  been  lord  of  many  lands !"  The 
guide  answered,  ''And  all  these  things  the  Emperor  bestows  upon 
you  today  as  a  gift."  Most  gladly  Bohemund  received  them  and 
with  many  gracious  thanks  he  left,  intending  to  return  to  his  rest  in 
the  inn.  But  changing  his  mind  when  they  were  brought  to  him,  he, 
who  a  little  before  had  admired  them,  said :  ''Never  can  I  let  myself 
be  treated  with  such  ignominy  by  the  Emperor.  Go,  take  those  things 
and  carry  them  back  to  him  who  sent  them."  The  Emperor,  know- 
ing the  base  fickleness  of  the  Latins,  quoted  this  common  saying, 
"Let  the  evil  return  to  its  author."  Bohemund  having  heard  this, 
and  seeing  that  the  messengers  were  busily  bringing  these  things 
back  to  him,  decided  anew  about  the  goods  which  he  had  sent 
back  with  regret,  and,  like  a  polypus,  changed  in  a  moment,  he  now 
showed  a  joyous  countenance  to  the  bearers.  For  he  was  quick,  and 
a  man  of  very  dishonest  disposition,  as  much  surpassing  in  malice 
and  intrepidity  all  the  Latins  who  had  crossed  over  as  he  was  in- 
ferior to  them  in  power  and  wealth.  But  even  though  he  thus  ex- 
celled all  in  great  cunning,  the  inconstant  character  of  the  Latins 
was  also  in  him.  Verily,  the  riches  which  he  spurned  at  first,  he 
now  gladly  accepted.  For  when  this  man  of  evil  design  had  left 
his  country  in  which  he  possessed  no  wealth  at  all  (under  the  pre- 
text, indeed,  of  adoring  at  the  Lord's  Sepulchre,  but  in  reality  en- 
deavoring to  acquire  for  himself  a  kingdom),  he  found  himself  in 
need  of  much  money,  especially,  indeed,  if  he  was  to  seize  the  Ro- 
man power.  In  this  he  followed  the  advice  of  his  father  and,  so 
to  speak,  was  leaving  no  stone  unturned. 

^  Moreover,  the  Emperor,  who  understood  fully  his  wicked  inten- 
tion and  perverse  mind,  skillfully  managed  carefully  to  remove 
whatever  might  further  Bohemund's  ambitious  designs.  Wherefore, 
Bohemund,  seeking  a  home  for  himself  in  the  East  and  using  Cretan 
scheming  against  Cretans,  did  not  obtain  it.  For  the  Emperor 
feared  lest,  after  obtaining  power,  he  would  use  it  to  place  the  Latin 
counts  under  obligation  to  him,  finally  thus  accomplishing  easily 
what  he  wished.  But  since  he  did  not  want  Bohemund  to  surmise 
that  he  was  already  discovered,  the  Emperor  misled  him  by  this 
hope:  "Not  yet,"  he  said,  "has  the  time  come  for  the  thing  which 
you  say;  but  after  a  little  it  shall  come  about  by  your  fortitude  and 
trust  in  me." 

After  the  Emperor  had  bestowed  upon  the  Gauls  promises,  gifts, 
and  honors  of  every  kind,  the  next  day  he  solemnly  took  his  seat 
on  the  unperial  throne.     Summoning  Bohemund  and  all  the  counts, 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  97 

he  talked  about  the  things  which  would  happen  to  them  on  the 
journey.  He  wanted,  likewise,  to  show  what  methods  and  means 
of  warfare  the  Turks  were  wont  to  employ,  and  to  give  directions 
how  the  line  of  battle  should  be  drawn  up  against  them,  how 
ambushes  should  be  set,  and  how  they  ought  not  to  follow  the  flee- 
ing Turks  too  far.  And  so,  both  by  gifts  of  money  and  by  flatter- 
ing speeches,  he  soothed  the  rude  nature  of  the  people,  and,  after 
giving  useful  advice,  he  persuaded  them  to  pass  over  the  sea.  .  .  . 

6.  Raymond  and  the  Emperor  (April  21-May  16,  1097.) 

(Raymond.)  Although  events  have  lightly  accompanied  the 
writer  so  far  with  happy  and  favorable  step,  they  now  follow  with 
so  great  a  weight  of  bitterness  and  sorrow  that  it  grieves  me  to 
have  begun  what  I  have  vowed  to  finish.  What,  indeed,  is  the  most 
important  and  first  matter  that  I  shall  proceed  to  mention?  The 
most  false  and  detestable  deceit  of  the  Emperor's  admonition?  Or 
the  most  base  flight  and  unthinkable  desperation  of  our  army?  Or 
shall  T  leave  a  monument  of  perpetual  sorrow  by  enumerating  the 
deaths  of  such  great  princes?  Let  any  one  who  desires  to  know 
this,  however,  seek  it  rather  from  others  than  from  me.  This  one 
very  memorable  event  I  consider  to  merit  excuse  from  silence. 
When  our  men  thought  of  abandoning  the  camp,  taking  flight,  de- 
serting their  fellows,  and  leaving  everything  that  they  had  brought 
along  from  such  distant  regions,  they  were  brought  back  by  the 
saving  deeds  of  penance  and  fast  to  such  staunch  fortitude  that 
only  shame  at  their  former  desperate  condition  and  flight  most 
deeply  affected  them.     So  much  may  be  said  about  this. 

Accordingly,  when  the  Count  had  been  received  most  honorably 
by  the  Emperor  and  his  princes,  the  Emperor  demanded  of  the 
Count  homage  and  the  oath  which  the  other  princes  had  made  to 
him.  The  Count  replied  that  he  had  not  come  hither  to  make  an- 
other his  lord  or  to  fight  for  any  other  than  the  One  for  whom  he 
had  left  his  country  and  his  possessions.  Nevertheless,  if  the  Emp- 
eror would  go  to  Jerusalem  with  the  army,  he  would  commit  him- 
self and  his  men  and  all  his  goods  to  him.  But  the  Emperor  ex- 
cused himself  from  the  journey  by  saying  that  he  greatly  feared 
lest  the  Germans,  Hungarians,  Cumans,  and  other  wild  peoples 
would  devastate  his  empire,  if  he  made  the  journey  with  the  pilgrims. 
Meanwhile  the  Count,  upon  hearing  of  the  flight  and  death  of  hh 
men,  believed  that  he  had  been  betrayed,  and  through  certain  of  our 
princes  he  vehemently  charged  the  Emperor  with  having  committed 
treason.  But  Alexius  said  that  he  did  not  know  that  our  men  had 
devastated  his  kingdom,  and  that  he  and  his  men  had  suffered  many 


98  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

injuries;  that  there  was  nothing  of  which  the  Count  could  complain, 
except  that  while  the  army  of  the  Count  in  its  usual  manner  was 
devastating  the  villages  and  towns,  it  took  to  flight  upon  seeing  his 
(the  Emperor's)  army.  Nevertheless,  he  promised  that  he  would 
give  satisfaction  to  the  Count  and  offered  Bohemund  as  a  hostage 
for  the  satisfaction.  They  went  to  trial;  the  Count,  according  to 
law,  was  compelled  to  give  up  his  hostage. 

Meanwhile,  our  army  came  to  Constantinople;  and  after  this  the 
Bishop,  whom  the  army  had  left  ill  at  Durazzo,  followed  us  with 
his  brother.  Alexius  asked  (homage)  again  and  again  and  promised 
that  he  would  give  much  to  the  Count  if  he  would  do  him  the  de- 
sired homage  as  the  other  princes  had  done.  The  Count,  however, 
was  constantly  meditating  how  he  might  avenge  the  injury  to  his 
men,  and  drive  away  from  himself  and  his  followers  the  disgrace 
of  such  great  infamy.  But  the  Duke  of  Lorraine,  the  Count  of 
Flanders,  and  the  other  princes  deprecated  such  action,  saying  that 
it  would  be  very  foolish  to  fight  with  Christians  when  the  Turks 
were  threatening.  Bohemund,  indeed,  promised  that  he  would  aid 
the  Emperor,  if  the  Count  made  any  attempt  against  the  Emperor, 
or  if  he  no  longer  refused  homage  and  oath.  Thereupon,  the  Count 
took  counsel  with  his  men  and  swore  that  neither  in  person  nor 
through  another  would  he  sully  the  life  or  honor  of  Alexius.  And 
when  asked  about  homage,  he  replied  that  he  would  not  do  it  at  the 
risk  of  his  head,  wherefore  the  Emperor  gave  him  few  gifts. 

(Gcsta.)  The  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  however,  was  lodged  outside 
the  city  in  a  suburb,  and  his  force  had  remained  behind.  Accord- 
ingly, the  Emperor  bade  the  Count  do  homage  and  fealty  to  him, 
as  the  others  had  done.  And  while  the  Emperor  was  making  these 
demands,  the  Count  was  meditating  how  he  might  take  vengeance 
on  the  army  of  the  Emperor.  But  Duke  Godfrey  and  Robert,  Count 
of  Flanders,  and  the  other  princes  said  to  him  that  it  would  be  un- 
just to  fight  against  Christians.  The  wise  man,  Bohemund,  also  said 
that  if  the  Count  should  do  the  Emperor  any  injustice,  and  should 
refuse  to  do  him  fealty,  he  himself  would  take  the  part  of  the 
Emperor.  Accordingly,  the  Count,  after  receiving  the  advice  of 
his  men,  swore  that  he  would  not  consent  to  have  the  life  and 
honor  of  Alexius  sullied  either  by  himself  or  by  anyone  else.  When 
he  was  called  upon  for  homage,  he  answered  that  he  would  not  do 
this  at  the  risk  of  his  head. 

Then  the  host  of  Lord  Bohemund  approached  Constantinople. 
Tancred,  indeed,  and  Richard  of  Principati,  and  almost  the  whole 
of  Bohemund's  force  with  them,  crossed  the  Strait  by  stealth,  to 
avoid  the  oath  to  the  Emperor.     And  now  the  army  of  the  Count 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  99 

of  St.  Gilles  approached  Constantinople.  The  Count  remained  there 
with  his  own  band.  Therefore  the  illustrious  man,  Bohemund, 
stayed  behind  with  the  Emperor,  in  order  to  plan  with  him  how 
they  might  provide  a  market  for  the  people  who  were  beyond  the 
city  of  Nicaea. 

(Anna.)  One  of  them  especially,  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  he  par- 
ticularly favored  because  he  saw  in  him  superior  prudence,  tested 
sincerity,  candor  of  bearing,  and,  finally,  such  great  zeal  for  truth 
that  he  never  placed  anything  before  it.  He  was  as  far  superior  to 
all  the  other  Latins  in  all  virtues  as  the  sun  is  above  the  other  stars. 
For  this  reason,  therefore,  the  Emperor  kept  him  near  him  for  the 
time  being. 

When  at  the  wish  of  the  Emperor  all  had  crossed  over  the  Pro- 
pontis  and  had  arrived  at  Damalmm,  Alexius,  thus  relieved  from 
care  and  trouble,  had  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  summoned  and  in  talks 
showed  him  very  distinctly  what  he  thought  might  happen  to  the 
Latins  on  the  way.  At  the  same  time,  he  disclosed  to  him  what 
suspicions  he  was  cherishing  about  the  intentions  and  plans  of  the 
Gauls.  He  often  spoke  freely  about  them  with  the  Count  of  St. 
Gilles,  opening  the  doors  of  his  heart  to  him,  as  it  were,  and  mak- 
ing everything  clearly  known  to  him.  He  sometimes  warned  him, 
also,  to  keep  close  watch  against  the  malice  of  Bohemund,  so  as  to 
check  him  immediately  if  he  should  try  to  break  his  agreement,  and 
to  strive  in  every  way  to  destroy  his  schemes.  The  Count  of  St. 
Gilles  replied:  ''Since  Bohemund  has  inherited  perjury  and  deceit, 
as  it  were,  it  would  be  very  surprising  if  he  should  be  faithful  to 
those  promises  which  he  has  made  under  oath.  However,  I  will 
try  to  carry  out  what  you  command,  in  so  far  as  I  can."  Then  at 
the  wish  of  the  Emperor  he  departed,  joining  himself  to  the  forces 
of  the  united  Gauls.  .  .  . 

7.  Robert  of  Normandy  and  Stephen  at  the  Emperor's  court.  May 
14-May  28,  1097.) 

(Fulcher.)  We  could  not  enter  that  city,  for  the  Emperor,  fear- 
ing that  possibly  we  would  do  some  damage  to  him,  did  not  wish 
to  let  us.  So  it  was  necessary  that  we  buy  our  daily  supplies  out- 
side the  walls.  These,  by  the  order  of  the  Emperor,  the  citizens 
brought  to  us.  We  were  not  allowed  to  enter  the  city  many  at  a 
time.  Only  five  or  six  per  hour  were  permitted;  thus,  while  some 
were  leaving,  others  were  then  entering  to  pray  in  the  churches. 

Oh,  what  a  great  and  beautiful  city  is  Constantinople !  How  many 
churches  and  palaces  it  contains,  fashioned  with  wonderful  skill! 
How  many  wonderful  things  may  be  seen  even  in  the  streets  or 


i6o  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

courts!  It  would  be  too  tedious  to  enumerate  what  wealth  there 
is  there  of  every  kind,  of  gold,  of  silver,  of  every  kind  of  robes, 
and  of  holy  relics.  There  traders  at  all  times  bring  by  boat  all  the 
necessities  of  man.  They  have,  I  judge,  about  twenty  thousand 
eunuchs  constantly  living  there. 

Then,  after  we  were  sufficiently  rested,  our  leaders,  having  taken 
counsel,  made  under  oath  a  treaty  with  the  Emperor  at  his  own 
instigation.  This  treaty  Bohemund  and  Duke  Godfrey,  who  had 
preceded  us,  had  already  made.  But  Count  Raymond  then  refused 
to  subscribe  to  it.  The  Count  of  Flanders,  though,  took  the  oath 
like  the  rest.  For  it  was  essential  that  all  establish  friendship  with 
the  Emperor,  since  without  his  counsel  and  aid  we  would  not  be 
able  to  make  the  journey  easily,  nor  would  those  who  were  to  fol- 
low us  along  the  same  route.  The  Emperor  himself  supplied  them 
with  as  much  as  they  wished  from  his  treasury  and  his  wardrobe; 
and  he  gave  them  horses  and  money,  of  which  they  were  much  in 
need  for  completing  such  a  journey.  When  this  had  been  accom- 
l>lished,  we  crossed  the  sea  which  is  called  the  Arm  of  St.  George 
and  hastened  then  to  the  city  of  Nicaea. 

(Stephen.)  Count  Stephen  to  the  Countess  Adele,  most  sweet 
friend,  his  wife;  whatever  more  sweet  or  pleasing  greeting  her  mind 
can  conceive. 

Be  it  known,  to  your  delight,  that,  after  a  successful  journey  to 
Romania,  I  continue  in  all  honor  and  bodily  health.  I  took  pains 
to  send  you,  by  letter  from  Constantinople,  a  detailed  account  of 
the  course  of  my  life  and  pilgrimage,  but,  lest  some  misfortune 
befall  that  messenger,  I  am  re-writing  the  letter  to  you. 

I  arrived  at  Constantinople  with  great  joy,  by  the  grace  of  God. 
The  Emi)eror,  verily,  received  me  with  dignity  and  honor  and  with 
the  greatest  affection,  as  if  I  were  his  own  son,  and  he  loaded  me 
with  most  bountiful  and  precious  gifts.  And  in  the  whole  of  our 
army  of  God  there  is  neither  duke,  nor  count,  nor  other  person  of 
power  whom  he  trusts  or  favors  more  than  myself.  Verily,  my 
beloved,  his  Imperial  Highness  has  very  often  urged,  and  urges,  that 
we  commend  one  of  our  sons  to  him;  he  promises,  moreover,  that 
he  will  accord  him  so  great  and  such  distinguished  honor  that  he 
(the  boy)  will  not  in  the  least  envy  our  own  (position).  In  truth, 
I  say  to  you  there  is  no  man  today  like  him  under  heaven,  for  he 
IS  enriching  all  our  princes  most  bountifully,  is  reheving  all  our 
knights  with  gifts  and  refreshing  all  the  poor  with  feasts.  Near  the 
city  of  Nicaea  there  is  a  fortress,  Civitote  by  name,  near  which 
runs  an  arm  of  the  sea.  Through  this  the  pious  Emperor's  own 
ships  rush  by  night  and  day  to  Constantinople,  whence  they  carry 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  loi 

food  to  the  camp,  where  it  is  distributed  daily  among  the  countless 
poor.  Also,  in  our  times,  as  it  seems  to  us,  there  has  not  been  a 
prince  so  distinguished  for  general  integrity  of  character.  Your 
father,  my  beloved,  gave  many  and  large  gifts,  but  he  was  almost 
as  nothing  in  comparison  with  this  man.^^  I  have  taken  pleasure  in 
writing  these  little  things  about  him  to  you,  that  you  may  know  a 
little  what  kind  of  man  he  is. 

8.  Siege  and  capture  of  Nicaea.     (May  14- June  19,  1097.) 

(Gesfa.)  And  thus  Duke  Godfrey  went  first  to  Nicomedia,  to- 
gether with  Tancred  and  all  the  rest,  and  they  were  there  for  three 
days.  The  Duke,  indeed,  seeing  that  there  was  no  road  open  by 
which  he  could  conduct  these  hosts  to  the  city  of  Nicaea,  for  so 
great  an  army  could  not  pass  through  the  road  along  which  the 
others  had  passed  before,  sent  ahead  three  thousand  men  with 
axes  and  swords  to  cut  and  clear  this  road,  so  that  it  would  lie  open 
even  to  the  city  of  Nicaea.  They  cut  this  road  through  a  very 
narrow  and  very  great  mountain  and  fixed  back  along  the  way  iron 
and  wooden  crosses  on  posts,  so  that  the  pilgrims  would  know  the 
way.  Meanwhile,  we  came  to  Nicaea,  which  is  the  capital  of  all 
Romania,  on  the  fourth  day,  the  day  before  the  Nones  of  May,  and 
there  encamped.  However,  before  Lord  Bohemund  had  arrived, 
there  was  such  scarcity  of  bread  among  us  that  one  loaf  was  sold 
for  twenty  or  thirty  denarii.  After  the  illustrious  man,  Bohemund, 
came,  he  ordered  the  greatest  market  to  be  brought  by  sea,  and  it 
came  both  ways  at  the  same  time,  this  by  land  and  that  by  sea,  and 
there  was  the  greatest  abundance  in  the  whole  army  of  Christ. 

Moreover,  on  the  day  of  the  Ascension  of  the  Lord  we  began  to 
attack  the  city  on  all  sides,  and  to  construct  machines  of  wood, 
and  wooden  towers,  with  which  we  might  be  able  to  destroy  towers 
on  the  walls.  We  attacked  the  city  so  bravely  and  so  fiercely  that 
we  even  undermined  its  wall.  The  Turks  who  were  in  the  city, 
barbarous  horde  that  they  were,  sent  messages  to  others  who 
had  come  up  to  give  aid.  The  message  ran  in  this  wise:  that  they 
might  approach  the  city  boldly  and  in  security  and  enter  through 
the  middle  gate,  because  on  that  side  no  one  would  oppose  them  or 
put  them  to  grief.  This  gate  was  besieged  on  that  very  day — ^the 
Sabbath  after  the  Ascension  of  the  Lord — ^by  the  Count  of  St. 
Gilles  and  the  Bishop  of  Puy.  The  Count,  approaching  from  an- 
other side,  was  protected  by  divine  might,  and  with  his  most  power- 
ful army  gloried  in  terrestrial  strength.  And  so  he  found  the  Turks 
coming  against  us  here.  Armed  on  all  sides  with  the  sign  of  the 
cross,  he  rushed  upon  them  violently  and  overcame  them.     They 


I02  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

turned  in  flight,  and  most  of  them  were  killed.  They  came  back 
again,  reinforced  by  others,  joyful  and  exulting  in  assured  (out- 
come) of  battle,  and  bearing  along  with  them  the  ropes  with  which 
to  lead  us  bound  to  Chorosan.  Coming  gladly,  moreover,  they  be- 
gan to  descend  from  the  crest  of  the  mountain  a  short  distance. 
As  many  as  descended  remained  there  with  their  heads  cut  oflf  at 
the  hands  of  our  men ;  moreover,  our  men  hurled  the  heads  of  the 
killed  far  into  the  city,  that  they  (the  Turks)  might  be  the  more 
terrified  thereat.  Then  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  and  the  Bishop  of 
Puy  took  counsel  together  as  to  how  they  might  have  undermined 
a  certain  tower  which  was  opposite  their  tents.  Men  were  assigned 
to  do  the  digging,  with  arbalistae^^  and  bowmen  to  defend  them  on 
all  sides.  So  they  dug  to  the  foundations  of  the  wall  and  fixed 
timbers  and  wood  under  it  and  then  set  fire  to  it.  However,  evening 
had  come;  the  tower  had  already  fallen  in  the  night,  and  because 
it  was  night  they  could  not  fight  with  the  enemy.  Indeed,  during 
that  night  the  Turks  hastily  built  up  and  restored  the  wall  so  strong- 
ly that  when  day  came  no  one  could  harm  them  on  that  side. 

Now  the  Count  of  Normandy  came  up,  Count  Stephen  and  many 
others,  and  finally  Roger  of  Barneville.  At  length  Bohemund,  at 
the  very  front,  besieged  the  city.  Beside  him  was  Tancred,  after 
him  Duke  Godfrey,  then  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  next  to  whom  was 
the  Bishop  of  Puy.  It  was  so  besieged  by  land  that  no  one  dared 
to  go  out  or  in.  There  all  our  forces  were  assembled  in  one  body, 
and  who  could  have  counted  so  great  an  army  of  Christ?  No  one, 
as  I  think,  has  ever  before  seen  so  many  distinguished  knights, 
or  ever  will  again ! 

However,  there  was  a  large  lake  on  one  side  of  the  city,  on  which 
the  Turks  used  to  send  out  their  ships,  and  go  back  and  forth  and 
bring  fodder,  wood,  and  many  other  things.  Then  our  leaders 
counselled  together  and  sent  messengers  to  Constantinople  to  tell 
the  Emperor  to  have  ships  brought  to  Civitote,  where  there  is  a 
fort,  and  that  he  should  order  oxen  to  be  brought  to  drag  the  ships 
over  the  mountains  and  through  the  woods,  until  they  neared  the 
lake.  This  was  done  forthwith,  and  he  sent  his  Turcopoles  with 
them.  They  did  not  want  to  put  the  ships  on  the  lake  on  the  very 
day  that  they  were  brought  across,  but  under  cover  of  night  they 
launched  them  on  the  lake  itself.  (The  boats  were)  filled  with 
Turcopoles  well  decorated  with  arms.  Moreover,  at  earliest  day- 
break the  ships  stood  in  good  order  and  hastened  through  the  lake 
against  the  city.  The  Turks  marvelled  upon  seeing  them,  not  know- 
ing whether  they  were  manned  by  their  own  forces  or  the  Emper- 
or's.    However,  after  they  recognized  that  it  was  the  host  of  the 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  103 

Emperor,  they  were  frightened  even  to  death,  weeping  and  lament- 
ing ;  and  the  Franks  were  glad  and  gave  glory  to  God. 

The  Turks,  moreover,  seeing  that  they  could  have  no  further  aid 
from  their  armies,  sent  a  message  to  the  Emperor  that  they  would 
willingly  surrender  the  city,  if  he  would  permit  them  to  go  entirely 
away  with  theii;  wives  and  children  and  all  their  substance.  Then 
the  Emperor,  full  of  vain  and  evil  thinking,  ordered  them  to  de- 
part unpunished,  without  any  fear,  and  to  be  brought  to  him  at 
Constantinople  with  great  assurance  (of  safety).  These  he  cared 
for  zealously,  so  that  he  had  them  prepared  against  any  damage  or 
hindrance  from  the  Franks.  We  were  engaged  in  that  siege  for 
seven  weeks  and  three  days.  Many  of  our  men  there  received 
martyrdom,  and,  glad  and  rejoicing,  gave  back  their  happy  souls  to 
God.  Many  of  the  very  poor  died  of  hunger  for  the  name  of 
Christ,  and  these  bore  triumphantly  to  heaven  their  robes  of  martyr- 
dom, crying  with  one  voice,  "Avenge,  Lord,  our  blood  which  has 
been  shed  for  Thee,  who  are  blessed  and  praiseworthy  forever  and 
ever.  Amen."  In  the  meanwhile,  after  the  city  had  been  surren- 
dered and  the  Turks  had  been  conducted  to  Constantinople,  the 
Emperor,  more  and  more  rejoiced  because  the  city  had  been  sur- 
rendered to  his  power,  ordered  the  greatest  alms  to  be  distributed 
to  our  poor. 

{Raymond.)  Thereupon,  we  crossed  the  sea  and  went  up  to 
Nicaea.  For  the  Duke,  Bohemund,  and  the  other  princes,  had  pre- 
ceded the  Count  and  were  engaged  in  the  labors  of  the  siege.  The 
city  of  Nicaea  is  very  strongly  fortified  by  nature,  as  well  as  by 
art.  It  has  on  the  west  a  very  large  lake  flowing  up  to  the  wall; 
on  the  remaining  three  sides  is  a  moat  filled  with  the  overflow  of 
certain  little  streams;  in  addition,  it  is  encircled  by  walls  so  high 
that  neither  the  assaults  of  men  nor  the  attacks  of  any  machine 
are  feared.  Indeed,  the  ballistae^^  of  the  neighboring  towers  are 
so  turned  with  reference  to  one  another  that  no  one  can  approach 
without  danger;  however,  if  anyone  wants  to  approach  nearer,  he 
is  easily  overwhelmed  from  the  top  of  the  towers  without  being 
able  to  retaliate. 

Accordingly,  this  city,  such  as  we  have  described,  was  besieged 
by  Bohemund  from  the  north,  by  the  Duke  and  the  Alemanni  from 
the  east,  by  the  Count  and  Bishop  of  Puy  from  the  middle,  for  the 
Count  of  Normandy  was  not  yet  with  us.  But  we  believe  this  one 
incident  should  not  be  passed  over : — that  when  the  Count  was  about 
to  encamp  there  with  his  men,  the  Turks,  descending  from  the 
mountains  in  two  squadrons,  attacked  our  army.  Their  plan,  in- 
deed, was  that  while  one  party  of  the  Turks  assailed  the  Duke  and 


104  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

the  Alemanni  who  were  on  the  east,  the  other  party,  entering  the 
middle  gate  of  the  city  and  passing  out  through  another,  would 
easily  drive  our  men  from  the  camp  at  a  time  when  they  were  not 
expecting  such  an  attack.  But  God,  who  is  wont  to  reverse  the 
plan  of  the  impious,  so  altered  their  preparations  that,  as  if  it 
had  been  arranged,  He  sent  the  Count,  who  was  preparing  to  en- 
camp with  his  men,  upon  the  squadron  of  Turks  which  was  now 
about  to  enter  the  city.  He  put  them  to  flight  at  the  first  charge 
and,  after  killing  several,  pursued  the  rest  to  the  top  of  the  moun- 
tain. The  other  party  of  Turks  which  wanted  to  attack  the  Ale- 
manni was  put  to  flight  in  the  same  way  and  destroyed.  After  this, 
machines  were  constructed  and  the  wall  attacked  in  vain,  for 
it  was  very  firm  against  us  and  was  valiantly  defended  by  ar- 
rows and  machines.  So  we  fought  five  weeks  with  no  result.  At 
length,  through  God's  will,  some  men  of  the  household  of  the  Bishop 
and  the  Count  dangerously  enough  approached  the  corner  tower 
which  faced  the  east,  and  having  made  a  testudo,^^  they  began, 
after  a  struggle,  to  undermine  one  of  the  towers  and  by  digging 
threw  it  to  the  ground.  Thus  the  city  would  have  been  taken,  had 
not  the  shadows  of  night  prevented.  However,  the  wall  was  re- 
built during  the  night,  and  this  rendered  our  former  labor  vain. 
At  length  the  city,  terrified  with  fear,  was  compelled  to  surrender. 
One  reason  was  that  the  ships  of  the  Emperor  which  had  been 
dragged  over  the  land  were  let  down  into  the  lake.  They  therefore 
gave  themselves  up  to  the  Emperor,  since  they  now  expected  no 
further  aid  and  saw  the  army  of  the  Franks  increasing  daily,  while 
they  were  cut  off  from  their  forces.  The  Count  of  Normandy  had 
come.  Alexius  had  promised  the  princes  and  the  people  of  the 
Franks  that  he  would  give  them  all  the  gold,  silver,  horses,  and 
goods  within  (the  city),  and  that  he  would  establish  there  a  Latin 
monastery  and  hospice  for  the  poor  Franks ;  besides,  that  he  would 
give  to  each  one  of  the  army  so  much  of  his  own  possessions  that 
they  would  always  want  to  fight  for  him.  Accordingly,  the  Franks, 
placing  faith  in  these  promises,  approved  the  surrender.  And  so, 
when  Alexius  had  received  the  city,  he  afforded  the  army  such  an 
example  of  gratitude  that  as  long  as  they  live  the  people  will  curse 
him  and  proclaim  him  a  traitor. 

We  recognized,  then,  that  the  Emperor  had  betrayed  Peter  the 
Hermit,  who  had  long  before  come  to  Constantinople  with  a  great 
multitude.  For  he  compelled  him,  ignorant  of  the  locality  and  of  all 
military  matters,  to  cross  the  Strait  with  his  men  and  exposed  them 
to  the  Turks.  Moreover,  when  the  Turks  from  Nicaea  saw  that 
unwarlike  multitude,  they  cut  them  down  without  effort  and  delay 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  105 

to  the  number  of  sixty  thousand.  The  rest,  indeed,  fled  to  a  certain 
fortified  place  and  escaped  the  swords  of  the  Turks.  The  Turks, 
made  bold  and  haughty  by  this,  sent  the  arms  and  the  captives  which 
they  had  taken  there  to  the  Saracens  and  the  nobles  of  their  own 
race,  and  they  wrote  to  the  peoples  and  cities  far  off  that  the  Franks 
were  of  no  account  in  battle. 

(Fulcher.)  Since  the  middle  of  May,  Lord  Bohemund  and  Duke 
Godfrey  and  Count  Raymond  and  the  Count  of  Flanders  had  al- 
ready been  besieging  this  city.  It  was  then  in  possession  of  Turks 
from  the  East,  a  valiant  race  of  very  expert  archers.  These,  in- 
deed, had  crossed  the  Euphrates  river  from  Persia  fifty  years  be- 
fore and  had  subjected  to  themselves  the  whole  land  of  Romania,  as 
far  as  the  city  of  Nicomedia.  Oh,  how  many  severed  heads  and 
bones  of  the  dead  we  then  found  beyond  Nicomedia,  lying  upon 
the  plains  near  the  sea!  These  people,  inexperienced  in  the  use  of 
the  arrow,  the  Turks  had  annihilated.  Moved  by  pity  at  this  sight, 
we  shed  many  tears.^^ 

When,  as  has  been  said,  those  who  were  already  besieging  Nicaea 
heard  that  our  leaders  had  arrived,  namely  the  Count  of  Normandy 
and  Stephen  of  Blois,  they  gladly  came  out  to  meet  them  and  us 
and  escorted  us  to  the  place  before  the  city  on  the  southern  side, 
where  we  pitched  our  tents.  Once  already  the  Turks  had  prepared 
to  unite,  hoping  to  drive  the  besiegers  from  the  city,  if  they  could, 
or  at  least  to  fortify  the  city  more  securely  with  their  soldiers.  But 
they  were  fiercely  repulsed  by  us,  and  about  two  hundred  of  them 
were  killed.  When,  moreover,  they  saw  the  Franks,  so  spirited, 
and  so  strong  in  brave  warfare,  they  retreated  in  haste  into  the  in- 
terior, awaiting  an  opportune  time  for  attacking.  It  was  in  the 
first  week  in  June  that  we  came,  last  of  all,  to  the  siege. 

Then,  one  army  was  formed  of  the  many,  which  those  skilful  in 
numbers  estimated  to  be  600,000  strong.^^  Of  these  100,000  were 
armed  for  battle  with  leathern  corslets  and  helmets.  Besides  the 
army  were  those  unarmed,  namely  clerics,  monks,  women,  and  chil- 
dren. What  further  then?  If  all  who  had  departed  from  their 
homes  on  the  pious  journey  had  been  present  there,  without  doubt 
there  would  have  been  six  million  soldiers.  But  at  Rome,  in  Apulia, 
in  Hungary,  or  in  Dalmatia,  some,  unwilling  to  undergo  hardships, 
returned  to  their  homes ;  in  many  different  places  thousands  were 
killed ;  and  some  who  went  with  us  fell  sick  and  died.  Many  grave- 
yards were  to  be  seen  along  the  roads,  on  the  plains,  in  the  places 
where  our  pilgrims  were  buried. 

Be  it  known  that  as  long  as  we  besieged  the  city  of  Nicaea,  food 
for  sale  was  brought  to  us  in  ships,  by  order  of  the  Emperor.    Then 


io6  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

our  leaders  ordered  machines  of  war  to  be  made,  rams,  scrapers, 
wooden  towers,  and  slings.  Arrows  were  shot  from  the  bows,  and 
destructive  stones  were  hurled.  Our  enemy  fired  at  us,  and  we  at 
them,  each  doing  his  best  in  these  encounters.  With  our  machines 
we  often  assailed  the  city,  but  because  a  strong  wall  resisted  us,  the 
attack  failed.  Turks  often  perished,  struck  by  arrows  or  stones, 
and  Franks  likewise.  Truly,  you  would  have  grieved  and  sobbed 
in  pity,  for  when  they  slew  one  of  our  men  before  the  wall  in  any 
way,  they  let  down  iron  hooks  by  means  of  ropes  and  took  the 
body  up.  They  snatched  it  away,  and  none  of  us  dared,  or  was 
able,  to  wrest  it  from  them.  After  stripping  the  corpse,  they  threw 
the  body  outside. 

Then,  with  the  aid  of  oxen  and  ropes,  we  dragged  some  small 
boats  from  Civitote  over  land  to  Nicaea  and  launched  them  in  the 
lake  to  guard  the  approach  to  the  city,  lest  it  be  supplied  with  pro- 
visions. But  while  we  were  wearying  the  city  with  siege  for  five 
weeks  and  had  often  terrified  the  Turks  with  our  attacks,  a  council 
had  meantime  been  held,  and  through  ambassadors  to  the  Emperor 
the  inhabitants  secretly  surrendered  to  him  the  city,  which  was  al- 
ready hard  pressed  by  our  forces  and  skill.  Then  the  Turks  admit- 
ted into  it  the  Turcopoles  sent  thither  by  the  Emperor.  They  took 
possession  of  the  city,  with  all  the  money  in  it,  in  the  name  of  tlic 
Emperor,  just  as  he  had  commanded.  Wherefore,  after  all  this 
money  was  taken,  the  Emperor  ordered  gifts  to  be  presented  to  our 
leaders,  gifts  of  gold,  and  silver,  and  raiment;  and  to  the  foot-sol- 
diers he  distributed  brass  coins,  which  they  call  tartarons.  On  the 
day  of  the  siege  and  the  surrender  of  Nicaea,  the  month  of  June 
had  reached  the  solstice. 

(Ansclm.)  To  his  reverend  lord,  Manasses,  by  grace  of  God 
Archbishop  of  Rheims,  Anselm  of  Ribemont,  his  liege-man  and 
humble  servant  in  the  Lord;  greeting. 

Inasmuch  as  you  are  our  lord,  and  as  the  kingdom  of  the  whole 
of  France  is  especially  dependent  upon  your  care,  we  are  notifying 
you,  father,  of  the  events  which  have  befallen  us;  how,  forsooth, 
the  army  of  the  Lord  is  bearing  itself.  In  the  first  place,  we  are 
aware  that  a  disciple  is  not  above  his  master,  nor  a  servant  above 
his  lord ;  yet,  may  it  be  pardoned  us,  we  advise  and  beseech  you  in 
the  Lord  Jesus  to  consider  what  you  are,  what  also  is  the  priestly 
and  pontifical  duty.  Provide,  therefore,  for  our  land,  so  that  both 
the  nobles  live  in  concord  among  themselves,  and  the  people  labor 
in  security  on  that  which  is  theirs,  and  the  ministers  of  Christ, 
leading  a  quiet  and  peaceful  life,  be  free  to  devote  themselves  to  the 
Lord.     I  likewise  pray  you  and  the  canons  of  the  Holy  Mothe'^ 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  107 

Church  of  Rheims,  my  fathers  and  lords,  to  be  mindful  of  us,  not 
only  of  me  and  these  who  are  still  sweating  in  the  service  of  God, 
but  also  of  those  of  the  army  of  the  Lord  who  have  fallen  in  arms, 
or  died  iti  peace. 

But  these  matters  aside,  let  us  return  to  our  promise.  Accord- 
ingly, after  our  army  arrived  at  Nicomedia  and  we  were  placed  at 
the  gates  of  the  land  of  the  Turks,  leaders,  as  well  as  followers, 
cleansed  by  confession,  fortified  ourselves  by  partaking  of  the  body 
and  blood  of  the  Lord.  Moving  our  camp  thence,  we  set  siege  to 
Nicaea  on  the  second  day  before  the  Nones  of  May.  When,  more- 
over, we  had  been  attacking  the  city  for  some  days  with  many 
machines  and  various  instruments  of  war,  the  cunning  of  the  Turks, 
as  it  had  so  often  done,  deceived  us  much.  For  one  day  when  they 
had  promised  to  surrender  themselves,  Soliman  and  all  the  Turks, 
seeking  to  attack  us  unawares,  gathered  together  from  regions  far 
and  near  and  fell  upon  us.  However,  the  Count  of  St.  Giles,  mak- 
ing an  attack  upon  them  with  some  of  the  Franks,  killed  countless 
numbers  of  them;  all  the  others  fled  in  confusion.  Our  men,  more- 
over, returning  with  victory,  and  bearing  many  heads  fixed  upon 
spikes  and  spears,  offered  a  spectacle  joyful  to  the  people  of  God. 
This  occurred  on  the  seventeenth  day  before  the  Kalends  of  June. 
At  length  the  enemy,  beset  and  routed  in  attacks  by  day  and  night, 
surrendered  the  city,  willy-nilly,  on  the  thirteenth  day  before  the 
Kalends  of  July.  Then  the  Christians,  advancing  through  the  walls 
with  the  crosses  and  imperial  standards,  regained  the  city  for  the 
Lord,  the  Greeks  and  Latins  within  and  without  the  walls  crying 
out  together,  "Glory  to  Thee,  O  Lord!"  When  this  had  been  ac- 
complished, the  princes  of  the  army  went  to  meet  the  Emperor, 
who  had  come  to  render  thanks.  And  having  received  from  him 
gifts  of  inestimable  value,  they  returned,  some  with  kindly  feelings, 
some  otherwise. 

{Stephen.)  But,  after  ten  days,  during  which  time  he  kept  me  in 
his  company  with  the  greatest  respect,  I  separated  from  him  as 
from  a  father.  He,  however,  commanded  that  ships  be  made  ready 
for  me,  by  means  of  which  I  crossed  very  quickly  the  peaceful  arm 
of  the  sea  which  surrounds  the  city.  Some  people  are  wont  to  say 
that  the  arm  of  the  sea  at  Constantinople  is  raging  and  perilous, 
which  is  false;  for  one  need  feel  no  more  uncertainty  at  all  on  it 
than  on  the  Marne  or  Seine.  Thence  we  came  to  that  other  Strait 
which  is  called  the  Arm  of  St.  George.  Along  this  we  ascended, 
since  we  could  by  no  means  find  enough  ships.  We  directed  our 
march  to  Nicomedia,  where  the  aforesaid  arm  of  the  sea  has  its 
source  and  head.     This  city,  in  which  the  blessed  martyr,  Panta- 


io8  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

leon,2*  suffered  for  Christ,  has  been  made  desolate  by  the  Turks. 
From  here  we  hurried  on  to  the  very  large  city  of  Nicaea,  singing 
praise  to  God  (as  we  marched). 

More  than  three  hundred  towers,  my  beloved,  with  walls  of  mar- 
velous construction  enclose  Nicaea.  We  found  the  Turks  within 
it  bold  fighters;  here  we  discovered  that  the  infinite  army  of  God 
had  now  for  four  weeks  been  engaged  in  a  death-dealing  struggle 
with  the  people  of  Nicaea.  Shortly  before  we  came  to  the  army, 
Soliman,  prince  of  the  Turks,  had  suddenly  rushed  upon  our  men 
with  a  large  army  prepared  for  battle,  thinking  that  by  a  certain 
charge  he  could  break  into  the  city  to  aid  his  people.  This  base 
design,  through  the  compassion  of  God,  turned  out  otherwise  than 
he  thought.  For  our  men,  getting  themselves  ready  most  quickly,, 
received  the  Turks  with  fierce  spirit.  All  the  latter  turned  their 
backs  in  flight  immediately.  Our  men,  following  them  very  closely, 
killed  many  of  them  and  pursued  them  over  a  wide  space  of  terri- 
tory, wounding  and  killing  them;  and  had  not  the  difficult  moun- 
tains been  pnknown  to  our  men,  on  that  same  day  they  would  have 
driven  the  enemy  to  great  and  irremediable  destruction.  Of  our 
men,  no  one  perished  at  that  time,  but  afterwards,  as  our  great 
army  together  engaged  in  many  most  sharp  encounters,  killing  many 
of  the  Turks  and  their  leaders  with  hurling  engines  and  arrows, 
some  of  our  men  were  killed,  though,  truly,  not  many — no  knight 
of  renown  except  Baldwin  of  Flanders,  Count  of  Ghent.  When  our 
worthy  princes  of  God  saw  Nicaea  so  turreted,  as  we  have  said 
above,  they  constructed  with  great  labor  very  high  wooden  towers 
provided  with  loop-holes  and  various  engines.  The  Turks,  upon 
beholding  this,  were  overcome  with  fear  and  surrendered  the  city 
to  the  Emperor  by  envoys,  on  condition  that  he  permit  them  to  go 
out  of  the  city  naked,  under  safe  conduct,  and  that  they  be  held 
alive  in  captivity  by  the  Emperor. 

9.  Alexius  at  the  surrender  of  Nicaea.     (June  22 (  ?)-June  27,  1097.) 

(Stephen.)  When  the  Emperor  heard  this,  he  came  near,  al- 
most up  to  us.  However,  he  dared  not  enter  his  own  city  of  Nicaea 
at  all,  for  fear  that  the  infinite  throng  of  inhabitants,  who  revered 
him  as  their  benevolent  father,  would  smother  him  in  their  exulta- 
tion. He  established  himself  on  a  certain  island  of  the  sea  near  us. 
All  our  princes,  except  myself  and  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  ran  to 
him  to  celebrate  so  great  a  victory  with  him,  and  he  received  them, 
as  was  proper,  with  very  great  affection.  And,  because  he  heard 
that  I  had  remained  near  the  city,  lest,  by  chance,  a  most  hostile 
horde  of  Turks  should  overcome  our  army  and  the  city,  he  was 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  109 

greatly  delighted;  indeed,  he  valued  it  much  more  highly  and  was 
better  pleased  that  I  had  remained  at  such  a  time  than  if  I  had  givea 
him  a  mountain  of  gold.  On  that  same  island  on  which  he  was 
staying  the  great  Emperor  so  ordered  the  distribution  of  the  more 
precious  spoils  of  the  city  of  Nicaea  that  the  knights  were  to  have 
such  things  as  gold,  gems,  silver,  robes,  horses,  and  the  like;  all 
victuals  were  to  be  distributed  among  the  foot-soldiers;  all  the 
princes  he  arranged  to  enrich  from  his  own  treasures. 

As  we  have  said  before,  God  triumphing,  the  very  large  city  of 
Nicaea  was  surrendered  on  the  13th  day  before  the  Kalends  of 
July.  It  is  read  in  (the  history  of)  the  primitive  church  that  the 
holy  fathers  celebrated  a  synod  at  Nicaea  and,  after  the  Arian  heresy 
had  been  destroyed,  there  confirmed  by  the  teaching  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  the  faith  of  the  Holy  Trinity.  And  this  city,  which  because 
of  its  sins  later  became  a  mistress  of  error,  now,  by  the  mercy 
of  God,  has  been  made,  through  His  sinful  servants,  a  disciple  of 
truth.  I  tell  you,  my  beloved,  that  in  five  weeks  we  will  reach 
Jerusalem  from  Nicaea,  the  city  so  often  mentioned,  unless  Antioch 
.  resists  us.     Farewell. 

{Anna.)  But  though  the  Emperor  wished  to  attach  himself  to 
the  Gauls  and  advance  with  them  against  the  barbarians,  yet,  fear- 
ing their  countless  multitude,  he  decided  to  go  to  Pelecanum,  in 
order  that  by  camping  near  Nicaea  he  might  learn  what  was  hap- 
pening to  the  Gauls,  and  also  learn  the  undertakings  of  the  Turks 
outside,  as  well  as  the  conditions  in  the  city.  .  .  . 

The  august  Emperor  tarried  about  Pelacanum  for  some  time, 
since  he  desired  those  Gallic  counts  who  were  not  yet  bound  to  him 
also  to  take  the  oath  of  loyalty.  To  this  end,  he  sent  a  letter  to 
Butumites,  asking  all  the  counts  in  common  not  to  start  upon  the 
journey  to  Antioch  until  they  had  said  farewell  to  the  Emperor. 
If  they  did  this,  they  would  all  be  showered  with  new  gifts  by  him. 
Bohemund  was  the  first  to  prick  up  his  ears  at  the  mention  of  money 
and  gifts.  Quickly  won  by  these  words  of  Butumites,  he  strove  in- 
dustriously to  force  all  the  others  to  return  to  the  Emperor — so 
greatly  did  cupidity  move  the  man.  The  Emperor  received  them 
on  their  arrival  at  Pelecanum  with  magnificence  and  the  greatest 
show  of  good-will.  At  length,  when  they  were  assembled,  he  ad- 
dressed them  thus :  *'You  know  that  you  have  all  bound  yourselves 
to  me  by  oath;  if  you  do  not  now  intend  to  ignore  this,  advise  and 
persuade  those  of  your  number  who  have  not  yet  pledged  faith  to 
take  the  oath."  They  immediately  summoned  the  counts  who  had 
not  sworn.    All  of  these  came  together  and  took  the  oath. 

Tancred,  however,  nephew  of  Bohemund  and  a  youth  of  most 


iT#  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

independent  spirit,  professed  that  he  owed  faith  to  Bohemund  alone, 
and  would  serve  him  even  to  death.  Rebuked  by  the  loud  protest 
of  those  of  his  own  fellows  who  stood  near,  and  of  the  Emperor's 
retinue,  besides,  he  turned  toward  the  tent  in  which  the  Emperor 
was  then  dwelling — ^the  largest  and  most  capacious  which  anyone  has 
ever  seen — and,  as  if  to  make  sport  of  them,  said,  "If  you  give  me 
this  (tent)  full  of  money  and,  in  addition,  all  the  other  presents 
which  you  gave  all  the  counts,  I,  too,  will  take  the  oath."  But 
Palaeologus,^^  full  of  zeal  for  the  Emperor,  could  not  endure  the 
mocking  speech  of  Tancred  and  pushed  him  away  with  contempt. 
Then  Tancred,  very  ready  with  his  arms,  sprang  upon  him.  Seeing 
this,  the  Emperor  arose  hastily  from  his  seat  and  stood  between 
them.  Bohemund,  too,  restrained  the  youth,  saying  'Tt  is  not  fitting 
shamefully  to  strike  the  kinsman  of  the  Emperor."  Then  Tancred, 
recognizing  the  disgrace  of  his  insolence  toward  Palaeologus,  and 
persuaded  by  the  advice  of  Bohemund  and  the  others,  offered  to 
take  the  oath  himself.  .  .  . 

10.  The  viezvs  of  Alexius  on  his  relations  with  the  Crusaders. 

How  much  you  have  written  to  my  empire,  most  venerable  ser- 
vant of  God,  abbot  of  the  monastery  of  Monte  Cassino!  I  have 
read  your  letter  which  declares  honor  and  praise  to  my  empire. 
Toward  me  and  my  subjects  there  is,  indeed,  very  great  favor  from 
Almighty  and  Most  Merciful  God,  for  many  are  His  blessings. 
Through  His  compassion  and  by  His  grace  He  has  honored  and 
exalted  my  empire.  However,  not  only  because  I  have  nothing  of 
good  within  me,  but  because  I  sin  above  all  men,  I  daily  pray  that 
His  compassion  and  patience  may  be  sent  to  sustain  my  weakness. 
But  you,  filled  with  goodness  and  virtue,  judge  me,  sinner  that  I 
am,  a  good  man,  and  truly  you  have  the  advantage  of  me.  My 
empire,  though  it  is  praised  without  having  work  worthy  of  praise, 
holds  the  praise  to  its  own  condemnation. 

'T  beseech  you  earnestly  to  furnish  aid  to  the  army  of  Franks," 
your  most  thoughtful  letters  state.  Let  your  Venerable  Holiness  be 
assured  on  that  score,  for  my  empire  has  been  spread  over  them  and 
will  aid  and  advise  them  on  all  matters ;  indeed,  it  has  already  co- 
operated with  them  according  to  its  ability,  not  as  a  friend,  or  rela- 
tive, but  like  a  father.  It  has  expended  among  them  more  than 
anyone  can  enumerate.  And  had  not  my  empire  so  cooperated  with 
them  and  aided  them,  who  else  would  have  afforded  them  help? 
Nor  does  it  grieve  my  empire  to  assist  a  second  time.  By  God's 
grace,  they  are  prospering  up  to  this  day  in  the  service  which  they 
have  begun,  and  they  will  continue  to  prosper  in  the  future  as  long 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  in 

as  good  purpose  leads  them  on.  A  multitude  of  knights  and  foot- 
soldiers  have  gone  to  the  Eternal  Tabernacle,  some,  of  which  were 
killed;  others  died.  Blessed,  indeed,  are  they,  since  they  met  their 
end  in  good  intent !  Besides,  we  ought  not  at  all  to  regard  them  as 
dead,  but  as  living  and  transported  to  life  everlasting  and  incor- 
ruptible. As  evidence  of  my  true  faith  and  my  kind  regard  for 
your  monastery,  my  empire  has  sent  you  an  epUoricum,  adorned  on 
the  back  with  glittering  gold. 

Sent  in  the  month  of  June,    (1098)    sixth  Indiction,   from  the 
most  holy  city  of  Constantinople.^^ 


CHAPTER  IV 

From  Nicaea  To  Antioch 

(In  the  march  across  Asia  Minor  the  Crusaders  for  the  first  time  en- 
countered their  real  enemy,  the  Seljukian  Turks.  These  had  previously  con- 
tented themselves  with  an  effort  to  slip  into  Nicaea,  their  capital,  but  the 
odds  were  too  great  and  the  city  was  allowed  to  fall.  Now,  however,  with 
the  Crusaders  on  the  march,  the  superior  knowledge  of  the  country  enjoyed 
by  the  Turks  and  their  swifter  horses  combined  to  offset  the  numerical 
advantage  of  the  Christians.  For  the  Latins  considerably  outnumbered  the 
Turks,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  they  were  so  far  away  from  home  in  the 
heart  of  the  enemy's  territory.  The  explanation  of  this  anomalous  situa- 
tion lies  in  the  condition  of  the,  Turkish  and  Mohammedan  realm.  The 
Caliph  of  Bagdad  had  become  spiritual  head  of  the  Mohammedans.  The 
Caliph  of  Egypt  was  head  of  the  Ishmaelite  section  of  the  Mohammedans 
and  bitterly  opposed  to  the  Caliph  of  Bagdad.  Their  fighting  ground  was 
Syria.  Sixty  years  before  the  First  Crusade,  a  new  vitality  had  been  in- 
jected into  the  Caliphate  of  Bagdad  by  the  creation  of  the  Seljuk  Sultanate. 
These  Seljuks,  who  were  the  most  advanced  of  the  Turks,  had  but  recently 
taken  on  the  Mohammedan  faith.  With  all  the  zeal  of  neophytes,  they  de- 
voted themselves  zealously  to  the  spread  of  their  religion.  Under  their 
earlier  Sultans,  they  had  extended  their  domain  across  Western  Asia  to  the 
very  gates  of  Constantinople.  The  second  of  their  Sultans  to  rule  Western 
Asia,  Alp  Arslan,  had  won  a  brilliant  victory  over  the  Eastern  Empire  at 
Manzikert  in  1071,  which  opened  Asia  Minor  to  the  Turks.  Their  ideas  of 
political  organization,  however,  were  as  rudimentary  as  those  of  the  peoples 
of  the  West,  and  Asia  Minor  was  given  to  a  relative  on  the  feudal  basis 
of  personal  loyalty  and  homage  to  the  Sultan.  The  vast  empire  of  the  Sul- 
tans soon  became  unmanageable.  The  third  Sultan,  Malik  Shah,  found  his 
vassals  restless  and  had  to  suppress  at  least  one  revolt.  Upon  his  death  in 
1092,  quarrels  arose  among  his  sons  which  lasted  for  more  than  a  genera- 
tion. During  this  time,  the  numerous  feudal  vassals  exercised  practical  in- 
dependence. They  not  only  participated  in  the  wars  between  the  rivals,  but 
often  warred  with  one  another.  It  was  at  this  juncture  that  the  Crusaders 
came.  The  Turks  were  so  embittered  among  themselves  that  they  refused 
to  make  common  cause  against  the  invaders,  and,  as  a  result,  the  Crusaders 
Vvcre  able  to  overcome  one  after  another  of  their  principalities.  The  first  of 
these,  called  the  Sultanate  of  Rum  (Romania),  included  practically  all  of 
Asia  Minor.  This  had  been  given  to  Suliman  by  Alp  Arslan  and  had  been 
extended  by  him  to  Nicaea,  which  he  made  his  capital.  This  Suliman  was 
well  known  and  feared  by  the  Greeks.  His  son,  Kilij  Arslan  Daud,  whom 
the  Crusaders  called  Soliman,  was  ruling  at  the  time  of  the  Crusade  (1092- 
1106)  and  led  the  fighting  in  Asia  Minor  against  the  Christians. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  113 

At  Nicaea  the  various  bands  were  formed  into  one  army,  and  thereafter 
the  different  authors  serve  to  correct  and  corroborate  one  another  in  the 
account  of  their  common  experiences.  Two  exceptions  occur ;  one  in  re- 
gard to  the  battle  of  Dorylaeum,  when  the  army  was  temporarily  divided, 
and  the  other  when  Baldwin  and  Tancred  left  the  main  army  on  journeys 
of  adventure  in  CiHcia.  The  division  of  the  army  before  Dorylaeum  was 
ended  by  the  battle,  and  the  digression  of  Baldwin  to  Edessa  took  him  pe;-- 
manently  from  the  main  army,  while  that  of  Tancred  ended  when  the  main 
army  joirted  him  before  Antioch.  Fulcher,  who  accompanied  Baldwin,  there- 
fore ceases  at  this  time  to  qualify~as  an  eye-witness  of  events  which  oc- 
curred in  the  main  army.  For  Tancred's  separate  acts  the  account  by  the 
Anonymous  may  be  supplemented  by  that  of  Raoul  de  Caen,  who  probably 
gained  his  story  from  Tancred  himself.^  Events  followed  one  another  in 
such  rapid  succession  as  to  confuse  writers  who  delayed  the  composition  of 
their  narratives  for  some  time.  This  is  especially  true  of  Raymond,  whose 
story  must  be  carefully  checked  by  the  letters  and  the  Gesta.  On  most  mat- 
ters of  importance  in  this  chapter  the  accounts  agree.  The  most  notable 
exception  is  that  of  the  defection  of  the  Greek  commander  Tetigus,  called 
also  Tatic,  Titidus,  Tatanus,  and  Statinus.  The  divergent  view  of  Anna  de- 
serves consideration  in  view  of  the  increased  distrust  between  the  Latins 
and  the  Greeks.^) 

I.  Battle  of  Dorylaeum.     (July  i,  1097.) 

(Gesta.)  Then  on  the  first  day  after  leaving  the  city,  v^e  came 
to  a  certain  bridge  and  remained  there  for  two  days.  On  the  third 
day,  however,  before  day  had  begun  to  dawn,  our  men  arose.  Since 
it  was  night,  they  were  unable  to  keep  to  one  road,  but  were  divided 
into  two  lines  and,  thus  divided,  proceeded  for  two  days.  In  one 
line  were  the  men,  Bohemund,  Robert  of  Normandy,  the  renowned 
Tancred,  and  several  others ;  in  the  other  were  the  Count  of  St. 
Gilles,  Duke  Godfrey,  the  Bishop  of  Puy,  Hugh  the  Great,  the 
Count  of  Flanders,  and  many  others.  But  on  the  third  day  the  Turks 
rushed  violently  upon  Bohemund  and  those  who  were  with  him. 
Forthwith  the  Turks  began  to  whistle  and  chatter  and  shout  at  the 
top  of  their  voices,  uttering  a  diabolical  sound,  I  know  not  how,  in 
their  own  tongue.  The  wise  man,  Bohemund,  seeing  innumerable 
Turks  whistling  and  shouting  from  afar  with  demoniacal  voices, 
straightway  ordered  all  the  knights  to  dismount  and  quickly  pitch 
their  tents.  Before  the  tents  had  been  pitched,  he  spoke  again  to 
all  the  knights:  "Seignors  and  bravest  knights  of  Christ,  behold 
the  battle  is  now  close  about  us  on  all  sides.  Therefore,  let  all  the 
knights  advance  manfully  against  the  enemy,  and  let  the  foot- 
soldiers  spread  the  tents  carefully  and  very  quickly."  But  after 
this  was  all  done,  the  Turks  were  already  encircling  us  on  all  sides, 
slashing,  hurling,  piercing,  and  shooting  far  and  wide  in  wondrous 


114  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

fashion.  Though  we  could  not  resist  them,  nor  withstand  the  press 
of  so  great  an  enemy,  yet  we  (held  out)  there  together.  Our  wo- 
men, also,  were  on  that  day  of  greatest  support  to  us.  They  brought 
drinking  water  to  our  fighters,  and,  furthermore,  ever  comforted 
those  who  were  fighting  and  defending  them.  Accordingly,  the 
wise  man,  Bohemund,  straightway  sent  word  to  the  others  (to  wit, 
the  renowned  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  the  famous  Duke  Godfrey,  Hugh 
the  Great,  the  most  honorable  Bishop  of  Puy,  and  all  the 'other 
knights  of  Christ)  to  hurry  and  come  to  the  battle  as  quickly  as 
possible,  saying  that,  if  they  wished  to  fight  that  day,  let  them  come 
bravely.  They  utterly  refused  (at  first),  laughing  at  the  messengers 
and  saying,  "Surely  this  is  all  false!"  For  we  did  not  believe  that 
those  people  were  so  impudent  that  they  already  dared  to  rise  up 
and  fight  again  with  us.  Finally,  Duke  Godfrey,  bold  and  brave, 
and  Hugh  the  Great  went  ahead  with  their  armies.  The  Bishop  of 
Puy  also  followed  them  with  his  army,  and  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles 
after  them  with  the  great  host. 

Our  men  wondered  exceedingly  whence  had  arisen  so  great  a 
multitude  of  Turks,  Arabs,  Saracens,  and  others  whom  I  know 
not  how  to  enumerate,  for  almost  all  the  mountains  and  hills  and 
valleys  and  all  the  level  places,  within  and  without,  were  on  all 
sides  covered  with  that  excommunicate  race.  Accordingly,  secret! 
speech  was  held  among  us,  praising  and  advising  and  saying,  "Be^ 
of  one  mind  in  the  faith  of  Christ,  and  in  the  victory  of  the  Stand- 
ard of  the  Holy  Cross,  because  this  day,  if  it  please  God,  you  will 
all  have  been  made  rich."  Straightway  our  lines  of  battle  were 
formed.  On  the  left  side  was  the  wise  man,  Bohemund,  Robert  of 
Normandy,  the  renowned  Tancred,  the  most  honorable  Robert  of 
Anse,  and  the  famous  Richard  of  Principati.  The  Bishop  of  Puy, 
indeed,  came  over  another  mountain,  surrounding  the  incredulous 
Turks  on  all  sides.  On  the  left  side,  also,  rode  the  most  mighty 
knight,  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles.  On  the  right  wing  was  the 
honorable  Duke  Godfrey,  and  the  most  fierce  knight,  the  Count  of 
Flanders,  Hugh  the  Great,  and  many  others  whose  names  I  do  not 
know.  Immediately,  however,  upon  the  arrival  of  our  troops  the 
Turks,  Arabs,  Saracens,  Agulani,^  and  all  the  barbarous  nations 
quickly  turned  in  flight  through  the  mountain  passes  and  over  the 
level  places.  Moreover,  the  number  of  the  Turks,  Persians,  Publi- 
cam*  Saracens,  Agulani  and  other  pagans  was  three  hundred  and 
sixty  thousand,  besides  the  Arabs,  whose  number  no  one  knows, 
unless  it  be  God  alone.  They  fled,  indeed,  very  quickly  to  their 
tents,  but  they  were  not  permitted  to  remain  there  long.  Again 
they  took  to  flight,  and  we  followed  them,  killing  them  one  whole 


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\ 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  115 

day;  and  we  took  much  booty — gold,  silver,  horses,  asses,  camels, 
sheep,  cattle,  and  very  many  other  things  which  we  do  not  know. 
Had  not  God  been  with  us  in  the  battle  and  quickly  sent  us  a  sec- 
ond battle  line,  not  one  of  us  would  have  escaped,  for  this  fight 
lasted  from  the  third  hour  even  to  the  ninth.  But  Almighty  God, 
holy  and  merciful,  who  neither  permitted  His  knights  to  perish  nor 
to  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  hastily  sent  us  His  aid.  Two 
honorable  knights  of  ours,  Godfrey  of  Mount  Scaglioso,  and  Wil- 
liam, son  of  Marchisus,  brother  of  Tancred,  died  there,  and  (also) 
other  knights  and  foot-soldiers  whose  names  I  do  not  know. 

Whoever  will  be  wise  or  learned  enough  to  dare  to  describe  the 
valor,  skill,  and  fortitude  of  the  Turks,  who  thought  to  frighten  the 
host  of  the  Franks  with  the  threats  of  their  arrows,  just  as  they 
frighten  the  Arabs,  Saracens,  Armenians,  Syrians,  and  Greeks? 
But,  please  God,  never  will  they  be  so  powerful  as  our  men.  In- 
deed, they  say  that  they  are  of  the  Frankish  race,  and  that  no  one 
ought  naturally  to  be  a  knight  except  the  Franks  and  themselves. 
I  shall  speak  the  truth,  which  no  one  will  dare  deny.  Certainly,  if 
they  had  ever  been  firm  in  the  faith  of  Christ  and  holy  Christianity, 
and  had  been  willing  to  confess  the  One  Lord  in  Trinity,  and  that 
the  Son  of  God  was  born  of  a  Virgin  Mother,  suffered,  and  arose 
from  the  dead,  and  ascended  to  heaven  while  His  disciples  looked 
on,  and  then,  finally,  sent  the  consolation  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and 
had  believed  with  a  right  mind  and  faith  in  Him,  ruling  in  heaven 
and  on  earth,  no  one  could  have  found  more  powerful,  braver,  or 
■  more  skilful  fighters  than  they.  And  yet,  by  the  grace  of  God,  they 
were  conquered  by  our  men!  This  battle  was  fought  on  the  first 
day  of  July. 

But  after  the  Turks,  enemies  of  God  and  holy  Christianity,  had 
been  entirely  beaten,  fleeing  hither  and  thither  for  four  days  and 
nights,  it  happened  that  Soliman,  their  Duke,  son  of  the  old  Soli- 
man,  fled  from  Nicaea.  He  found  ten  thousand  Arabs  who  said 
to  him,  "O,  unhappy  and  more  unhappy  than  all  the  Gentiles !  why 
do  you  flee,  terrified?"  To  them  Soliman  tearfully  replied:  "Be- 
cause just  recently,  when  I  had  all  the  Franks  beaten  and  thought 
them  already  bound  in  captivity,  and  when  I  would  soon  have  tied 
them  to  one  another,  then,  looking  back,  I  saw  such  an  innumerable 
host  of  them  that,  if  any  of  you  had  been  there,  you  would  have 
thought  that  all  the  mountains,  hills,  valleys,  and  level  places  were 
filled  with  their  multitude.  Upon  seeing  them,  we  began  imme- 
diately to  take  to  sudden  flight,  so  amazingly  afraid  that  we  hardly 
escaped  from  their  hands ;  wherefore  we  are  still  in  very  great 
terror.     And  if  you  wish  to  believe  me  and  my  words,  take  your- 


ii6  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

selves  hence,  because  if  they  can  only  learn  of  you,  scarcely  one 
of  you  will  any  longer  remain  alive."  The  enemy,  upon  hearing 
such  tidings,  turned  their  backs  again  and  spread  out  through  all 
Romania. 

(Raymond.)  Accordingly,  we  set  out  from  the  city  of  Nicaea 
into  Romania,  and  on  the  second  day  Bohemund  with  some  of  the 
princes  rashly  separated  from  the  Count  and  Bishop  and  Duke. 
When  on  the  third  day  of  this  digression  Bohemund  was  planning 
to  pitch  his  tents,  he  saw  a  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  Turks  ad- 
vancing to  battle.  And  while  he  was  drawing  up  his  lines  tempo- 
rarily and  was  preparing  for  battle,  he  lost  several  of  his  army. 
In  the  midst  of  this,  he  sent  word  to  the  Count  and  Duke  to  help 
him,  for  they  were  two  miles  away.  Moreover,  as  soon  as  the 
messenger  of  Bohemund  came  to  the  camp,  all  straightway  seized 
their  horses  and  arms  and  hastened  to  go  against  the  enemy.  How- 
ever, when  Soliman  and  those  who  were  with  him  recognized  our 
army  coming  to  battle  against  them,  they  were  forced  to  flee,  de- 
spairing of  victory.  And  thus  he  who  had  taken  captives  and  very 
many  tents  from  the  camp  of  Bohemund  through  God's  might  aban- 
doned his  own.  A  wondrous  miracle  was  reported,  but  we  did  not 
see  it ;  that  two  knights  clad  in  shining  armor  and  of  wonderful 
appearance  advanced  before  our  army  and  so  threatened  the  enemy 
that  they  granted  them  no  chance  to  fight  in  any  way.  Indeed, 
when  the  Turks  wanted  to  strike  them  with  lances  they  appeared 
invulnerable  to  them.  However,  we  learned  these  things  which 
we  have  stated  from  those  Turks  who  spurned  the  companionship 
of  their  own  people  and  clung  to  us.  What  we  add  for  testhnony 
is  as  follows :  throughout  the  first  and  second  day  we  found  horses 
of  the  enemy,  together  with  their  masters,  dead  along  the  road. 

(Fulcher.)  When,  therefore,  our  leaders  had  received  the  Em-* 
peror's  permission  to  depart,  we  left  Nicaea  on  the  third  day  before 
the  Kalends  of  July,  and,  advancing,  we  came  into  the  interior  parts 
of  Romania.  But  when  we  had  been  on  the  way  two  days,  it  was 
reported  to  us  that  the  Turks  had  set  ambushes  for  us  and  ex- 
pected to  join  battle  with  us  in  the  plains  through  which  they 
thought  we  were  going  to  pass.  We  did  not  lose  courage,  however, 
at  this  news.  But  that  evening,  when  our  scouts  saw  many  of  them 
a  long  way  off,  they  at  once  notified  us  of  it.  Therefore,  on  that 
night  we  had  our  tents  protected  on  all  sides  by  guards.  But  early 
in  the  morning,  which  was  the  Kalends  of  July,  we  took  up  our 
arms,  and  at  the  signal  of  the  trumpet  we  divided  into  wings,  with 
tribunes  and  centurians  leading  the  cohorts  and  centuries.  Then 
with  flags  flying,  we  went  out  against  the  enemy  in  good  order. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  117 

At  the  second  hour  of  the  day,  behold,  their  advance  guards  ap- 
proached our  scouts.  When  we  had  heard  this,  we  pitched  our 
tents  near  a  certain  marsh  and  took  off  our  pack  saddles,  so  that 
we  would  be  better  able  to  fight. 

When  this  was  done,  the  Emir  and  chief  of  the  Turks,  Soliman, 
who  had  held  in  his  possession  the  city  of  Nicaea  and  Romania, 
gathered  together  about  him  the  Turks  and  pagan  Persians  who, 
after  a  journey  of  thirty  days  at  his  command,  had  come  to  his  aid. 
There  were  present  with  him  many  chiefs  and  leaders  such  as 
Ad\mircaradigum,  Miriathos,^  and  many  others.  Altogether  they 
numbered  360,000  fighters,  all  on  horses  and  armed  with  bows,  as 
was  their  custom.  We,  on  the  other  hand,  had  both  foot-soldiers 
and  knights.  But  at  that  time  Duke  Godfrey  and  Count  Raymond 
and  Hugh  the  Great  had  been  two  days  absent  from  us.  For  some 
unknown  reason  they  had  taken  a  branch  road  and  withdrawn 
themselves  from  us  with  a  large  number  of  our  men.  Therefore 
an  irreparable  loss  resulted,  as  much  from  the  number  of  our 
soldiers  who  were  killed  as  from  our  failure  to  kill  or  capture  the 
Turks.  And  because  those  absent  leaders  received  our  messengers 
late,  they  were  therefore  late  in  coming  to  our  aid.  The  Turks 
crept  up,  howling  loudly  and  shooting  a  shower  of  arrows.  Stunned, 
and  almost  dead,  and  with  many  wounded,  we  immediately  fled. 
And  it  was  no  wonder,  for  such  warfare  was  new  to  us  all.  Al- 
ready from  another  part  of  the  marsh,  a  large  column  of  them 
rushed  violently  up  to  our  tents  and,  entering  them,  snatched  our 
possessions  and  killed  our  people.  Then,  by  the  disposition  of 
God,  the  advance  guard  of  Hugh  the  Great  and  Count  Raymond 
and  Duke  Godfrey  came  from  the  rear  upon  this  unhappy  scene. 
When  we  had  been  driven  up  to  our  tents,  those  of  the  enemy  who 
were  there  fled  out,  thinking  that  we  had  returned  to  attack  them. 
But  what  they  took  for  bravery  and  courage  they  should  have 
thought  great  fear. 

What  further  shall  I  say  ?  We  were  all  huddled  together,  indeed, 
like  sheep  shut  in  a  pen,  trembling  and  frightened,  surrounded  on 
all  sides  by  enemies,  so  that  we  were  unable  to  advance  in  any 
direction.  It  was  clear  to  us  that  this  befell  us  as  a  punishmenc 
for  our  sins.  For  whomsoever  luxury  defiles,  those,  indeed,  avarice, 
or  some  other  vice,  corrupts.  The  air  was  lashed  with  a  great  out- 
cry from  men,  women,  and  children,  as  well  as  from  the  pagans, 
who  rushed  upon  us.  Now  there  was  no  hope  of  life  left  to  us. 
We  then  confessed  that  we  were  debtors  and  sinners  and  humbly 
begged  mercy  from  God.  There  were  present  the  Bishop  of  Puy, 
our  patron,  and  four  other  prelates.    Many  priests,  vested  in  white, 


ii8  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

were  also  there,  who  humbly  besought  God  to  destroy  the  power 
of  our  enemy  and  shed  upon  us  the  gifts  of  his  mercy.  Weeping, 
they  sang,  and  singing,  they  wept.  Then  many,  fearing  that  death 
was  near,  ran  to  the  priests  and  confessed  their  sins  to  them.  Our 
leaders.  Count  Robert  of  Normandy,  and  Stephen,  Count  of  Blois, 
and  Robert,  Count  of  Flanders,  and  Bohemund,  also,  resisted  the 
enemy  with  all  their  might  and  often  tried  to  charge  upon  them. 
They,  also,  were  strongly  attacked  by  the  Turks. 

But  the  Lord,  no  doubt  appeased  by  our  supplications, — for  He 
gives  victory  neither  to  the  splendor  of  nobility  nor  to  brilliance  of 
arms,  but  to  the  pure  in  heart  and  to  him  whose  need  is  piously 
fortified  by  divine  strength, — little  by  little  restored  to  us  our 
strength  and  weakened  the  Turks  more  and  more.  For  we  saw  our 
allies  hastening  to  our  aid  from  behind.  Praising  God,  we  regained 
our  courage  and,  forming  into  troops  and  cohorts,  pressed  forward 
to  resist  them.  Oh,  how  many  of  our  men,  coming  slowly  after  us, 
they  killed  that  day !  From  the  very  first  hour  of  the  day  until  the 
sixth,  as  I  have  said,  dififi-culties  checked  us;  but  then,  little  by  lit- 
tle, we  recovered  and  were  reinforced  by  our  allies.  Manifestly 
Divine  Grace  was  with  us,  for,  as  if  by  sudden  impulse,  all  the 
Turks  turned  their  backs  on  us  in  flight.  But  we  followed  them 
through  the  mountains  and  valleys,  calling  after  them  loudly.  We 
(lid  not  cease  pursuing  them  until  our  advance  guard  had  come  up 
to  their  tents.  There  some  of  our  men  loaded  horses  and  camels 
with  their  goods  and  even  with  the  tents  which  the  Turks  in  their 
fright  had  left  there.  Others  followed  the  fleeing  Turks  even  until 
night.  But  because  our  horses  were  famished  and  tired,  we  kept 
a  few  of  theirs.  It  was  a  great  miracle  of  God  that,  during  the  fol- 
lowing day  and  the  third,  the  pagans  did  not  halt  in  their  flight, 
although  no  one,  unless  it  were  God,  followed  them  further.  Ex- 
ceedingly rejoiced  at  such  a  victory,  we  all  gave  thanks  to  God  be- 
cause He  did  not  will  that  our  expedition  should  be  annihilated, 
but  that  it  should  prosper  more  gloriously  than  usual,  for  the  honor 
of  His  own  Christianity.  Wherefore,  from  the  East  to  West  its 
glory  shall  resound  forever. 

2.  Hardships  of  the  inarch  through  Asia  Minor.     (July  3-October, 
1097.) 

(Gesta.)  Then  we  went  on  pursuing  the  most  iniquitous  Turks, 
who  daily  fled  before  us.  But  they  went  to  all  the  fortified  towns 
or  cities,  deceiving  and  deluding  the  inhabitants  of  those  lands, 
saying:  "We  have  conquered  all  the  Christians  and  have  so  over- 
come them  that  no  one  of  them  will  ever  dare  to  arise  before  us; 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  119 

only  let  us  come  in."  They  destroyed  the  churches,  homes,  and 
everything  else,  upon  entering,  and  carried  off  with  them  the  horses, 
asses,  mules,  gold,  and  silver,  and  whatever  they  could  find.  In 
addition,  also,  they  carried  off  the  children  of  Christians  with  them 
and  burned  and  devastated  everything  that  was  convenient  or  use- 
ful, fleeing,  greatly  frightened,  before  our  faces.  Accordingly,  we 
were  following  them  through  deserts,  and  dry  and  uninhabitable 
land,  from  which  we  scarcely  escaped  and  came  out  alive.  Hunger 
and  thirst  pinched  us  on  all  sides,  and  there  was  absolutely  nothing 
for  us  to  eat,  unless,  by  chance,  tearing  and  grinding  grain  with  our 
hands,  we  continued  to  exist  on  such  food  as  wretchedly  as  pos- 
sible. There  most  of  our  cavalry  ceased  to  exist,  because  (there- 
after) many  of  these  became  foot-soldiers.  For  want  of  horses, 
our  men  used  oxen  in  place  of  cavalry  horses,  and  because  of  the 
very  great  need,  goats,  sheep,  and  dogs  served  as  beasts  of  burden. 

Meanwhile  we  began  to  enter  the  best  land,  filled  with  bodily 
nourishment,  delicacies,  and  goods  of  all  kinds,  and  then  we  ap- 
proached Iconium.  The  inhabitants  of  that  land  persuaded  and 
advised  us  to  take  along  skins  filled  with  water,  because  there  is 
the  greatest  lack  of  water  about  one  day's  march  from  there.  We 
accordingly  did  so,  until  we  came  to  a  certain  river,  and  there  we 
lodged  for  two  days.  However,  our  scouts  began  to  go  on  ahead 
until  they  came  to  Heraclea,  in  which  town  there  was  a  very  large 
gathering  of  Turks,  waiting  and  plotting  how  they  could  harm  and 
put  to  grief  the  knights  of  Christ.  The  knights  of  Almighty  God 
found  and  boldly  attacked  these  Turks.  And  thus  our  enemy  was 
overcome  on  that  day,  and  they  fled  as  swiftly  as  an  arrow  flies 
when  discharged  with  a  mighty  pull  of  string  and  bow.  Our  men, 
accordingly,  entered  the  city  immediately  and  remained  there  for 
four  days. 

(Fulcher.)  Then,  indeed,  we  continued  our  journey  quietly,  one 
day  suffering  such  extreme  thirst  that  many  men  and  women  died 
from  its  torments.  Whole  troops  of  Turks,  fleeing  before  us,  sought 
refuge  by  scattering  throughout  Romania.  Then  we  came  to  that 
Antioch  which  they  called  the  lesser,  in  the  province  of  Pisidia. 
and  thence  to  Iconium.  In  these  regions  we  very  often  were  in 
need  of  bread  and  other  foods.  For  we  found  Romania,  a  land 
which  is  good  and  very  rich  in  all  products,  thoroughly  devastated 
and  ravished  by  the  Turks.  Still,  you  would  often  see  this  multi- 
tude of  people  well  refreshed  by  whatever  Httle  vegetation  we  found 
at  intervals  on  this  journey  throughout  barren  regions.  This  hap- 
pened by  the  aid  of  God,  who  from  five  loaves  and  two  fishes  fed 
the  five  thousand.    Wherefore,  glad  and  rejoicing,  we  declared  that 


120  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

these  were  gifts  of  the  mercy  of  God.  Truly,  one  would  not  know 
whether  to  laugh  or  to  cry  from  pity,  when  many  of  our  men 
without  pack-mules,  since  many  of  theirs  had  already  perished, 
loaded  sheep,  goats,  hogs,  and  dogs  with  their  supplies,  such  as 
clothing,  and  food,  and  whatever  luggage  was  necessary  for  pil- 
grims. The  skin  of  those  animals  was  worn  by  the  weight  of  the 
baggage.  And  knights  with  their  armor  sometimes  even  mounted 
oxen.  But  who  ever  heard  such  a  mixture  of  languages  in  one 
army?  There  were  Franks,  Flemish,  Frisians,  Gauls,  Allobroges, 
Lotharingians,  Alemanni,  Bavarians,  Normans,  Angles,  Scots, 
Aquitanians,  Italians,  Dacians,  Apulians,  Iberians,  Bretons,  Greeks 
and  Armenians.*^  If  a  Breton  or  Teuton  questioned  me,  I  would 
not  know  how  to  answer  either.  But  though  we  spoke  diverse  lan- 
guages, we  were,  however,  brothers  in  the  love  of  God  and  seemed 
to  be  nearest  kin.  For  if  one  lost  any  of  his  possessions,  whoever 
found  it  kept  it  carefully  a  long  time,  until,  by  inquiry,  he  found 
the  loser  and  returned  it  to  him.  This  was  indeed  the  proper  way 
for  those  who  were  making  this  holy  pilgrimage  in  a  right  spirit. 

When  we  had  reached  the  city  of  Heraclea,  we  beheld  a  certain 
prodigy  in  the  sky,  which,  shining  in  brilliant  whiteness,  appeared 
in  the  shape  of  a  sword  with  the  point  towards  ;the  East.  We  did 
not  know  what  it  portended  for  the  future ;  but  we  left  the  present 
and  future  to  the  Lord.  Then  we  arrived  at  a  certain  flourishing 
town  which  is  called  Marasch  and  we  rested  there  for  three  days. 

3.  Baldunn  and  Tancred  depart  froiu  the  main  army.     (Early  Sep- 
tember,  1097.) 

(Gesta.)  There  Tancred,  son  of  Marchisus,  and  Baldwin,  the 
famous  Count,  brother  of  Duke  Godfrey,  separated  from  the  others, 
and  together  went  into  the  valley  of  BotrenthrotJ  Tancred  went 
to  Tarsus  alone  with  his  troops.  At  length,  the  Turks  came  out 
f  1  om  the  city  and  advanced  to  meet  them ;  then,  gathered  together, 
they  hastened  to  battle  against  the  Christians.  As  our  men  ap- 
proached and  fought,  our  enemy  fled,  returning  rapidly  to  the  city. 

But  Tancred,  distinguished  and  honorable  knight  of  Christ, 
loosened  his  breast-plate  and  encamped  before  the  gate  of  the  city. 
From  another  side,  thereupon,  came  the  famous  man,  Count  Bald- 
win, with  his  army,  demanding  and  praying  Tancred,  most  harsh 
knight,  that  with  the  greatest  friendship  he  would  deign  to  take 
him  most  kindly  into  partnership  in  the  city.  To  him  Tancred  said, 
'T  absolutely  refuse  to  take  you  into  partnership."  And  so  when 
night  came,  the  terrified  Turks  took  to  flight  in  a  body.  Then  the 
inhabitants  of  the  city  came  out  under  the  shadows  of  the  night, 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  121 

shouting  at  the  top  of  their  voices,  "Run!  most  invincible  Franks, 
run !  For  the  Turks,  driven  out  by  fear  of  you,  are  all  departing." 
Moreover  at  daybreak,  the  leaders  of  the  city  came  and  willingly 
surrendered  it,  saying  to  those  who  were  quarrelling  about  this 
matter  among  themselves,  "Stop,  Seignors,  stop!  for  we  seek  and 
wish  for  lord  and  ruler  him  who  yesterday  so  bravely  fought  with 
the  Turks."  Baldwin,  thereupon,  wonderful  Count,  quarrelled  and 
disputed  with  Tancred,  saying,  "Let  us  enter  together,  and  despoil 
the  city,  and  let  him  who  is  the  more  able  hold  it,  and  him  who 
can,  lake  it."  "On  the  contrary,"  most  brave  Tancred  said,  "I  will 
have  none  of  this,  for  I  am  unwilling  to  despoil  Christians.  The 
men  of  this  city  have  chosen  me  lord  over  them,  and  they  desire  to 
have  me."  Nevertheless  the  brave  man,  Tancred,  was  unable  to 
struggle  long  with  Baldwin,  most  learned  Count,  because  his  army 
was  large.  Therefore  Tancred  left  the  city,  willy-nilly,  and  man- 
fully withdrew  with  his  army.  Immediately  there  were  surrendered 
to  him  two  very  fine  cities,  Adana  and  Mamistra,  and  very  many 
fortified  towns. 

(Fulcher),  (Middle  of  October,  1097.)  But  when  we  had  tra- 
versed a  day's  journey  from  there  and  were  now  not  more  than  three 
days  from  Syrian  Antioch,  I,  Fulcher,  withdrew  from  the  main 
army  with  Count  Baldwin,  brother  of  Duke  Godfrey,  and  turned 
towards  the  region  of  the  province  which  is  to  the  left. 

Baldwin  was  indeed  a  very  fine  knight,  who  sometime  before  had 
left  the  army.  With  his  men  he  had  very  boldly  taken  the  city 
called  Tarsus  of  Cilicia  from  Tancred,  who,  with  the  consent  of 
the  Turks,  had  already  sent  his  men  into  the  city.  Leaving  guards 
in  it,  Baldwin  returned  to  the  army.®  So,  trusting  in  God  and  in 
his  own  strength,  he  collected  a  few  soldiers  and  set  out  towards 
the  Euphrates ;  and  he  there  took  many  towns  both  by  force  and  by 
strategy.  Among  those  which  he  captured  was  a  very  rich  one 
called  Turbezel.  The  Armenians  who  dwelt  there  gave  it  up  peace- 
fully to  him;  and  many  others  became  subject  to  him. 

Since  his  fame  had  circulated  far  and  wide,  the  prince  of  the  city 
of  Edessa  sent  a  delegation  to  him.  Edessa  was  a  most  celebrated 
city  and  most  fruitful  in  the  products  of  the  earth.  This  city  is  in 
Syrian  Mesopotamia,  about  twenty  miles  beyond  the  above  men- 
tioned Euphrates,  and  about  a  hundred  or  a  few  more  miles  from 
Antioch.  Baldwin  was  asked  by  the  Duke  to  go  there,  and  to  agree 
that  they  should  be  mutual  friends  as  long  as  they  both  should  live, 
that  they  should  be  like  father  and  son.  And  if  by  chance  the  Duke 
of  Edessa  himself  should  die,  Baldwin  should  immediately  come  into 
possession  of  all  his  land,  just  as  if  he  were  his  own  son.    Since  he 


122  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

had  no  son  or  daughter,  and  since  he  was  unable  to  defend  himself 
against  the  Turks,  this  Greek  wished  himself  and  his  land  to  be 
defended  by  this  Baldwin,  for  he  had  heard  that  both  he  and  his 
soldiers  were  most  brave  fighters. 

As  soon  as  Baldwin  had  heard  this  offer,  and  had  been  persuaded 
of  its  truth  by  the  oath  of  the  deputies  from  Edessa,  he  set  out 
with  his  little  army  of  about  eighty  knights  and  crossed  the  Eu- 
phrates. After  we  had  crossed  this  river,  we  went  on  very  hastily 
all  night  and,  very  much  afraid,  we  passed  between  the  Saracen 
forts,  leaving  them  on  either  side  of  us.  When  the  Turks  in  the 
fortified  town  of  Samosata  had  heard  this,  they  set  ambush  for  us 
along  the  way  by  which  they  thought  we  would  go.  But  the  fol- 
lowing night  a  certain  Armenian  most  hospitably  entertained  us  in 
his  castle  and  warned  us  to  guard  ourselves  from  the  ambush  of 
the  enemy.  Wherefore,  for  two  days  we  remained  concealed  in 
this  place.  But  the  Turks,  wearied  by  such  delay,  on  the  third  day, 
rushed  down  in  a  sudden  onslaught  from  their  place  of  hiding  and, 
with  flags  flying,  ran  before  the  stronghold  in  which  we  were ;  and 
the  booty  which  they  found  there  in  the  pastures  they  seized  before 
our  eyes.  We  went  out  against  them;  but  because  we  were  too 
few,  we  were  unable  to  contend  with  them.  They  shot  arrows,  but 
wounded  none  of  us.  However,  they  left  in  camp  one  of  their  men 
killed  with  a  lance.  His  horse  was  kept  by  the  one  who  unhorsed 
him.  Then  the  pagans  left,  but  we  stayed  there.  The  following 
day  we  resumed  our  journey  and  passed  in  front  of  the  Armenian 
forts.  When  they  heard  that  we  were  going  to  defend  them  from 
the  Turks,  under  whose  yoke  they  had  for  so  long  been  oppressed, 
it  was  wonderful  to  see  how  they  advanced  to  meet  us,  humbly  and 
for  the  love  of  God.  They  carried  crosses  and  banners,  and  they 
kissed  our  robes  and  our  feet. 

(February  20,  1098.)  At  length  we  reached  Edessa  where  the 
aforesaid  Duke  of  the  city  and  his  wife,  together  with  the  citizens, 
gladly  received  us;  and  what  had  been  promised  to  Baldwin  they 
fulfilled  at  once.  After  we  had  delayed  there  for  fifteen  days,  the 
citizens  wickedly  plotted  to  kill  their  prince  because  they  hated 
him,  and  to  set  up  Baldwin  as  ruler  over  the  land  in  his  place. 
This  was  suggested;  and  it  was  done.  Baldwin  and  his  men  were 
much  grieved  that  they  were  not  able  to  obtain  mercy  for  him.  As 
soon  as  Baldwin  had  accepted  as  a  gift  from  the  citizens  the  princi- 
pality of  this  man  who  had  been  wickedly  murdered,  he  began  a 
war  against  the  Turks  who  were  in  the  country.  Often  he  con- 
quered,  either  killing  or  taking  them  prisoners.  However,  it  hap- 
pened, also,  that  many  of  our  men  were  killed  by  the  Turks. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  123 

I,  Fulcher  of  Chartres,  was  chaplain  for  the  same  Baldwin.  I 
shall  now  resume  where  I  left  off  the  narrative  about  the  army 
of  God.  ... 

4.  The  march  through  Armenia.      (The  third  week  in  October, 
1097.) 

(Gesta.)  The  greater  army,  namely,  Raymond,  Count  of  St. 
Gilles,  the  most  learned  Bohemund,  Duke  Godfrey,  and  the  other 
princes,  entered  the  land  of  Armenia,  thirsting  and  raging  after 
the  blood  of  the  Turks.  At  length,  they  came  to  a  certain  fortified 
place  which  was  so  strong  that  they  could  do  nothing  to  it.  There 
was  there,  however,  a  certain  man  named  Simeon,  who  had  been 
born  in  that  region,  and  who  sought  this  land  that  he  might  defend 
it  against  the  hostile  Turks.  To  him  they  willingly  gave  the  land, 
and  he  remained  there  with  his  people.  Then,  going  from  this 
place,  we  came  happily  to  Caesarea  of  Cappadocia.  Going  out  of 
Cappadocia,  however,  we  came  to  a  certain  very  beautiful  and  ex- 
.ceedingly  fruitful  city,  which  the  Turks  had  besieged  for  three 
weeks  before  our  arrival,  but  had  not  conquered.  Immediately  upon 
our  arrival  there,  it  straightway  surrendered  into  our  hands  with 
great  pleasure.  A  certain  knight  whose  name  was  Peter  of  the 
Alps  begged  this  from  all  the  seignors  to  defend  it  in  fealty  to  God, 
the  Holy  Sepulchre,  the  seignors,  and  the  Emperor.  They  granted 
it  to  him  freely,  with  great  affection.  On  the  following  night  Bohe- 
mund heard  that  the  Turks  who  had  been  engaged  in  the  siege  of 
the  city  were  ahead  of  us  in  great  numbers.  Straightway  he  made 
himself  ready  to  attack  them  on  all  sides  with  his  knights  alone, 
but  he  could  not  find  them.  Then  we  came  to  a  certain  city,  Coxon 
by  name,  in  which  there  was  the  greatest  abundance  of  all  goods 
which  we  needed.  Thereupon,  the  Christian  inhabitants  of  that  city 
surrendered  immediately,  and  we  remained  there  three  days  very 
well  provided  for,  and  our  men  were  greatly  refreshed. 

When  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  heard  that  the  Turks  who 
were  in  custody  at  Antioch  had  withdrawn,  he  concluded  on  his 
own  counsel  that  he  would  send  thither  some  of  his  knights  to  guard 
the  place  diligently.  Then  he  chose  those  whom  he  wished  to  ap- 
point, namely  Peter,  Viscount  of  Castillon,  William  of  Montpellier, 
Peter  of  Roasa,  Peter  Raymond  of  Hautpoul,  with  five  hundred 
knights.  They  came,  accordingly,  into  a  valley  near  Antioch  to  a 
certain  fortified  place  of  the  Publicani,  and  there  they  heard  that 
the  Turks  .were  in  the  city  and  ready  to  defend  it  vigorously.  Peter 
of  Roasa  there  separated  from  the  others  and  with  the  approach  of 
night  crossed  near  Antioch  and  entered  the  valley  of  Rugia.     He 


T2^ 

124  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

found  Turks  and  Saracens,  fought  with  them,  killed  many  of  them, 
and  pursued  the  rest  closely.  The  Armenian  inhabitants  of  the 
land,  seeing  that  he  had  bravely  overcome  the  pagans,  straightway 
surrendered  to  him.  He  immediately  took  the  city  of  Rusa,^  and 
very  many  fortified  places. 

However,  we  who  had  remained,  going  thence,  entered  a  diaboli- 
cal mountain,  which  was  so  high  and  steep  that  none  of  us  dared 
to  step  before  another  through  the  pass  which  was  open  in  the 
mountain.  There  horses  fell  headlong,  and  one  pack  animal  pushed 
over  another.  The  knights  stood  there,  sad;  they  beat  themselves 
with  their  hands  for  their  great  grief  and  sadness,  uncertain  what 
they  should  do  about  themselves  and  their  arms,  selling  their  shields 
and  their  best  breast-plates,  together  with  their  helmets,  for  only 
three  or  five  denarii,  or  whatever  they  could  get.  Those  who  could 
not  sell  them  threw  them  away  for  nothing  and  marched  on.  And 
so  we  went  out  of  the  accursed  mountain  and  came  to  a 
city  called  Marasch.  The  inhabitants  of  that  city  came  out  re- 
joicing to  meet  us,  and  bringing  along  the  greatest  market.  There 
we  had  all  supplies  while  we  waited  for  Lord  Bohemund  to  arrive. 
And  thus  our  knights  reached  the  valley  in  which  is  situated  the 
regal  city  of  Antioch,  the  capital  of  all  Syria,  which  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  handed  over  to  the  blessed  Peter,  chief  of  the  Apostles,  to 
recall  to  the  worship  of  the  true  faith — the  same  Lord  Jesus  who 
liveth  and  reigneth  with  God  the  Father,  in  unity  with  the  Holy 
Ghost,  forever  and  ever.    Amen. 

When  we  had  begun  to  approach  the  Iron  Bridge,  our  advance 
guard,  who  were  accustomed  to  precede  us,  found  innumerable 
Turks  assembled  to  meet  us.  They  were  on  their  way  to  give  aid  to 
Antioch.  Accordingly,  our  men  rushed  upon  them  with  one  heart 
and  one  mind  and  overcame  the  Turks.  The  barbarians  were 
thrown  into  consternation  and  fled,  and  many  of  them  died  in  the 
struggle.  Our  men,  therefore,  having  defeated  them  by  the  grace 
of  God,  captured  great  spoils — horses,  camels,  mules,  asses  laden 
with  grain  and  wine.  At  length  our  men  went  and  encamped  on 
the  bank  of  the  river.  Forthwith,  the  wise  man,  Bohemund,  went 
with  four  thousand  knights  to  watch  before  the  gate  of  the  city, 
(to  see)  whether,  perchance,  anyone  was  leaving  or  entering  the 
city  secretly  by  night. 

{Raymond.)  And  so,  after  conquering  and  scattering  the  Turks, 
we  came  peacefully  and  quickly  across  Romania  up  to  Antioch. 
But  the  Count  kept  his  army  a  short  distance  behind  because  of  his 
illness.  A  certain  incident  brought  about  by  divine  clemency  should 
not  be  passed  in  silence,  even  though  we  knew  that  it  would  be 


I 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  125 

sufficiently  displeasing  to  the  incredulous.  There  was"  in  our  army 
a  certain  Count  from  Saxony,  who  came  to  Count  Raymond  and 
asserted  that  he  was  the  envoy  of  St.  Gilles;  and  said  that  he  had 
been  admonished  once  and  a  second  time  to  say  to  the  Count:  "Rest 
secure,  you  will  not  die  of  this  illness;  I  have  obtained  a  truce  for 
you  from  God ;  I  will  always  be  with  you."  And  though  the  Count 
beHeved  this  fully,  yet  he  was  so  affected  by  this  illness  that,  when 
he  was  put  down  from  his  bed  on  the  ground,  his  pulse  scarcely 
throbbed.  Therefore,  the  Bishop  of  the  city  of  Orange  read  the 
offices  for  him  as  for  one  dead,  but  divine  clemency,  which  pre- 
ferred him  as  a  leader  of  his  army,  there  lifted  him  from  death 
and  restored  him  to  health. 

When  we  neared  Antioch  it  was  not  the  advice  of  many  princes 
to  besiege  it,  especially  since  winter  was  at  hand,  and  the  army 
was  scattered  among  the  castles  and  diminished  by  the  stormy 
weather.  They  said,  likewise,  that  they  ought  to  await  the  Em- 
peror's forces  and  the  army  which  was  announced  to  be  com- 
ing from  France,  and  thus  they  urged  that  we  spend  the  winter  up 
to  spring.  But  others  of  the  princes,  among  whom  was  the  Count, 
said :  "We  have  come  by  the  inspiration  of  God ;  through  His 
mercy  we  obtained  Nicaea,  a  very  strongly  fortified  city,  and 
through  the  same  clemency  we  have  obtained  victory  and  security 
from  the  Turks;  there  has  been,  peace  and  concord  in  our  army. 
Thus  we  should  commit  our  lot  to  Him.  We  ought  not  to  fear 
kings,  or  the  chiefs  of  kings,  nor  yet  places,  or  times,  when  God 
has  snatched  us  from  so  many  dangers."  Accordingly,  we  went  to 
Antioch  and  pitched  our  camp  so  near  that  the  enemy  from  their 
towers  frequently  wounded  our  men  and  our  horses  in  the  tents. 

5.  Beginning  of  the  siege  of  Antioch.     (October  2i(?)-end  of  No- 
vember, 1097.) 

(Gesta.)  On  the  next  day,  moreover,  they  came  even  to  Antioch 
at  mid-day  on  the  fourth  day  of  the  week,  which  is  the  twelfth  day 
before  the  Kalends  of  November.  In  marvelous  fashion  we  be- 
sieged three  gates  of  the  city,  since  on  the  other  side  there  was  no 
place  from  which  to  besiege  (them),  for  a  very  steep  mountain 
constrained  us.  However,  our  enemies,  the  Turks  who  were  within 
the  city,  were  so  afraid  of  us  on  all  sides  that  none  of  them  dared 
to  offend  any  of  our  men  for  a  space  of  almost  fifteen  days.  Camp- 
ing immediately  in  front  of  Antioch,  we  found  there  every  abun- 
dance— ^vines  full  everywhere,  pits  full  of  grain,  trees  bent  down 
with  fruit,  and  many  other  goods  useful  for  the  body.  The  Armen- 
ians and  Syrians  who  were  within  the  city  came  out  and,  pretending 


T26  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

that  they  were  fleeing,  were  with  us  daily,  but  their  wives  were  in 
the  city.  Indeed,  they  craftily  investigated  our  condition  and 
strength  and  reported  everything  to  those  excommunicate  who  were 
shut  up  in  the  city.  But  after  the  Turks  had  been  informed  of 
our  condition,  they  began  little  by  little  to  go  out  from  the  city 
and  to  harass  our  pilgrims,  not  only  on  one  side,  but  on  all  sides, 
for  they  were  in  hiding  everywhere,  from  sea  to  mountain,  to 
meet  us. 

Moreover,  there  was  at  no  great  distance  a  certain  fortress  named 
Aregh,  where  many  very  brave  Turks,  who  frequently  disturbed 
our  men,  were  gathered.  Thereupon,  when  our  seignors  heard  such 
reports,  they  were  exceedingly  sorry,  and  sent  some  of  the 
knights  to  explore  carefully  the  place  where  the  Turks  were.  When 
they  had  found  the  place  where  they  were  concealed,  our 
knights,  who  were  seeking  them,  encountered  them.  But  while  our 
men  were  retiring  little  by  little  to  the  place  where  they  knew  Bohe- 
mund  was  located  with  his  army,  two  of  them  were  immediately 
killed.  Bohemund,  upon  hearing  of  this,  arose  with  his  men,  like 
the  bravest  athlete  of  Christ.  The  barbarians  rushed  against  them, 
because  our  men  were  lew;  yet,  united,  they  entered  battle.  Verily 
many  of  our  enemy  were  killed,  and  others,  taken  captive  before 
the  gates  of  the  city,  were  there  beheaded,  in  order  that  those  who 
were  in  the  city  might  become  the  sadder.  Others,  indeed,  used  to 
come  out  from  the  city  and  climb  upon  a  certain  gate  and  shoot 
arrows  at  us,  so  that  their  arrows  fell  into  the  camp  of  Lord  Bohe- 
mund, and  one  woman  was  killed  by  the  shot  of  an  arrow.  Ac- 
cordingly, all  our  leaders  assembled  and  held  a  council,  saying, 
"Let  us  build  a  fortress  on  the  top  of  Mt.  Maregart,^^  a  mount 
above  the  hosts  of  Bohemund,  by  means  of  which  we  can  remain 
secure  and  safe  from  the  fear  of  the  Turks."  And  so  when  this 
fortress  was  built  and  fortified,  all  the  leaders  guarded  it  in  turn. 

(Raymond.)  Since  the  occasion  offers  itself  to  us,  we  ought  to 
speak  about  Antioch  and  its  location  so  that  the  battles  and 
assaults  which  were  made  there  may  be  easily  understood  by 
those  who  have  not  seen  it.  There  is  a  certain  plain  among  the 
mountains  of  Lebanon  which  in  width  is  one  day's  travel,  and  in 
length  a  day  and  a  half.  This  plain  has  on  its  western  side  a  cer- 
tain swamp;  on  the  east,  a  river  which,  after  encircling  a  certain 
part  of  this  plain,  so  winds  back  to  the  foot  of  the  mountains  which 
are  in  the  middle  of  that  land  that  there  is  no  passage  between  the 
mountains  and  the  stream,  and  thus  it  flows  into  the  Mediterranean, 
which  is  very  close  to  Antioch.  Moreover,  Antioch  is  so  situated 
in  those  passes  which  the  river,  clinging  to  the  aforesaid  mountains, 


p/./^l  ""^  'j.."'%\::    5->-     ..v'^^^^'* .■'1, 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  127 

makes  that  on  the  west  the  river,  flowing  against  the  lower  wall, 
leaves  a  certain  portion  of  land  in  the  form  of  a  bow  between  it 
and  the  city.  The  city,  situated  in  this  manner  on  the  east,  rises  up 
toward  the  east,  and  within  its  embrace  are  enclosed  the  crests  of 
three  mountains.  That  mountain,  indeed,  which  is  located  on  the 
north  is  divided  from  the  others  by  a  very  great  precipice,  so  that 
no  access,  or  rather  a  most  difficult  one,  is  afforded  from  it  to  the 
others.  Moreover,  on  the  northern  hill  there  is  a  certain  castle;  on 
the  middle  hill  another  castle,  which  is  called  in  Greek  Colax,  and 
on  the  third  hill  only  towers.  Moreover,  this  city,  two  miles  in 
length,  is  so  fortified  by  walls,  towers,  and  fore-walls  that  it  fears 
the  attack  of  no  machine  and  the  assault  of  no  man,  even  if  every 
race  of  man  should  come  together  against  it. 

This  city,  such  as  we  have  described,  this  well  fortified  city,  the 
army  of  the  Franks  besieged  from  the  northern  sidel    Nevertheless, 
though  there  were  one  hundred  thousand  men  in  the  army,  they 
made  no  assauEtHere  except  tfiaFtEey  pitched  their  "camp  hear  it. 
There  were,   furthermore,   in  the  city  two  thousand  of  the  best 
knights,    and    four    or    five    thousand    common    knights,    and    ten 
thousand  and  more  footmen.     Indeed,  these  very  lofty  walls  were 
fortified  by  a  valley  and  swamp,  so  that,  the  gates  being  guarded,  the 
rest    remained   secure.        When   we   first   came   we   pitched   camp 
so  rashly  that  if  our  practice  had  been  known  by  the  enemy  be- 
forehand, any  part  of  our  camp   could  have  been   destroyed  by 
them,  since  in  our  army  no  regular  method  of  watches  or  encamp- 
ing was  observed.     It  happened,  also,  that  all  th£  castles  of  this 
region  and  the  neighboring^tksJia^d_sur rendered  to  ouFlneiT7not 
only  from^Tear  of  our  arrny,  but  also   for  the   sake  of^escaping 
k  Turkish  servitude.    Thisjact  scattered  our  knights  'widely ;  f  or~each 
/  one,  wanting  to  look  after  his  own  aK'aTf^"Tnast,~thought  nothing  of 
I   the  common  interest.     Meanwhile,  those  who  remained  in  the  camp 
j    had  such  an  abundance  of  food  that  they  did  not  care  to  eat  any- 
thing except  the  thighs  and  the  shoulders  of  cattle,  and  only  a  few 
1    were  willing  to  eat  the  breast;  but  of  grain  and  wine  nothing  is  to 
be  said,  except  that  they  were  taken  most  lightly. 

While  this  was  going  on  in  the  camp,  the  enemy  at  first  hid 
themselves  within  the  walls,  so  that  no  one  was  seen  there  except 
the  watchmen.  However,  when  they  learned  that  our  men,  scattered 
and  unarmed,  were  devastating  the  villages  and  fields,  the  enemy 
came,  I  know  not  whether  from  Antioch  or  from  another  city 
two  days  distant,  and  began  to  kill  our  men  whom  they  found  thus 
straggling  and  unarmed.  These  acts  diminished  the  food  supply 
in  our  camp  somewhat.  The. enemy,  indeed,  beset  the  roads  much 
too  fiercely  for  any  chance  of  robbery  and  destruction. 


128  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

However,  since  these  matters  had  become  clearly  known  in  the 
camp,  Bohemund  was  chosen  to  go  out  against  them.  Moreover, 
the  Counts  of  Flanders  and  Normandy  set  out  with  him.  They 
could  not  lead  out  more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  knights,  and  had 
not  the  shame  of  returning  restrained  them,  they  would  have  turned 
back  because  of  the  few  knights.  Thus,  God  urging  them,  they 
set  forth,  found  the  enemy  and  pursued  them  and  forced  them  to 
destruction  in  the  river.  When  they  had  thus  gained  the  victor} 
and  spoils,  they  returned  with  great  exultation  to  the  camp.  In 
the  meanwhile  the  Genoese  ships  had  landed  on  the  coast,  which  was 
about  ten  miles  from  the  camp.  That  place,  moreover,  was  called 
the  Port  of  St.  Simeon. 

And  now  the  enemy,  going  forth  from  the  city  little  by  little, 
killed  the  squires  or  peasants  who  were  herding  the  horses  and 
cattle  beyond  the  river,  and  they  took  great  plunder  into  the  city. 
For  we  had  placed  the  tents  near  the  river  and  had  made  a  bridge 
of  the  ships  which  were  found  there.  However,  the  city  also  had  a 
bridge,  which  was  on  the  lower  western  corner,  and  there  was  a 
certain  little  mountain  opposite  us,  where  there  were  two  mosques 
and  some  casalm  of  tombs.  We  mention  these  things,  moreover, 
that  the  deeds  which  we  will  describe  as  done  there  will  be  easily 
clear.  Just  as  we  said,  when  the  boldness  of  the  enemy  had  some- 
what increased,  our  men  going  forth  from  the  camp,  though  fre- 
quently fewer  than  the  enemy,  were,  nevertheless,  not  afraid  to 
attack  them.  The  Turks,  however,  though  frequently  scattered  and 
put  to  flight,  rose  up  again  for  battle  there,  not  only  because  they 
had  the  swiftest  horses  and  were  nimble  and  unburdened  with  arms, 
other  than  bows,  but  also  because  in  the  bridge,  which  we  have 
mentioned,  they  had  a  hope  of  refuge.  They  looked  forward  to 
the  chance  of  shooting  arrows  at  a  distance  from  the  Httle  moun- 
tain, for  their  bridge  was  about  one  mile  distant  from  our  bridge. 
On  the  plain,  moreover,  which  lay  between  the  two  bridges  there 
were  constant  assaults  and  daily  fights.  It  happened,  indeed,  at  the 
beginning  of  the  siege  that  the  Count  and  the  Bishop  of  Puy  placed 
their  camp  near  the  river,  and  thus  nearer  the  enemy,  they  were 
most  frequently  attacked  by  them.  And  so  it  came  about  through 
assaults  of  this  kind  that  they  lost  all  their  horses,  because  the 
Turks,  not  prepared  to  fight  with  lances  or  swords,  but  with  ar- 
rows at  a  distance,  were  to  be  feared  while  they  fled,  as  well  as 
when  they  pursued. 


I 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  129 

6.  Sumnmry  of  the  march  to  Antioch  and  the  beginning  of  the 
siege.     (June  28-November,  1097.) 

(Anselm.)  However,  moving  camp  from  Nicaea  on  the  fourth 
day  before  the  Kalends  of  July,  we  kept  to  the  march  for  three 
days.  On  the  fourth  day,  the  Turks,  with  forces  gathered  from  all 
sides,  again  attacked  a  smaller  part  of  our  army;  moreover,  they 
killed  many  of  our  men  and  drove  all  the  rest  within  the  camp 
itself.  The  men  in  command  of  this  part  of  the  army  were  Bohe- 
mund,  Count  of  the  Romans,^^  Count  Stephen,  and  the  Count  of 
Flanders.  To  these  in  such  fearful  straits  there  suddenly  appeared 
the  standards  of  the  larger  army ;  in  the  front  rode  Hugh  the  Great, 
and  the  Duke  of  Lorraine,  but  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  as  well  as 
the  venerable  Bishop  of  Puy,  were  following.  For  they  had  heard 
of  the  battle  and  were  hastening  to  their  aid.  Moreover,  the  Turks 
are  estimated  as  260,000,  upon  whom  our  men  advanced,  killing 
many  and  forcing  the  rest  to  flight.  On  this  day  I  returned  from 
the  Emperor,  to  whom  the  princes  had  sent  me  for  our  common 
interest.  From  this  day  our  princes,  remaining  together  in  one 
army,  did  not  separate  from  each  other.  And  while  we  were  thus 
crossing  the  regions  of  Romania  and  Armenia  we  found  no  obstacle, 
except  that  after  we  had  passed  Iconium  our  advance  guard  en- 
countered a  few  Turks.  These  were  put  to  flight,  and  on  the  twelfth 
day  before  the  Kalends  of  November  we  laid  siege  to  Antioch. 
Then  we  took  by  force  the  neighboring  cities  of  Tarsus  and  Lao- 
dicaea.  One  day,  however,  before  we  had  surrounded  the  city  in 
siege,  we  put  to  flight  at  the  Iron  Bridge  some  Turks  who  had  gone 
out  to  devastate  the  region,  and  we  snatched  from  them  many 
Christians;  moreover,  we  led  back  horses  and  camels  (laden)  with 
very  great  plunder.  But  after  we  had  surrounded  the  city  in  siege, 
the  Turks  of  the  nearest  castle  were  daily  kilHng  those  of  the 
army  going  in  and  out.  The  princes  of  our  army  came  upon  them 
in  hiding  and  killed  four  hundred  of  them  and  drove  others  head- 
long into  a  certain  river.  Some,  however,  they  brought  along  with 
them. 

Know  that  we  are  besieging  Antioch  with  all  diligence  to  take  it 
very  shortly,  as  we  think.  We  are  abundantly  supplied  with  grain, 
wine,  oil,  and  all  goods  beyond  belief.  However,  I  ask  you  and 
all  to  whom  this  letter  shall  have  come  to  pray  God  for  us  and  for 
our  dead.  The  following  are  those  who  have  perished  in  arms :  At 
Nicaea,  Baldwin  of  Ghent,  Baldwin  Chalderuns,  who  was  the  first 
to  do  battle  with  the  Turks.  On  the  Kalends  of  July  in  battle, 
Robert  of  Paris,  Lisiard  of  Flanders,  Hilduin  of  Mazingarbe,  An- 
sellus  of  Caium,  Manasses  of  Clermont.     The  following  are  those 


T30  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

who  died  in  peace  at  Nicaea:  Wido  of  Vitry,  Odo  of  Varneuil, 
Hugh  of  Rheims ;  at  the  castle  Sparnum,  the  venerable  abbot  Roger, 
my  chaplain ;  at  Antioch,  Alard  of  Spiniacum,  Hugh  of  Calniacum}^ 
Again  and  again  I  urge  you,  readers  of  this  letter,  to  pray  for  us, 
and  you.  Lord  Archbishop,  not  to  delay  recommending  i  the  same 
task  to  your  bishops.  And  know  for  a  fact  that  we  have  acquired 
two  hundred  cities  and  fortresses  for  the  Lord.  Let  the  Mother 
Church  of  the  West  be  joyful;  she  who  has  borne  such  offspring 
to  acquire  so  glorious  a  name  for  her  and  to  aid  so  marvelously  the 
Church  of  the  East.  And  that  you  may  believe  this  (to  be  genuine), 
know  that  you  have  sent  me  a  tapestry  through  Raymond  of  Cas- 
sel.^^     Farewell. 

{The  Crusading  Princes.)  Bohemund,  son  of  Robert,  and  Ray- 
mond, Count  of  St.  Gilles,  likewise  Duke  Godfrey  and  Hugh  the 
(ireat,  to  the  lords  and  vassals  of  the  whole  world  who  cherish  the 
Catholic  faith  in  hope  of  eternal  life. 

In  order  that  it  may  be  known  to  all  how  peace  has  been  made  be- 
tween ourselves  and  the  Emperor,  and  how  it  has  fared  with  us 
in  the  land  of  the  Saracens  since  we  have  come  there,  we  are  send- 
ing to  you  this,  our  legate,  who  will  diligently  set  forth  in  order  all 
tliat  has  been  done  by  us. 

The  first  matter  to  be  told  is  that  the  Emperor,  in  the  middle  of 
May,  pledged  us  his  faith  and  security  on  oath,  giving  us,  likewise, 
hostages,  namely  his  nephew  and  his  son-in-law.  In  addition  to 
this,  he  added  that  he  would  not  further  attempt  to  molest  any 
])ilgrim  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  Later,  he  sent  his  protopatron^^ 
through  all  his  land,  sending  him  even  to  Durazzo,  and  commanded 
that  no  one  should  dare  to  harm  any  pilgrim ;  that  if  any  one  should 
violate  this  command,  he  would  fittingly  suffer  the  penalty  of  hang- 
ing instantly.  What  more?  Let  us  return  now  to  these  matters  by 
which  your  hearts  should  be  filled  with  the  greatest  joy. 

At  the  end  of  the  month  of  May,  indeed,  we  made  a  stand  to  do 
battle  with  the  Turks.  Thanks  to  God,  however,  we  overcame  them. 
Of  them,  moreover,  thirty  thousand  are  undoubtedly  dead ;  of  us 
but  three  thousand  rest  in  peace,  who  are  without  any  doubt  glory- 
ing in  eternal  life.  There,  indeed,  all  of  us  gained  in  countless 
measure  an  abundance  of  gold,  silver,  and  precious  garments,  as 
well  as  armor.  We  also  seized  the  huge  city  of  Nicaea  with  great 
valor,  and  beyond  it  we  acquired  forts  and  towns  along  a  ten  days' 
journey.  After  this,  however,  we  engaged  in  a  great  battle  at 
Antioch  which  we  bravely  won,  to  such  an  extent  that  of  their 
number  seventy  thousand  were  killed,  but  of  our  own  only  ten 
thousand  lie  dead  in  peace.    Who  has  seen  such  joy?    For  whether 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  131 

we  live  or  die,  we  are  of  the  Lord!  Besides  this,  know  for  a  fact 
that  the  King  of  the  Persians  has  sent  word  that  he  will  do  battle 
with  us  on  the  feast  of  All  Saints,  asserting  that  if  he  overcomes 
us,  he,  with  the  King  of  Babylon  and  many  other  pagan  kings,  will 
not  cease 'to  advance  against  the  Christians;  but  if  he  should  lose, 
he  has  pledged  his  word  that  he  and  all  whom  he  can  persuade  will 
become  Christians.  Wherefore,  we  urgently  pr^y  you  all  constantly 
to  fast,  give  alms,  and  say  masses  with  devotion.  Help  us  especially, 
however,  with  many  devout  prayers  and  alms  on  the  third  day  be- 
fore the  festival,  which  is  Friday,  on  which  we  will  engage  mightily 
in  battle,  Christ  triumphing.    Farewell. 

I,  Bishop  of  Grenoble,  send  this  letter  which  was  brought  to  me 
at  Grenoble,  to  you.  Archbishops  and  Canons  of  the  Holy  Church  at 
Tours,  that  through  you  it  may  be  made  known  to  all  who  will 
gather  together  for  the  festival,  and  through  them  to  the  diverse 
parts  of  the  world  to  which  they  shall  return.  Let  some  of  these 
aid  by  just  petition,  prayers,  and  alms,  but  let  others  hasten  to  join 
them  with  arms. 

(Stephen.)  Count  Stephen  to  Adele,  his  most  sweet  and  most 
beloved  wife,  and  to  his  very  dear  children  and  all  his  vassals,  noble 
and  common;  the  grace  and  blessing  of  his  whole  greeting. 

You  may  believe  most  certainly,  dearest,  that  this  messenger, 
whom  I  have  sent  for  your  delight,  left  me  before  Antioch  in  good 
health  and  unharmed,  and,  through  God's  grace,  in  the  greatest 
prosperity.  There,  with  the  chosen  army  of  Christ  and  in  His 
great  might,  we  had  already  advanced  toward  the  seat  of  the  Lord 
Jesus  for  twenty-three  successive  weeks.  You  may  know  for  a 
fact,  my  beloved,  that  I  now  have  twice  as  much  of  gold,  silver,  and 
other  riches  as  your  love  assigned  me  at  the  time  when  I  parted 
from  you.  For  all  our  princes,  with  the  common  consent  of  the 
whole  army,  constituted  me,  even  though  I  was  unwilling,  their 
lord  and  director  and  governor  of  all  their  acts  up  to  the  present 
time. 

You  have  heard  (fully)  enough  that  after  the  capture  of  Nicaea 
we  had  a  considerable  battle  with  the  treacherous  Turks,  and  that 
at  first,  the  Lord  God  aiding  us,  we  defeated  them.  After  this,  we 
acquired  the  whole  region  of  Romania  and  later  Cappadocia.  And 
we  learned  that  there  dwelt  in  Cappadocia  a  certain  Turkish  prince, 
Assam.^^  Thither  we  directed  our  march.  We  took  by  storm  all 
his  fortresses  and  pursued  him  into  a  very  strong  castle  situated  on 
the  top  of  a  cliff.  Also,  we  gave  the  land  of  Assam  himself  to  one 
of  our  princes,  and  in  order  that  he  might  conquer  the  aforesaid 
Assam,  we  left  him  there  with  many  soldiers  of  Christ.     Then, 


132  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

through  the  midst  of  Armenia  we  routed  the  unspeakable  Turks, 
who  had  incessantly  followed  us,  (and  pursued  them)  up  to  the 
great  Euphrates  river  and  even  to  the  bank  of  this  river,  where 
they  dropped  all  their  baggage  and  pack  saddles  and  fled  through 
the  river  into  Arabia.  But  the  braver  of  these  Turks,  entering 
Syria,  hastened  by  forced  marches  night  and  day,  in  order  that  they 
might  enter  the  royal  city  of  Antioch  before  our  arrival.  The  whole 
army  of  God,  however,  upon  learning  of  this  (victory),  gave  fitting 
thanks  and  praise  to  the  Omnipotent  Lord. 

(Simeon  and  Adhemar.)  Simeon,  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem  and 
Adhemar,i«  Bishop  of  Sh  Mary  of  Puy,  especially  the  latter,  who 
received  from  Pope  Urban  charge  of  the  Christian  army ;  greeting, 
peace,  and  eternal  salvation  from  our  God  and  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 

By  common  advice  we  clergy,  bishops,  and  monks,  as  well  as 
dukes,  counts,  and  other  leading  laymen  are  sending  (envoys)  to 
you  with  most  urgent  prayers  for  the  salvation  of  your  souls.  We 
admonish  all  who  dwell  in  the  northern  regions  of  the  West  not 
to  delay  coming  to  us.  However,  let  those  come  above  all  who  de- 
sire their  salvation  and  have  bodily  health  and  means  for  the 
journey.  Even  though  you  can  come  with  but  little,  God  Almighty 
will  provide  for  you  so  that  you  may  live.  We  Christians,  most 
beloved  brethren,  are  in  Romania.  Though  with  great  difficulty, 
we  have,  nevertheless,  conquered  the  large  city  of  Nicaea  and  sub- 
jected it  to  our  sway.  We  have  fought  three  battles;  our  army  has 
moved  from  Nicaea  to  Antioch ;  and  we  have  taken  by  storm  many 
other  cities  and  fortresses  of  the  Turks.  We  have  a  hundred 
thousand  mounted  knights  and  armored  men,  but  what  of  it?  We 
are  few  in  comparison  with  the  pagans,  but  verily  God  is  fighting 
in  our  behalf.  In  this  connection,  hear,  too,  brethren,  the  miracle 
which  the  same  most  holy  Patriarch  commends  to  all  Christians — 
how  the  Lord  Himself  appeared  to  him  in  a  vision,  promising  that 
each  one  now  engaged  in  this  expedition  will  march  before  Him 
on  that  awful  last  day  of  Judgment  wearing  a  crown.  Therefore, 
since  you  well  know  that  those  who  have  remained  apostate  in 
deed,  after  having  been  signed  with  the  cross,  are  in  truth  excom- 
municate, we  admonish  and  beseech  you  to  smite  them  all  with  the 
sword  of  anathema,  if  they  do  not  make  haste  to  follow  us,  so  that 
by  next  Easter  they  may  be  where  we  are  in  Romania.  Farewell. 
Be  mindful  of  us  who  are  laboring  night  and  day.     Pray  for  us. 

7.    The  foraging  expedition  of  Bohemund  and  Robert  of  Flanders. 
(December  28,  1097- January  2(?),  1098.) 
(Gesta.)     Now  grain  and  all  food  began  to  be  excessively  dear 
before  the  birthday  of  the  Lord.     We  did  not  dare  to  go  outside; 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  133 

we  could  find  absolutely  nothing  to  eat  within  the  land  of  the 
Christians,  and  no  one  dared  to  enter  the  land  of  the  Saracens  with- 
out a  great  army.  -At  last  holding  a  council,  our  seignors  decided 
how  they  might  care  for  so  many  people.  They  concluded  in  the 
council  that  one  part  of  our  force  should  go  out  diligently  to  col- 
lect food  and  to  guard  the  army  everywhere,  while  the  other  part 
should  remain  faithfully  to  watch  the  enemy.  At  length,  Bohemund 
said,  "Seignors,  and  most  distinguished  knights,  if  you  wish,  and  it 
seems  honorable  and  good  to  you,  I  will  be  the  one  to  go  out  with 
the  Cgunt  of  Flanders  on  this  quest."  Accordingly,  when  the  ser- 
vices of  the  Nativity  had  been  most  gloriously  celebrated  on  Mon- 
day, the  second  day  of  the  week,  they  and  more  than  twenty 
thousand  knights  and  footmen  went  forth  and  entered  the  land  of 
the  Saracens,  safe  and  unharmed. 

There  were  assembled,  indeed,  many  Turks,  Arabs,  and  Saracens 
from  Jerusalem,  Damascus,  Aleppo,  and  other  regions,  who  were 
on  their  way  to  reinforce  Aotioch.  So,  when  they  heard  that  a 
Christian  host  was  bemg  led  into  their  land,  they  made  them- 
selves ready  there  for  battle  against  the  Christians,  and  at  earliest 
daybreak  they  came  to  the  place  where  our  people  .were  gathered 
together.  The  barbarians  divided  themselves  and  formed  two  bat- 
tle lines,  one  in  ffont  and  one  behind,  seeking  to  surround  us  from 
every  side.  The  worthy  Count  of  Flanders,  therefore,  girt  about  on 
all  sides  with  the  armor  of  true  faith  and  the  sign  of  the  cross, 
which  he  loyally  wore  daily,  went  against  them,  together  with  Bohe- 
mund, and  our  men  rushed  upon  them  all  together.  They  imme- 
diately took  to  flight  and  hastily  turned  their  backs;  very  many  of 
them  were  killed,  and  our  men  took  their  horses  and  other  spoils. 
But  others,  who  had  remained  alive,  fled  swiftly  and  went  away 
to  the  wrath  of  perdition.  We,  however,  returning  with  great  re- 
joicing, praised  and  magnified  God,  Three  in  One,  who  liveth  and 
reigneth  now  and  forever.  Amen. 

Finally,  the  Turks  in  the  city  of  Antioch,  enemies  of  God  and 
Holy  Christianity,  hearing  that  Lord  Bohemund  and  the  Count  of 
Flanders  were  not  in  the  siege,  came  out  from  the  city  and  boldly 
advanced  to  do  battle  with  us.  Knowing  that  those  most  valiant 
knights  were  away,  they  lay  in  ambush  for  us  everywhere,  more  es- 
pecially on  that  side  where  the  siege  was  lagging.  One  Wednesday 
theyi,found  that  they  could  resist  and  hurt  us.  The  most  iniquitous 
bartijrians  came  out  cautiously  and,  rushing  violently  upon  us, 
kilkrJ  many  of  our  knights  and  foot-soldiers  who  were  off  their 
guafjjl.  Even  the  Bishop  of  Puy  on  that  bitter  day  lost  his  sene- 
schjfj  who  was  carrying  and  managing  his  standard.     And  had  it 


134  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

not  been  for  the  stream  which  was  between  us  and  them,  they 
would  have  attacked  us  more  often  and  done  the  greatest  hurt  to 
our  people. 

At  that  time  the  famous  man,  Bohemund,  advancing  with  his  army 
from  the  land  of  the  Saracens,  came  to  the  mountain  of  Tancred," 
wondering  whether  perchance  he  could  find  anything  to  carry  away, 
for  they  were  ransacking  the  whole  region.  Some,  in  truth,  found 
something,  but  others  went  away  empty-handed.  Then  the  wise 
man,  Bohemund,  upbraided  them,  saying:  "Oh,  unhappy  and  most 
wretched  people !  O,  most  vile  of  all  Christians !  Why  do  you  want 
to  go  away  so  quickly  ?  Only  stop ;  stop  until  we  shall  all  be  gath- 
ered together,  and  do  not  wander  about  like  sheep  without  a  shep- 
herd. Moreover,  if  the  enemy  find  you  wandering,  they  will  kill 
you,  for  they  are  watching  by  night  and  by  day  to  find  you  alone, 
or  ranging  about  in  groups  without  a  leader;  and  they  are  striving 
daily  to  kill  you  and  lead  you  into  captivity."  When  his  words 
were  finished,  he  returned  to  his  camp  with  his  men,  more  empty- 
handed  than  laden. 

(Raymond.)  And  since  already  in  the  thiid  month  of  the  siege 
food  was  bought  too  dearly,  Bohemund  and  the  Count  of  Flanders 
were  chosen  to  lead  an  army  into  Hispania}^  for  food,  the  Count 
and  the  Bishop  of  Puy  being  left  as  a  guard  in  the  camp.  For  the 
Count  of  Normandy  was  away  at  the  time,  and  the  Duke  was  very 
ill.  However,  when  the  enemy  learned  this,  they  repeated  their 
customary  assaults.  The  Count,  moreover,  was  compelled  to  at- 
tack them  in  his  usual  manner,  and,  after  forming  the  ranks  of  the 
foot-soldiers,  he,  with  some  knights,  pursued  the  assailants.  He 
captured  and  killed  two  of  them  on  the  slope  of  the  little  mountain 
and  forced  all  the  enemy  to  enter  by  the  bridge.  As  our  foot- 
soldiers  saw  this,  they  left  their  posts  and  their  standards  and  ran 
in  a  mob  up  to  their  bridges.  And  when  there,  as  if  already  in 
safety,  they  cast  stones  and  weapons  upon  those  who  were  defending 
the  bridge.  The  Turks,  after  forming  a  fine,  began  to  rush  against 
our  men  by  the  bridge  and  by  a  path  which  was  lower  down. 
Meanwhile,  our  knights  chased  toward  our  bridge  a  certain  horse 
whose  master  they  had  overthrown.  When  our  people  saw  this, 
thinking  our  knights  in  flight,  they  showed  their  backs  to  the  at- 
tack of  the  enemy  without  delay.  Then  the  Turks  killed  without 
ceasing  those  who  fled.  Even  if  the  knights  of  the  Franks  wished 
to  resist  and  fight  for  their  people,  they  were  caught  by  the  crowd  of 
fleeing  footmen,  by  their  arms,  and  by  the  manes  and  tails  of  the 
horses,  and  were  either  thrown  from  their  horses,  or,  out  of  com- 
passion and  regard  for  the  safety  of  their  people,  were  brought' to 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  135 

flight.  The  enemy,  indeed,  without  delay,  without  pity,  slaughtered 
and  pursued  the  living  and  despoiled  the  bodies  of  the  dead.  More- 
over, it  was  not  enough  for  our  men  to  leave  their  arms,  take  flight, 
despise  shame,  but  they  rushed  into  the  river  to  be  overwhelmed 
with  stones  or  arrows  of  the  enemy,  or  to  remain  under  water.  If 
skill  and  strength  in  swimming  bore  anyone  across  the  river,  he 
reached  the  camp  of  his  companions.  However,  our  flight  extended 
from  their  bridge  to  our  bridge.  They  there  killed  about  fifteen 
of  our  knights  and  about  twenty  foot-soldiers.  The  standard-bearer 
of  the  Bishop  was  killed  there,  and  his  standard  was  captured.  A 
certain  very  noble  youth,  Bernard  Raymond  of  Beziers,  died  there. 
Let  the  servants  of  God  neither  complain  nor  be  angry  with  us,  if 
our  men  bequeathed  such  open  shame  to  the  memory  of  our  army; 
since  God,  who  in  this  way  desired  to  drive  to  penance  the  minds 
of  adulterers  and  robbers,  at  the  same  time  gladdened  our  army  in 
Hispania.  For  a  rumor,  going  forth  from  our  camp,  announced  to 
Bohemund  and  his  fellows  that  all  was  prosperous,  and  that  the 
Count  had  gained  a  most  noble  victory.  Moreover,  this  report 
aroused  their  spirits  no  little.  After  Bohemund  had  besieged  a , 
certain  village,  he  heard  some  of  his  peasants  suddenly  fleeing  and 
shouting,  and  when  he  had  sent  knights  to  meet  them,  they  saw  an 
army  of  Turks  and  Arabs  close  at  hand.  Moreover,  among  those 
who  had  set  out  to  determine  the  cause  of  the  flight  and  outcry 
was  the  Count  of  Flanders,  and  with  him  certain  Provencals.  For 
all  from  Burgundy,  Auvergne,  Gascony,  and  all  Goths^^  are  called 
Provencals,  while  the  others  are  called  of  the  Prankish  race:  that 
is,  in  the  army;  among  the  enemy,  however,  all  are  spoken  of* as 
Prankish.  This  Count  of  Flanders,  as  we  have  said,  however, 
thinking  it  a  disgrace  to  report  about  the  enemy  before  attacking 
them,  rushed  impetuously  against  the  phalanxes  of  the  Turks.  The 
Turks,  indeed,  unaccustomed  to  conduct  battles  with  swords,  took 
to  flight  for  refuge.  Nor  did  the  Count .  sheathe  his  sword  until 
he  had  removed  a  hundred  of  the  enemy  from  life.  When  he 
was  now  returning  to  Bohemund  as  victor,  he  saw  twelve  thousand 
Turks  coming  behind  him,  and  rising  up  on  the  nearest  hill  toward 
the  left  he  saw  a  countless  multitude  of  foot-soldiers.  Then,  after 
communicating  his  plan  to  the  rest  of  the  army,  he  took  a  number 
of  men  back  with  him  and  violently  attacked  the  Turks.  Bohemund, 
indeed,  followed  at  a  distance  with  the  rest  and  guarded  the  rear 
lines.  For  the  Turks  have  this  custom  in  fighting :  even  though  they 
are  fewer  in  number,  they  always  strive  to  encircle  their  enemy. 
This  they  attempted  to  do  in  this  battle  also,  but  by  the  foresight 
of  Bohemund  the  wiles  of  the  enemy  were  prevented.    When,  how- 


136  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

ever,  the  Turks  and  the  Arabs,  coming  against  the  Count  of  Flan- 
ders, saw  that  the  affair  was  not  to  be  conducted  at  a  distance  with 
arrows,  but  at  close  quarters  with  swords,  they  turned  in  flight. 
The  Count  followed  them  for  two  miles,  and  in  this  space  he  saw 
the  bodies  of  the  killed  lying  like  bundles  of  grain  reaped  in  the 
field.  The  ambushes  which  Bohemund  had  encountered  were  scat- 
tered and  put  to  flight  in  the  same  way.  But  the  countless  horde 
of  foot-soldiers,  of  which  we  spoke  above,  slipped  away  in  flight 
through  places  impassable  to  horses.  I  would  dare,  I  say,  were  it 
not  arrogant  to  judge,  to  place  this  battle  ahead  of  the  fights  of 
the  Maccabees,'  since  if  Maccabaeus  with  three  thousand  felled 
forty-eight  thousand  of  the  enemy,  more  than  sixty  thousand  of  the 
enemy  were  here  turned  in  flight  by  a  force  of  forty  knights.  I 
do  not,  indeed,  belittle  the  valor  of  the  Maccabees,  nor  exalt  the 
valor  of  our  knights,  but  I  say  that  God,  then  marvelous  in  Macca- 
baeus, was  now  more  marvelous  in  our  troops. 

A  (strange)  result  of  this  achievement  was  that  after  the  enemy 
had  been  put  to  flight  the  courage  of  our  men  decreased,  so  that 
they  did  not  dare  to  pursue  those  whom  they  saw  headlong  in 
flight.  Accordingly,  when  the  army  returned  victorious  and  empty- 
handed,  there  was  such  famine  in  the  camp  that  two  solidi  were 
scarcely  enough  to  keep  one  man  in  bread  for  a  day,  nor  were  other 
things  to  be  obtained  less  dearly. 

8.  Sufferings  in  camp  before  Antioch.     (January-March,  1098.) 

(Gesta.)  When  the  Armenians  and  Syrians,  however,  saw  that 
our  men  were  returning  utterly  empty-handed,  they  counselled  to- 
gether and  went  away  through  the  mountains  and  places  of  which 
they  had  previous  knowledge,  making  subtle  inquiry  and  buying 
grain  and  other  bodily  sustenance.  This  they  brought  to  the  camp, 
in  which  hunger  was  great  beyond  measure,  and  they  sold  a  single 
ass-load  for  eight  perpre,  which  is  worth  one  hundred  and  twenty 
solidi  of  denarii.  There,  indeed,  many  of  our  men  died  because  they 
did  not  have  the  means  wherewith  to  buy  at  such  a  dear  price. 

William  Carpenter  and  Peter  the  Hermit  secretly  left  because  of 
the  great  sorrow  and  misery.  Tancred  pursued  and  caught  them 
and  brought  them  back  in  disgrace.  They  gave  him  a  pledge  that 
they  would  return  willingly  to  camp  and  render  satisfaction  to  the 
seignors.  Then  William  lay  all  that  night,  like  an  evil  thing,  in  the 
tent  of  Bohemund.  On  the  next  day  at  early  dawn  he  came  shame- 
facedly and  stood  in  the  presence  of  Bohemund,  who,  addressing 
him,  said,  '*0,  the  misfortune  and  infamy  of  all  France,  the  dis- 
grace and  villainy  of  Gaul!     O,  most  evil  of  all  whom  the  earth 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  137 

endures!  Why  did  you  so  vilely  flee?  Was  it,  perchance,  for  the 
reason  that  you  wished  to  betray  these  knights  and  the  host  of 
Christ,  as  you  betrayed  others  in  Hispania?"  He  was  entirely 
silent  and  no  speech  proceeded  from  his  mouth.  Almost  all  those 
of  Prankish  race  gathered  together  and  humbly  asked  Lord  Bohe- 
mund  not  to  let  anything  worse  befall  him.  He  nodded,  with  calm 
countenance,  and  said,  "To  this  I  willingly  consent  for  love  of  you, 
if  he  will  swear  to  me  with  his  whole  heart  and  mind  that  he  will 
never  withdraw  from  the  march  to  Jerusalem,  whether  for  good 
or  evil ;  and  if  Tancred  will  agree  not  to  let  anything  untoward  be- 
fall him,  either  through  him  or  his  men."  When  William  had 
heard  these  words,  he  willingly  agreed,  and  Bohemund  forthwith 
dismissed  him.  Later,  indeed,  Carpenter,  caught  in  the  greatest 
villainy,  slipped  away  by  stealth  without  long  delay.  This  poverty 
and  wretchedness  God  meted  out  to  us  because  of  our  sins.  Thus 
in  the  whole  army  no  one  could  find  a  thousand  knights  who  had 
horses  of  the  best  kind. 

Meanwhile  the  hostile  Tetigus,  upon  hearing  that  the  army  of 
the  Turks  had  come  upon  us,  said  that  he  was  afraid,  thinking  that 
we  would  all  perish  and  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  Fabri- 
cating all  the  falsehoods  which  he  could  industriously  scatter,  he 
said :  "Seignors  and  most  illustrious  men,  you  see  that  we  are  here 
in  the  greatest  need,  and  aid  is  coming  to  us  from  no  side.  So 
permit  me  now  to  return  to  my  country  of  Romania,  and  I  will, 
for  certain,  cause  many  ships  to  come  hither  by  sea,  laden  with 
grain,  wine,  barley,  meat,  butter,  and  cheese,  and  all  the  goods 
which  you  need.  I  shall  also  cause  horses  to  be  brought  for  sale, 
and  a  market  to  be  brought  hither  in  the  fealty  of  the  Emperor. 
So  I  will  swear  all  this  loyally  to  you  and  attend  to  it.  Also,  my 
servants  and  my  tent  are  still  in  camp,  from  which  you  may  believe 
firmly  that  I  will  return  as  quickly  as  possible."  And  so  he  con- 
cluded his  speech.  That  foe  went  and  left  all  his  possessions  in  the 
camp,  and  he  remains,  and  will  remain,  in  perjury. 

Therefore  in  this  way  the  greatest  need  came  upon  us,  because 
the  Turks  pressed  us  on  all  sides,  so  that  none  of  us  dared  now  to 
go  out  of  the  tents,  for  they  constrained  us  on  one  side,  and  ex- 
cruciating hunger  on  the  other;  but  of  succour  and  help  we  had 
none.  The  lesser  folk,  and  the  very  poor  fled  to  Cyprus,  Romania, 
and  into  the  mountains.  Through  fear  of  the  most  evil  Turks  we 
dared  not  go  to  the  sea,  and  the  way  was  never  made  open  to  us. 

Accordingly,  when  Lord  Bohemund  heard  that  an  innumerable 
host  of  Turks  was  coming  against  us,  he  went  cautiously  to  the 
others,  saying:     "Seignors,  most  illustrious  knights,  what  are  we 


138  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

going  to  do?  For  we  are  not  so  great  that  we  can  fight  on  two 
sides.  But  do  you  know  what  we  may  do  ?  Let  us  make  two  lines 
of  ourselves;  let  a  portion  of  the  foot-soldiers  remain  together  to 
guard  the  pavilions,  and  by  feinting  they  will  be  able  to  resist  those 
who  are  in  the  city.  Let  the  other  portion,  however,  consisting  of 
knights,  go  with  us  to  meet  our  enemy,  who  are  lodged  here  near 
us  in  the  fortress  Aregh  beyond  the  Iron  Bridge."  Moreover,  when 
evening  came  the  famous  man,  Bohemund,  advanced  with  the  other 
most  illustrious  knights  and  went  to  lie  between  the  river  and  the 
lake.  At  earliest  daybreak  he  straightway  ordered  scouts  to  go 
out  and  see  how  many  squadrons  of  Turks  there  were,  where  (they 
were)  and  definitely  what  they  were  doing.  They  went  out  and 
began  to  inquire  craftily  where  the  lines  of  the  Turks  were  hidden. 
Then  they  saw  innumerable  Turks,  divided  into  two  battle  Hues, 
coming  from  the  side  of  the  river,  with  their  greatest  valor  march- 
ing in  the  rear.  The  scouts  returned  very  quickly,  saying,  "Behold ! 
See,  they  come!  Be  prepared,  therefore,  all  of  you,  for  they  are 
already  near  us."  And  the  wise  man,  Bohemund,  spoke  to  the  others, 
"Seignors,  most  invincible  knights,  array  yourselves  for  battle,  each 
one  for  himself."  They  answered :  "Wise  and  famous  man !  Great 
and  magnificent  man!  Brave  and  victorious  man!  Arbiter  of  bat- 
tles, and  judge  of  disputes!  Make  arrangements  for  us  and  your- 
self." Thereupon,  Bohemund  commanded  that  each  one  of  the 
princes  should  himself  form,  his  line  in  order.  They  did  so,  and 
six  lines  were  formed.  Five  of  them  went  out  together  to  attack 
them  (the  enemy).  Bohemund,  accordingly,  marched  a  short  dis- 
tance in  the  rear  with  his  line. 

Thus,  when  our  men  were  successfully  united,  one  band  urged  on 
the  other.  The  clamor  resounded  to  the  sky.  All  fought  at  the  same 
time.  Showers  of  weapons  darkened  the  air.  When  their  troops 
of  greatest  valor,  who  had  been  in  their  rear,  came  up,  they  attacked 
our  forces  sharply,  so  that  our  men  fell  back  a  little.  As  the  most 
learned  man,  Bohemund,  saw  this,  he  groaned.  Then  he  commanded 
his  constable,  that  is  to  say  Robert,  son  of  Girard,  saying:  "Go 
as  quickly  as  you  can,  like  a  brave  man,  and  remember  our  illus- 
trious and  courageous  forefathers  of  old.  Be  keen  in  the  service 
of  God  and  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  and  bear  in  mind  that  this  battle 
is  not  carnal,  but  spiritual.  Be,  therefore,  the  bravest  athlete  of 
Christ.  Go  in  peace.  The  Lord  be  with  you  everywhere."  And 
so  that  man,  fortified  on  all  sides  with  the  sign  of  the  cross,  went 
into  the  lines  of  the  Turks,  just  as  a  lion,  famished  for  three  or  four 
days,  goes  forth  from  his  cave  raging  and  thirsting  for  the  blood 
of  beasts  and,  rushing  unexpectedly  among  the  herds  of  sheep,  tears 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  139 

them  to  pieces  as  they  flee  hither  and  thither.  So  violently  did 
he  press  upon  them  that  the  tips  of  his  renowned  standard  flew 
over  the  heads  of  the  Turks.  Moreover,  as  the  other  lines  saw  that 
the  standard  of  Bohemund  was  so  gloriously  borne  before  them, 
they  went  back  to  the  battle  again,  and  with  one  accord  our  men 
attacked  the  Turks,  who,  all  amazed,  took  to  flight.  Our  men,  there- 
fore, pursued  them  even  to  the  Iron  Bridge  and  cut  off  their  heads. 
The  Turks,  however,  rushed  hastily  back  to  their  camps  and,  taking 
everything  they  could  find  there,  despoiled  the  whole  camp,  set  it 
on  fire,  and  fled.  The  Armenians  and  Syrians,  knowing  that  the 
Turks  had  utterly  lost  the  battle,  went  out  and  watched  at  the  nar- 
row places,  where  they  killed  and  captured  many  of  them.  And  so 
by  the  favor  of  God  our  enemy  was  overcome  on  that  day.  More- 
over, our  men  were  sufficiently  rewarded  with  horses  and  many 
other  things  which  they  greatly  needed.  And  they  carried  the 
heads  of  one  hundred  dead  before  the  gate  of  the  city,  where  the 
envoys  of  the  Emir  of  Babylon,^^  who  had  been  sent  to  the  princes, 
were  encamped.  During  the  whole  day  those  who  had  remained  in 
the  tents  had  fought  before  the  three  gates  of  the  city  with  those 
who  were  inside.  This  battle  was  fought  on  the  Wednesday  before 
the  beginning  of  Lent,  on  the  fifth  day  before  the  Ides  of  Febru- 
ary, with  the  favor  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who,  with  the  Father 
and  the  Holy  Ghost,  liveth  and  reigneth  God  forever  and  ever. 
Amen.  Our  men  returned  triumphant  and  joyful  from  the  victory 
which,  under  God's  guidance,  they  had  obtained  on  that  day  over 
their  defeated  enemy.  The  enemy,  entirely  beaten,  fled,  ever  roam- 
ing and  wandering  hither  and  thither.  Some  (at  length)  went  to 
Chorosan,  but  others  entered  the  land  of  the  Saracens. 

(Raymond).  And  so  the  poor  began  to  leave,  and  many  rich 
who  feared  poverty.  If  any  for  love  of  valor  remained  in 
camp,  they  suffered  their  horses  to  waste  away  by  daily  hunger. 
Indeed,  straw  did  not  abound;  and  fodder  was  so  dear  that  seven 
or  eight  solidi  were  not  sufficient  to  buy  one  night's  food  for  a 
horse.  Another  calamity  also  befell  the  army,  for  Bohemund, 
who  had  become  most  distinguished  in  Hispania  said  that  he  would 
leave;  that  he  had  come  for  honor,  and  (now)  beheld  his  men  and 
horses  perishing  for  want;  and  he  (further)  said  that  he  was  not 
a  rich  man  whose  private  resources  would  suffice  for  so  long  a  siege. 
We  found  out  afterwards  that  he  had  said  this  for  the  reason  that 
he  was  ambitiously  longing  to  become  head  of  the  city  of  Antioch. 

Meanwhile,  there  was  a  great  earthquake  on  the  third  day  before 
the  Kalends  of  January,  and  we  beheld  a  very  marvelous  sign  in 
the  sky.    For  in  the  first  watch  of  the  night  the  sky  was  so  red  iii 


I40  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

the  north  that  it  seemed  as  if  dawn  had  arisen  to  announce  the 
day.  And  though  in  this  way  God  chastised  His  army,  so  that  we 
were  intent  upon  the  Hght  which  was  rising  in  the  darkness,  yet 
the  minds  of  some  were  so  bHnd  and  abandoned  that  they  were 
recalled  neither  from  luxury  nor  robbery.  At  this  time  the  Bishop 
prescribed  a  fast  of  three  days  and  urged  prayers  and  alms,  to- 
gether with  a  procession,  upon  the  people ;  moreover,  he  commanded 
the  priests  to  devote  themselves  to  masses  and  prayers,  the  clerics  to 
psalms.  Thereupon,  the  merciful  Lord,  remembering  His  compas- 
sion, put  off  the  punishment  of  His  children,  lest  the  arrogance  of 
their  adversaries  increase. 

There  was,  besides,  in  our  army  a  certain  member  of  the  Em- 
peror's household  whom  he  had  given  to  us  in  his  place,  Tatiiis 
by  name,  mangled  in  nose  and  all  virtue.  I  had  almost  forgotten 
him,  since  he  deserved  to  be  abandoned  to  oblivion  forever.  This 
man,  however,  was  daily  whispering  in  the  ears  of  the  princes  that 
they  should  scatter  to  the  neighboring  camp,  and  thence  assail  the 
people  of  Antioch  by  frequent  assaults  and  ambush.  However,  as 
all  this  was  made  clear  to  the  Count  (for  he  had  been  sick  since 
the  day  when  he  was  forced  to  flee  at  the  bridge),  he  called  his 
princes  and  the  Bishop  of  Puy  together.  After  holding  a  council, 
he  gave  them  fifty  marks  of  silver  on  this  condition,  truly,  that  if 
any  of  his  knights  lost  a  horse,  it  should  be  restored  to  him  out  of 
those  fifty  marks  and  other  (resources)  which  had  been  given  to 
the  brotherhood.  Moreover,  this  kind  of  cooperation  was  of  great 
profit  at  that  time,  since  the  poor  of  our  army,  who  wanted  to  cross 
the  river  to  gather  herbs,  feared  the  frequent  assaults  of  the  enemy, 
and  since  very  rarely  did  any  care  to  go  against  the  enemy,  because 
their  horses  were  starved  and  weak,  and,  in  addition,  so  few  that 
scarcely  one  hundred  could  be  found  in  the  whole  army  of  the 
Count  and  Bishop.  A  similar  lot  had  befallen  Bohemund  and  the 
other  princes.  Accordingly,  for  this  reason  our  knights  were  not 
afraid  to  meet  the  enemy,  especially  those  who  had  bad  or  weak 
horses,  since  they  knew  that  if  they  lost  their  horses  they  would 
obtain  better  ones.  Moreover,  something  else  occurred,  namely  that 
all  the  princes  except  the  Count  promised  the  city  to  Bohemund,  pro- 
vided it  was  taken.  So  Bohemund  and  the  other  princes  swore  to 
this  agreement,  that  they  would  not  withdraw  from  the  siege  of 
Antioch  for  seven  years,  unless  the  city  was  taken. 

While  these  matters  were  happening  in  the  camp,  rumor  also 
announced  that  the  army  of  the  Emperor  was  coming.  It  was  re- 
ported to  have  been  assembled  from  many  peoples;  namely,  Slavs 
and  Patzinaks  andf  Cuman's  and  Turcopoles.     For  they  are  called 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  141 

Turcopoles  who  either  were  reared  among  the  Turks,  or  were  born 
of  a  Turkish  father  and  a  Christian  mother.  These  peoples,  more- 
over, because  they  had  hurt  us  on  the  march  confessed  that  they 
were  afraid  to  meet  us.  All  this,  however,  that  mangled  Tatius 
had  made  up,  and  he  had  made  such  comments  in  order  to  be  able 
to  get  away.  This  man,  after  heaping  up  not  only  (these)  state- 
ments, but  even  the  very  greatest  insults,  betrayal  of  his  com- 
panions, and  perjury,  slipped  away  in  flight,  after  having  granted  to 
Bohemund  two  or  three  cities,  Turso,^^  Mamistra,  Adana.  Accord- 
ingly, after  acquiring  everlasting  shame  for  himself  and  his  people 
in  this  way,  he  feigned  a  journey  to  the  army  of  the  Emperor,  and, 
leaving  his  tents  and  his  servants,  he  set  out  with  the  curse  of  God.^^ 

It  was  announced  to  us  at  this  time  that  the  chief  of  the  CaHph 
was  coming  to  the  help  of  Antioch  with  a  large  army,  which  he  was 
leading  from  Qioi:o&a:n.  On  this  account,  after  a  council  had  been 
held  in  the  house  of  the  Bishop,  it  was  decided  that  the  foot-soldiers 
should  guard  the  camp  and  the  knights  should  go  out  of  the  camp 
against  the  enemy;  for  they  said  that  if  the  many  unwarlike  and 
fearful  in  our  army  saw  a  multitude  of  Turks,  they  would  afford 
examples  of  fright,  rather  than  of  boldness.  Our  men,  therefore, 
set  forth  at  night,  lest  those  in  the  city  should  notice  (their  de- 
parture) and  report  it  to  those  who  were  coming  to  aid  them,  and 
hid  themselves  among  the  little  mountains  about  two  leagues  distant 
from  our  camp. 

However,  when  it  became  morning,  the  enemy  appeared  with 
the  sun.  Let  them  hearken,  let  them  hearken,  I  beg,  who  have  at 
one  time  and  another  tried  to  hurt  the  army,  so  that,  when  they 
recognize  that  God  enlarges  His  compassion  among  us,  they  may 
hasten  to  make  restitution  by  lamentations  of  penance.  Accord- 
ingly, after  the  knights  had  been  formed  in  six  squadrons,  God 
multiplied  them  so  much  that  they  who  had  scarcely  seemed  to 
number  seventy  before  the  formation,  after  it  were  sworn  to  number 
more  than  two  housand  in  each  squadron.  What,  indeed,  shall  I 
say  of  their  boldness,  when  the  knights  even  sang  the  military  songs 
so  festively  that  they  regarded  the  coming  battle  as  if  it  were  a 
game?  Moreover,  the  battle  happened  to  be  fought  in  this  place 
where  the  swamp  and  river  are  a  mile  apart.  This,  however,  pre- 
vented the^  enemy  from  spreading  out,  so  that  they  could  not  encircle 
us  in  their  usual  manner.  For  God,  who  had  given  us  other  things, 
afforded  us  six  successive  valleys  for  advancing  to  battle.  In  one 
hour  after  going  forth  the  field  was  taken,  and  while  the  sun  shone 
brightly,  the  battle  was  committed  to  arms  and  shields.  Our  men, 
moreover,  at  first  advanced  a  little,  while  the  Turks,  though  they 


142  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

scattered  to  shoot  with  their  bows,  yet  made  a  move  to  retreat. 
But  our  men  suffered  very  much  until  the  first  ranks  of  the  Turks 
were  pushed  into  the  rear,  for  as  we  learned  from  their  deserters, 
there  were  said  to  be  not  less  than  twenty-eight  thousand  horsemen 
in  this  battle.  And  when  the  first  line  of  the  Turks  was  sufficiently 
mixed  up  with  the  following  lines,  the  Franks  called  upon  the  Lord 
and  charged.  Nor  was  there  delay;  the  Lord,  strong  and  mighty 
in  battle,  was  present.  He  protected  His  children,  and  hurled  down 
the  enemy.  So  the  Franks  pursued  them  even  to  their  very  strongly 
fortified  camp,  which  was  about  ten  miles  from  the  place  oi  battle. 
But  the  custodians  of  the  camp,  upon  seeing  this,  set  fire  to  it 
and  fled.  We  were,  however,  so  rejoiced  and  exultant  at  this,  that 
we  hailed  as  a  second  victory  the  burning  of  the  camp. 

And  thus  on  that  same  day  the  light  in  the  camp  was  so  great 
that  there  was  no  place  toward  the  city  where  fighting  was  not 
going  on.  For  the  enemy  had  arranged  that,  while  we  were  most 
fiercely  engaged  by  the  besieged,  we  should  be  overwhelmed  by  their 
unexpected  aid  from  the  rear.  But  God,  who  granted  victory  to 
our  knights,  fought  among  our  foot-soldiers  (also).  And  on  that 
day  we  obtained  no  less  a  triumph  over  the  besieged  than  our 
knights  reported  over  the  helpers.  Accordingly,  after  the  victory 
and  the  spoils  had  been  won,  the  several  heads  of  the  dead  were 
brought  to  the  camp.  And  that  we  might  cause  fear  among  the 
enemy  by  the  evidence  of  the  (fate  of)  their  scattered  allies,  the 
heads  that  had  been  brought  along  were  suspended  on  stakes.  This 
we  believed  later  to  have  been  done  by  the  disposition  of  God. 
For  when  the  standard  of  the  Blessed  Mary  had  been  captured,  they 
put  it  point  downward  in  the  ground,  as  if  to  shame  us.  And  thus 
it  happened  that  they  were  restrained  from  taunting  us  by  the  sight 
of  the  upHfted  heads  of  their  men. 

At  this  time  there  were  in  our  camp  envoys  from  the  King  of 
Babylon,  who,  upon  seeing  the  wonders  which  God  was  working 
through  His  servants,  glorified  Jesus,  the  son  of  the  Virgin  Mary, 
who  through  His  poor  had  ground  to  dust  their  mightiest  tyrants. 
These  envoys,  moreover,  promised  us  favor  and  good  will  with  their 
king;  besides,  they  told  of  very  many  good  deeds  of  their  king 
toward  the  Egyptian  Christians  and  our  pilgrims.  Thereupon,  our 
envoys  were  senr  back  with  them  to  enter  upon  a  treaty  and  friend- 
ship with  the  King.^^ 

9.    Call  for  reinforcements. 

(Simeon  and  the  bishops).  The  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem  and  the 
bishops,  Greek  as  well  as  Latin,  and  the  whole  army  of  God  and 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  143 

the  Church  to  the  Church  of  the  West;  fellowship  in  celestial 
Jerusalem,  and  a  portion  of  the  reward  of  their  labor. 

Since  we  are  not  unaware  than  you  delight  in  the  increase  of  the 
Church,  and  we  believe  that  you  are  concerned  to  hear  matters  ad- 
verse as  well  as  prosperous,  we  hereby  notify  you  of  the  success 
of  our  undertaking.  Therefore,  be  it  known  to  your  delight  that 
God  has  triumphed  in  forty  important  cities  and  in  two  hundred 
fortresses  of  His  Church  in  Romania,  as  well  as  in  Syria,  and  that 
we  still  have  one  hundred  thousand  men  in  armor,  besides  the 
common  throng,  though  many  were  lost  in  the  first  battles.  But 
what  is  this  ?  What  is  one  man  in  a  thousand  ?  Where  we  have  a 
count,  the  enemy  have  forty  kings;  where  we  have  a  company, 
the  enemy  have  a  legion ;  where  we  have  a  knight,  they  have  a  duke ; 
where  we  have  a  foot-soldier,  they  have  a  count;  where  we  have 
a  camp,  they  have  a  kingdom.  However,  confiding  not  in  numbers, 
nor  in  bravery,  nor  in  any  presumption,  but  protected  by  justice 
and  the  shield  of  Christ,  and  with  St.  George,  Theodore,  Demetrius, 
and  Basil,^*  soldiers  of  Christ,  truly  supporting  us,  we  have  pierced, 
and  in  security  are  piercing,  the  ranks  of  the  enemy.  On  five 
general  battle-fields,  God  conquering,  we  have  conquered. 

But  what  more?  In  behalf  of  God  and  ourselves,  I,  apostolic 
Patriarch,  the  bishops  and  the  whole  order  of  the  Lord,  urgently 
pray,  and  our  spiritual  Mother  Church  calls  out:  ''Come,  my  most 
beloved  sons,  come  to  me,  retake  the  crown  from  the  hands  of  the 
sons  of  idolatory,  who  rise  against  me — the  crown  from  the  begin- 
ning of  the  world  predestined  for  you.  Come,  therefore,  we  pray, 
to  fight  in  the  army  of  the  Lord  at  the  same  place  in  which  the  Lord 
fought,  in  which  Christ  suffered  for  us,  leaving  to  you  an  example 
that  you  should  follow  his  foot-steps.  Did  not  God,  innocent,  die 
for  us?  Let  us  therefore  also  die,  if  it  be  our  lot,  not  for  Him, 
but  for  ourselves,  that  by  dying  on  earth  we  may  live  for  God.  Yet 
it  is  (now)  not  necessary  that  we  should  die,  nor  fight  much,  for 
we  have  (already)  sustained  the  more  serious  trials,  but  the  task 
of  holding  the  fortresses  and  cities  has  been  heavily  reducing  our 
army.  Come,  therefore,  hasten  to  be  repaid  with  the  twofold  re- 
ward— namely,  the  land  of  the  living  and  the  land  flowing  with  milk 
and  honey  and  abounding  in  all  good  things.  Behold,  men,  by  the 
shedding  of  our  blood  the  way  is  open  everywhere.  Bring  nothing 
with  you  except  only  what  may  be  of  use  to  us.  Let  only  the  men 
come;  let  the  women,  as  yet,  be  left.  From  the  home  in  which  there 
are  two,  let  one,  the  one  more  ready  for  battle,  come.  But  those, 
especially,  who  have  made  the  vow,  (let  them  come).  Unless  they 
come  and  discharge  their  vow,  I,  apostoHc  Patriarch,  the  bishops, 


144  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

and  the  whole  order  of  the  orthodox,  do  excommunicate  them  and 
remove  them  utterly  from  the  communion  of  the  Church.  And  do 
you  likewise,  that  they  may  not  have  burial  among  Christians^ 
unless  they  are  staying  for  suitable  reasons.  Come,  and  receive  the 
two-fold  glory!     This,  therefore,  also  write. 

10.    The  erection  of  a  fortress.      Fights  with  the  Turks.     (March 
5 — end  of  May,  1098). 

(Gesta).  However,  when  our  leaders  saw  that  those  of  our 
enemy  who  were  in  the  city  were  doing  us  damage  and  harassing 
us,  watching  and  lying  in  ambush  wherever  they  could  hurt  us, 
they  assembled  together  and  said,  "Before  we  lose  our  people,  let 
us  build  a  fort  at  the  mosque  which  is  before  the  gate  of  the  city, 
where  the  bridge  is ;  and  there,  perchance,  we  will  be  able  to  harass 
our  enemy."  All  agreed,  and  approved  it  as  a  good  thing  to  be 
done.  The  Count  of  St.  Gilles  spoke  first  and  said,  "Help  me  build 
the  fort,  and  I  will  fortify  and  guard  it."  Bohemund  answered,  "If 
it  is  your  desire  and  the  other  lords  approve,  I  will  go  with  you  to 
the  Port  of  St.  Simeon  diligently  to  fetch  those  men  who  are 
there  for  this  work.  Let  the  others,  who  are  to  remain,  fortify 
themselves  on  all  sides,  lest,  perchance,  the  enemies  of  God  and 
ourselves  should  go  out  from  the  city,  and  let  all  be  gathered  at  the 
place  which  we  have  pointed  out."  And  thus  it  was  done. 
So  the  Count  and  Bohemund  went  forth  to  the  Port  of  St.  Simeon. 
We  who  remained  in  one  body  began  (to  build)  the  fort, 
until  the  Turks  prepared  themselves  and  came  out  of  the  city  for 
battle  against  us.  And  thus  they  rushed  upon  us  and  put  us  to 
flight  and  killed  several  of  us,  whereat  we  were  exceedingly  sad. 
On  the  next  day,  when  the  Turks  saw  that  our  leaders  were 
absent  and  that  on  the  day  before  they  had  gone  to  the  Port, 
they  made  themselves  ready  and  went  out  to  meet  them  (Bohemund 
and  Raymond)  as  they  came  from  the  Port.  Then,  as  they  saw  the 
Count  and  Bohemund  coming  and  escorting  that  host,  they  began 
immediately  to  whistle,  and  chatter,  and  shout  with  the  most  violent 
outcry,  encircling  us  on  all  sides,  hurling,  shooting,  wounding  (our 
men),  and  cruelly  cutting  them  down  with  the  sword.  For  so 
fiercely  did  they  attack  our  forces  that  the  latter  took  to  flight  over 
the  top  of  the  mountain,  and  wherever  a  passageway  was  open. 
He  who  could  advance  at  rapid  pace  escaped  alive,  but  he  who  could 
not  flee  met  death.  There  were  martyred  on  that  day  more  than 
a  thousand  of  our  knights  and  footmen,  who,  we  believe,  ascended 
joyfully  to  heaven.  Clothed  in  white  and  wearing  the  robe  of 
martyrdom  that  they  had  received,  they  there  glorified  and  mag- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  145 

nified  our  Lord  God,  Three  in  One,  in  whom  they  happily  triumphed, 
crying  aloud  with  one  voice,  "Wherefore  didst  thou  not  defend 
our  blood  which  to-day  was  shed  for  Thy  name?" 

Bohemund,  therefore,  did  not  hold  to  the  road  which  they  had 
taken,  but  with  a  few  knights  came  more  quickly  to  us  who  were 
gathered  together.  Then,  angered  at  the  killing  of  our  men,  we 
called  upon  the  name  of  Christ,  and  putting  our  trust  in  the  march 
to  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  together  went  out  against  them  for  battle 
and  attacked  them  with  one  heart  and  one  mind.  The  enemies  of 
God  and  ourselves  stood  thoroughly  astounded  and  greatly  terrified, 
thinking  that  our  men  would  conquer  and  kill  them,  just  as  they 
themselves  had  done  the  people  of  the  Count  and  Bohemund.  But 
Almighty  God  did  not  accord  them  this  end.  Therefore  the  true 
knights  of  God,  armed  on  all  sides  with  the  sign  of  the  cross,  rushed 
fiercely  upon  them  and  attacked  them  violently,  but  they  fled 
quickly  by  means  of  the  narrow  bridge  to  their  entrance.  Those 
who  could  not  cross  the  bridge  alive,  because  of  the  multitude  of 
people  and  horses  there,  received  eternal  death  and  yielded  their 
unhappy  souls  to  the  devil  and  the  ministers  of  Satan.  And  so 
we  overcame  them,  driving  and  hurling  them  down  into  the  river. 
The  water  of  the  rapid  stream  seemed  to  flow  everywhere  red 
with  the  blood  of  the  Turks.  And  if,  perchance,  any  of  these  wished 
to  crawl  upon  the  columns  of  the  bridge,  or  by  swimming  tried  to 
reach  the  land,  he  was  wounded  by  our  men,  who  stood  all  around 
on  the  bank  of  the  river.  Furthermore,  the  noise  and  outcry  of 
both  our  forces  and  theirs  sounded  to  the  sky.  Showers  of  javelins 
and  arrows  covered  the  sky  and  (obscured)  the  clearness  of  the 
day ;  voices  (shrieked)  within  and  without  the  city.  Christian  women 
of  the  city  came  to  the  windows  of  the  wall,  where  they  beheld  the 
wretched  fate  of  the  Turks  and  stealthily  applauded  with  their 
hands,  as  was  their  custom.  The  Armenians  and  Syrians,  willing 
or  unwilling,  shot  arrows  out  at  us  by  order  of  the  Turkish  leaders. 
Likewise,  there  were  killed  in  body  and  soul  at  that  battle  twelve 
Emirs  of  the  Turkish  horde,  and  others  of  the  foremost  and  braver 
knights  who  took  a  leading  part  in  the  defense  of  the  city.  The 
number  (of  these)  was  fifteen  hundred.  The  rest  who  remained 
alive  dared  no  longer  shout  or  chatter  by  night  or  by  day,  as  they 
had  formerly  been  wont  to  do.  And  so  night  alone  overcame  all 
of  them  and  us,  and  night  prevented  both  sides  from  fighting, 
hurling,  piercing,  and  shooting.  Thus  our  enemies  were  overcome 
by  the  valor  of  God  and  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  and  they  could  no 
longer  have  such  strength,  either  in  voice  or  deed,  as  they  had 
before.     And  thus  on  that  day  we  were  bountifully  supplied  with 


146  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

their  horses  and  many  other  things  which  were  necessary  enough 
for  us. 

On  the  next  day,  at  earliest  dawn,  other  Turks  went  out  from 
the  city,  and,  collecting  all  the  fetid  corpses  of  the  dead  Turks 
which  they  could  find  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  except  those  which 
lay  hidden  in  the  sand  of  the  same  river,  they  buried  them  at  the 
mosque  which  is  across  the  bridge  in  front  of  the  city  gate.  At 
the  same  time  they  buried  with  them  their  garments,  gold  besants, 
bows,  arrows,  and  very  many  other  instruments  which  we  were 
unable  to  name.  And  so,  when  our  men  heard  that  the  Turks  had 
buried  their  dead,  all  made  preparation  and  came  in  haste  to  the 
diabolical  temple  and  ordered  the  bodies  to  be  exhumed,  the  tombs 
broken  open,  and  the  corpses  dragged  forth  from  the  sepulchre. 
They  cast  all  the  cadavers  into  a  ditch  and  carried  off  the  severed 
heads  to  our  tents,  in  order  to  find  out  their  number  exactly — all 
the  heads,  that  is,  except  those  loaded  upon  the  four  horses  of  the 
envoys  of  the  Emir  of  Babylon  and  sent  to  the  sea.  The  Turks 
grieved  exceedingly  upon  beholding  this,  and  were  sad  even  to 
death ;  grieving  daily,  they  did  nothing  else  except  weep  and  lament. 

But  the  third  day  we  began  with  joined  forces  to  construct  the 
above-mentioned  fortress  of  stone,  which  we  took  from  the  tombs 
of  the  Turks.  And  so,  when  the  fort  was  finished,  we  forthwith 
began  to  press  our  enemies  from  every  side.  Their  arrogance  was 
now  reduced  to  nothing.  We,  however,  roamed  in  security  hither 
and  thither,  to  the  Port  and  to  the  mountains,  praising  and  glorify- 
ing our  Lord  God,  whose  honor  and  glory  is  forever  and  ever, 
Amen. 

Now  nearly  all  the  roads  were  forbidden  and  closed  to  the  Turks 
on  every  side,  except  on  that  part  of  the  river  where  there  was  a 
fort  and  a  certain  monastery.  If  this  fortress  had  been  thoroughly 
guarded  by  us,  not  one  of  these  people  would  have  dared  to  go  out 
of  the  gate  of  the  city.  At  length  our  leaders  held  a  council  and 
with  unanimous  accord  said,  "Let  us  select  one  of  us  to  hold  that 
fort  sturdily  and  close  to  our  enemies  the  mountains  and  plains,  the 
entrance  and  exit  of  the  city."  But  most  of  them  refused  to  be 
installed  there  themselves,  unless  there  were  many  in  a  body 
(with  them).  Tancred  was  the  first  to  offer  himself  before 
the  others,  saying:  'Tf  I  knew  what  it  would  profit  me,  I  would 
carefully  strengthen  the  fort  with  my  men  alone,  and  I  would 
energetically  deny  our  enemy  the  road  by  which  too  frequently  they 
are  wont  to  rage  against  us."  They  straightway  promised  him  four 
hundred  marks  of  silver.  Tancred  did  not  tarry;  although  alone, 
he  went  forth  with  his  most  renowned  knights  and  servants  and 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  147 

immediately  shut  off  on  all  sides  the  road  and  pass  from  the  Turks. 
As  a  result,  none  of  them,  already  terrified  by  fear  of  him,  now 
dared  to  go  out  either  for  fodder,  wood,  or  any  other  necessities. 
Tancred  remained  there  with  his  men  and  began  violently  to  harass 
the  city  on  all  sides.  That  same  day  a  very  large  party  of  Armenians  , 
and  Syrians,  who  were  bringing  food  to  the  Turks  in  the  city,  came 
down  from  the  mountains  in  fancied  security.  Tancred,  coming 
upon  them,  seized  them  with  all  that  they  carried — grain,  wine,  bar- 
ley, oil,  and  other  things  of  this  kind.  He  conducted  himself  so 
stoutly  and  successfully  there  that  he  now  held  all  the  roads  and 
paths  closed  to  the  Turks  until  the  capture  of  Antioch. 

(Raymond).  At  the  same  time  it  seemed  best  to  our  princes  to 
erect  a  fortified  camp  on  the  hill  above  the  tents  of  Bohemund,  so 
that  if  the  enemy  should  come  against  us  again,  they  could  in  no 
way  attack  our  tents.  When  this  had  been  done,  our  camp  would 
be  so  strong  .that,  like  a  city,  we  would  be  protected  on  all  sides  by 
craft  as  well  as  by  nature.  For  we  had  this  fortress  on  the  east; 
on  the  south,  the  walls  of  the  city  and  the  swamp  which  fortified 
the  walls  likewise  protected  us,  and  did  not  give  the  people  of  the 
city  a  chance  to  fight  us,  unless  they  came  out  through  the  gates. 
On  the  west,  there  was  the  river;  on  the  north,  a  certain  old  wall 
which,  descending  from  the  mountain,  extended  up  to  the  river. 
The  people,  likewise,  approved  (the  idea)  that  another  fortress 
should  be  established  on  the  little  mountain  which  was  above  their 
bridge.  Engines,  too,  were  constructed  in  the  camp  to  attack  the^ 
walls  of  the  city;  but  this  was  in  vain. 

And  when  now  in  the  fifth  month  of  the  siege  our  ships  landed 
at  our  port  with  provisions,  the  Turks  of  the  city  began  to  besiege 
the  roads  to  the  sea  and  to  kill  the  bearers  of  supplies.  Our  princes 
at  first  only  endured  this;  the  Turks,  however,  unpunished  for 
their  villainy  and  hoping  for  plunder,  pressed  us  by  day  and  by 
night.  At  length,  it  was  agreed  to  establish  a  camp  toward  their 
bridge.  But  since  many  of  our  people  had  gone  away  to  the  Port, 
the  Count  and  Bohemund  were  chosen  to  bring  them  back  from 
there,  together  with  mattocks  and  other  instruments  with  which 
the  wall  of  the  new  castle  might  be  made.  And  when  it  was  found 
out  in  the  city  that  the  Count  and  Bohemund  were  away,  they  began 
their  customary  attacks.  Our  men,  moreover,  advancing  too  rashly 
and  without  order,  were  basely  scattered  and  put  to  flight. 

And  on  the  fourth  day  when  the  Count  and  Bohemund  were 
returning  from  the  Port  with  a  very  great  multitude  they  were 
watched  by  the  Turks.  Our  men  thought  themselves  secure  by 
their  numbers  alone.     But  why  do  I  grieve  over  many  matters? 


148  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

It  came  to  a  fight,  and  our  men  turned  their  backs.  Indeed,  we 
lost  up  to  three  hundred  men,  but  how  much  booty  and  how  many 
arms  it  is  impossible  to  say.  While  we  were  being  slaughtered  and 
pressed  together  like  cattle  among  the  mountains  and  precipices, 
the  men  from  the  camp  began  to  advance  against  the  enemy.  And 
so  it  happened  that  they  (the  Saracens)  were  recalled  from  a  slaugh- 
ter of  the  fugitives.  Why  thus.  Lord  God?  They  in  the  camp 
were  beaten,  and  these  two  greatest  princes  in  Thy  army  were  also 
beaten  outside  the  camp!  Should  we  flee  to  the  camp?  Or  those 
from  the  camp  to  us?  Arise  and  aid  us,  for  Thy  name's  sake! 
Because  if  it  had  been  learned  back  in  the  camp  that  the  princes 
were  beaten,  or  if  it  had  chanced  that  we  knew  of  the  flight  of 
those  in  the  camp,  all  would  have  fled  together.  The  Lord  God 
thus  arose  as  our  helper  at  the  opportune  time,  and  those  whom  He 
had  previously  terrified.  He  now  aroused  to  be  first  in  battle. 

When  Gracianus,^^  ruler  of  the  city,  saw  the  spoils  taken  from 
our  men,  and  the  victory  of  his  people,  and  that  some  of  the 
men  were  still  bold,  he  sent  all  his  knights  and  foot-soldiers 
out ;  and,  led  on  by  hope  of  victory,  he  ordered  the  gates  of  the 
city  to  be  shut  behind  his  men,  ordering  his  knights  to  conquer  or 
to  die.  Meanwhile,  our  men  advanced  a  short  distance  at  command ; 
the  Turks,  however,  withdrew,  shot  with  their  bows,  and  charged 
our  men  very  boldly.  But  our  men  suffered  it  for  a  while,  until 
they  could  attack  them  in  mass;  nor  did  they  yield  at  the  charge 
of  the  enemy.  There  was,  indeed,  such  lamentation  and  outcry  to 
God  in  the  camp  that  you  would  have  thought  the  mercy  of  God 
must  descend  at  the  flowing  of  their  tears.  When  they  were  about 
to  come  to  close  quarters,  a  certain  knight,  Ysoard  of  Ganges,  a 
most  noble  Provengal  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  foot-soldiers, 
called  upon  God  on  bended  knees.  Then,  encouraging  his  compan- 
ions by  saying,  "On,  soldiers  of  Christ !"  he  rushed  upon  the  enemy. 
Our  other  lines  attacked  likewise.  Thereupon,  the  arrogance  of 
the  enemy  is  disturbed.  The  gate  is  shut,  the  bridge  is  narrow,  but 
the  river  is  very  wide.  What  result?  The  enemy  in  panic  are 
knocked  down  and  killed  and  overwhelmed  with  stones  in  the  river ; 
no  avenue  of  escape,  moreover,  lies  open.  And  had  not  Gracianus 
opened  the  gate  of  the  city,  we  would  on  that  day  have  had  peace 
from  Antioch.  I  have  heard  from  many  who  were  there  that  with 
boards  taken  from  the  bridge  they  destroyed  twenty  Turks  and 
more  in  the  river.  The  Duke  of  Lorraine  gained  much  glory  there, 
for  he  checked  the  enemy  at  the  bridge  and  divided  them  in  two  as 
they  were  climbing  up. 

Thereupon,  when  the  victory  had  been  achieved,  our  men  re- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  149 

turned  to  camp  with  great  rejoicing,  many  horses,  and  much  booty. 
A  certain  memorable  incident  occurred  there,  which  would  that 
those  who  follow  our  vows  could  had  seen!  For,  while  a  certain 
horseman  of  the  enemy  through  fear  of  death  was  rushing  headlong 
into  the  depths  of  the  stream,  he  was  caught  by  many  of  his  own 
people  and  cast  down  from  his  horse  and  brushed  off  in  the  middle 
of  the  stream,  together  with  that  multitude  which  had  caught  him. 
It  was  worth  the  trouble  to  have  seen  some  of  the  poor  returning 
from  the  victory,  for  some  of  them,  riding  about  among  the  tents  on 
Arabian  horses,  displayed  to  their  companions  the  relief  of  their 
poverty ;  others,  moreover,  dressed  in  two  or  three  silken  garments, 
magnified  God,  the  Giver  of  victory  and  reward;  still  others,  pro- 
tected by  three  or  four  shields,  eagerly  showed  the  evidence  of 
their  triumph.  And  while  by  these  and  other  displays  they  per- 
suaded us  to  a  belief  in  the  magnificent  victory,  they  could  not 
persuade  us  of  the  number  killed.  Since  the  victory  had  been 
obtained  at  evening,  the  heads  of  the  dead  were  not  carried  to 
camp.  And  the  next  day,  when  the  fortress  was  to  be  erected 
before  the  enemy's  bridge,  some  of  the  Turks  were  found  in  the 
ditch,  for  that  hill  was  used  as  a  burial  ground  of  the  Saracens. 
Thereupon,  the  poor,  provoked  at  the  remains  of  these  people, 
broke  open  all  their  tombs.  And  thus  when  the  Turks  had  been 
exhumed,  no  one  had  a  doubt  how  great  had  been  the  victory,  for 
about  fifteen  hundred  were  counted.  I  am  not  speaking  now  about 
those  buried  in  the  city  and  those  carried  off  by  the  river.  How- 
ever, when  the  unbearable  stench  oppressed  those  who  were  at  work 
on  the  fortress,  the  corpses  were  cast  forth  into  the  river.  The 
sailors,  indeed,  who  had  been  scattered  and  wounded  in  the  flight 
of  the  Count  and  Bohemund,  were  still  dubious,  because  of  their 
fright,  about  the  extent  of  the  victory.  However,  when  they  saw 
so  great  a  multitude  of  dead,  as  though  made  well  thereby,  they 
began  to  magnify  God,  who  is  wont  to  correct  and  gladden  His 
children.  Therefore  it  had  been  so  arranged  by  the  disposition  of 
God  that  those  who  had  given  to  the  wild  beasts  and  birds  the 
bearers  of  provisions  destroyed  on  the  coast  and  on  the  banks  of 
the  river  should  themselves  become  food  for  the  beasts  and  the 
birds  in  the  same  places.  Accordingly,  when  the  victory  had  been 
recognized  and  celebrated  and  the  fortress  constructed,  the  city  of 
Antioch  was  besieged  from  north  and  south. 

Consultation  was  held  at  this  time  as  to  who  of  the  princes  could 
go  to  garrison  the  fortress.  Verily,  a  matter  of  common  respon- 
sibility is  frequently  neglected,  since  each  one  thinks  that  it  is  being 
looked  after  by  others.    And  while  some  of  the  princes,  as  if  for 


I50  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

a  price,  sought  from  the  others  the  privilege  of  guarding  it,  the 
Count  took  over  the  custody  of  the  fortress  against  the  will  of  his 
men,  both  to  avoid  the  charge  of  sloth  and  avarice,  and  to  show 
the  path  of  energy  and  valor  to  the  torpid.  For  during  the  past 
summer  he  had  been  tried  by  a  severe  and  protracted  illness  and 
had  been  so  weak  during  the  whole  winter  that  he  was  said  to  be 
ready  neither  to  fight  nor  to  pay.  Although  he  had  done  many 
things,  yet  because  it  was  believed  he  could  do  more,  he  was  pro- 
claimed a  nobody.  Accordingly,  having  come  upon  this  difficulty, 
that  is,  a  question  of  his  valor,  he  suffered  such  great  hatred  from  all 
that  he  was  almost  cut  off  from  his  own  people.  In  the  meantime, 
while  the  Count  was  ignoring  this,  hoping  that  the  enemy,  oppressed 
on  most  sides,  would  flee  thither  from  the  city,  he  was  early  one 
morning  surrounded  by  the  enemy.  There  shone  forth  then  a  great 
miracle  of  divine  protection,  for  sixty  of  our  men  sustained  the 
attack  of  seven  thousand  Saracens;  all  the  more  wonderful,  since 
the  heavy  showers  of  the  past  days  had  moistened  the  forest  earth, 
filling  the  moat  of  the  new  fortress.  And  thus  no  lack  of  ways,  but 
the  valor  of  God  alone  checked  the  enemy.  I  do  not  think,  how- 
ever, that  I  should  pass  over  the  distinguished  bravery  of  some  of 
the  knights,  who,  cut  off  by  the  enemy  while  they  were  guarding 
the  bridge,  could  not  return  to  the  fortress  for  refuge,  since  it  was 
a  bowshot  away.  Thereupon,  these  knights,  after  making  a  circle 
in  the  multitude  of  the  enemy,  reached  the  corner  of  a  neighboring 
house,  and  there  stoutly  and  without  fear  sustained  the  attacks  of 
the  enemy,  the  rage  of  arrows,  and  the  cloud  of  stones  from  all 
sides.  Meanwhile,  the  sound  of  battle  heard  in  the  camp  aroused 
our  men.  Thus  the  fortress  was  freed  from  the  enemy,  and  though 
they  abandoned  the  siege  when  they  saw  aid  coming  from  afar, 
and  though  their  bridge  was  very  near,  yet  the  last  of  them  were 
cut  off.  Thereupon,  when  the  moat  and  the  walls  of  the  fortress 
had  been  restored,  the  bearers  of  provisions  could  go  back  and 
forth  from  the  Port  in  security.  Accordingly,  the  hatred  which  the 
Count  had  borne  was  so  lightened  that  he  was  called  by  all  the 
father  and  preserver  of  the  army.  From  this  time,  therefore,  the 
fame  of  the  Count  increased,  because  he  had  borne  the  attacks  of 
the  enemy  alone. 

When,  therefore,  the  bridge  and  the  gate  of  the  bridge  were  be- 
sieged, the  Turks  began  going  out  by  another  gate,  which  faced 
the  south,  beside  the  river ;  and  they  sent  their  horses  out  to  a  cer- 
tain retreat  between  the  mountains  and  the  river,  which  was  a  very 
fine  pasture.  Thereupon,  when  the  place  had  been  discovered  by  our 
men,  they  encircled  the  city  by  a  difficult  mountain  at  the  close  of 


'^    ^  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  151 

the  day  and  came  to  that  pasture.  Others,  crossing  by  a  ford,  led 
from  there  two  thousand  horses,  not  counting  the  mules  which  were 
recovered ;  for  in  time  past  on  the  journey  from  the  sea  the  enemy 
had  taken  many  mules  from  us,  which  were  now  captured,  recog- 
nized by  their  masters,  and  given  to  their  former  owners. 

After  this,  Tancred  fortified  a  certain  monastery  across  the  river, 
for  which  the  Count  gave  him  one  hundred  marks  of  silver,  and  the 
other  princes  whatever  they  could;  for  this  fortress  constrained 
the  enemy  much.  Therefore  we  were  pleased  to  wait;  the  fewer 
we  were  in  number,  the  braver  the  fi:race  of  God  oiade  us. 

II.    Capture  of  Antioch.     (End  of  May — June  3,  1098). 

(Gesta).  I  can  not  enumerate  all  the  things  which  we  did  before 
the  city  was  captured,  because  there  is  no  one  in  these  regions, 
whether  cleric  or  layman,  who  can  at  all  write  or  tell  just  how 
things  happened.     Nevertheless,  I  will  say  a  little. 

There  was  a  certain  Emir  of  the  race  of  the  Turks,  whose  name 
was  Pirus,^^  who  took  up  the  greatest  friendship  with  Bohemund. 
By  an  mterchange  of  messengers  Bohemund  often  pressed  this  man 
to  receive  him  within  the  city  in  a  most  friendly  fashion,  and,  after 
promising  Christianity  to  him  most  freely,  he  sent  word  that  he 
would  make  him  rich  with  much  honor.  Pirns  yielded  to  these 
words  and  promises,  saying,  'T  guard  three  towers,  and  I  freely 
promise  them  to  him,  and  at  whatever  hour  he  wishes  I  will 
receive  him  within  them."  Accordingly,  Bohemund  was  now 
secure  about  entering  the  city,  and,  delighted,  with  serene  mind 
and  joyful  countenance,  he  came  to  all  the  leaders,  bearing  joyful 
words  to  them  in  this  wise:  "Men,  most  illustrious  knights,  see 
how  all  of  us,  whether  of  greater  or  less  degree,  are  in  exceeding 
poverty  and  misery,  and  how  utterly  ignorant  we  are  from  what 
side  we  will  fare  better.  Therefore,  if  it  seems  good  and  honorable 
to  you,  let  one  of  us  put  himself  ahead  of  the  rest,  and  if  he  can 
acquire  or  contrive  (the  capture  of)  the  city  by  any  plan  or  scheme, 
by  himself,  or  through  the  help  of  others,  let  us  with  one  voice 
grant  him  the  city  as  a  gift."  They  absolutely  refused  and  spurned 
(the  suggestion)  saying,  "This  city  shall  be  given  to  no  one,  but 
we  will  hold  it  equally;  since  we  have  had  equal  effort,  so  let  us 
have  equal  reward  from  it." 

Bohemund,  upon  hearing  these  words,  laughed  a  bit  to  himself 
and  immediately  retired.     Not  much  later  we  listened  to  messages 
concerning   (the  approach  of)    an    army    of    our    enemy,    Turks, 
Publicani,  Agulani,  Azimites,  and  very  many  other  gentile  nations/ 
that  I  know  not  how  to  enumerate  or  name.     Immediately  all  our 


152  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

leaders  came  together,  and  held  a  council,  saying:  "If  Bohemund 
can  acquire  the  city,  either  by  himself,  or  with  the  help  of  others, 
let  us  give  it  to  him  freely  and  with  one  accord,  on  condition  that 
if  the  Emperor  comes  to  our  aid  and  wishes  to  carry  out  every  agree- 
ment, as  he  swore  and  promised,  we  will  return  it  to  him  by  right. 
But  if  he  does  not  do  this,  let  Bohemund  keep  it  in  his  power." 
Immediately,  therefore,  Bohemund  began  meekly  to  beseech  his 
friend  in  daily  petition,  holding  out  most  humbly  the  greatest  and 
sweetest  promises  in  this  manner:  ''Behold,  we  have  now  truly  a 
fit  time  to  accomplish  whatever  good  we  wish ;  therefore,  now,  my 
friend  Pirns,  help  me."  Greatly  pleased  at  the  message,  he  replied 
that  he  would  aid  him  in  every  way,  as  he  ought  to  do.  Accordingly, 
at  the  approach  of  night,  he  cautiously  sent  his  son  to  Bohemund 
as  a  pledge,  that  he  might  be  the  more  secure  about  his  entrance  to 
the  city.  He  also  sent  word  to  him  in  this  wise :  "Tomorrow  sound 
the  trumpets  for  the  Prankish  host  to  move  on,  pretending  that 
they  are  going  to  plunder  the  land  of  the  Saracens,  and  then  turn 
back  quickly  over  the  mountain  on  the  right.  With  alert  mind, 
indeed,  I  will  be  awaiting  those  forces,  and  I  will  take  them  into 
the  towers  which  I  have  in  my  power  and  charge."  Then  Bohemund 
ordered  a  certain  servant  of  his,  Malacorona  by  name,  to  be  called, 
and  bade  him,  as  herald,  to  admonish  most  of  the  Franks  faithfully 
to  prepare  themselves  to  go  into  the  land  of  the  Saracens.  This  was 
so  done.  Thereupon  Bohemund  entrusted  his  plan  to  Duke  God- 
frey, and  the  Count  of  Flanders,  also  to  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  and 
the  Bishop  of  Puy,  saying,  "The  grace  of  God  favoring,  Antioch 
will  this  night  be  surrendered  to  us." 

All  these  matters  were  at  length  arranged;  the  knights  held  the 
level  places  and  the  foot  soldiers  the  mountain.  All  the  night  they 
rode  and  marched  until  dawn,  and  then  began  to  approach  the 
towers  which  that  person  (Pirus)  was  watchfully  guarding.  Bohe- 
mund straightway  dismounted  and  gave  orders  to  the  rest,  saying, 
"Go  with  secure  mind  and  happy  accord,  and  climb  by  ladder  into 
Antioch  which,  if  it  please  God,  we  shall  have  in  our  power  im- 
mediately." They  went  up  the  ladder,  which  had  already  been 
placed  and  firmly  bound  to  the  projections  of  the  city  wall.  About 
sixty  of  our  men  climbed  up  it  and  were  distributed  among  the 
towers  which  that  man  was  watching.  Pirus,  upon  seeing  that  so 
few  of  our  men  had  ascended,  began  to  tremble  with  fear  for  both 
himself  and  our  men,  lest  they  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  Turks. 
And  he  said,  ''Micro  Francos  echome — There  are  few  Franks  here ! 
Where  is  most  fierce  Bohemund,  that  unconquered  knight  ?"  Mean- 
while a  certain   Longobard  servant  descended  again,  and  ran  as 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  153 

quickly  (as  possible)  to  Bohemund,  saying,  ''Why  do  you  stand 
here,  illustrious  man?  Why  have  you  come  hither?  Behold,  we 
already  hold  three  towers!"  Bohemund  was  moved  with  the 
rest,  and  all  went  joyfully  to  the  ladder.  Accordingly,  when  those 
who  were  in  the  towers  saw  this,  they  began  to  shout  with  happy 
voices,  "God  wills  it !"  We  began  to  shout  likewise ;  now  the  men 
began  to  climb  up  there  in  wondrous  fashion.  Then  they  reached 
the  top  and  ran  in  haste  to  the  other  towers.  Those  whom  they 
found  there  they  straightway  sentenced  to  death ;  they  even  killed  a 
brother  of  Pirus.  Meantime  the  ladder  by  which  we  had  ascended 
broke  by  chance,  whereupon  there  arose  the  greatest  dismay  and 
gloom  among  us.  However,  though  the  ladder  had  been  broken, 
there  was  still  a  certain  gate  near  us  which  had  been  shut  on  the 
left  side  and  had  remained  unknown  to  some  of  the  people,  for  it 
was  night.  But  by  feeling  about  and  inquiring  we  found  it,  and 
all  ran  to  it;  and,  having  broken  it  open,  we  entered  through  it. 

Thereupon,  the  noise  of  a  countless  multitude  resounded 
through  all  the  city.  Bohemund  did  not  give  his  men  any  rest, 
but  ordered  his  standard  to  be  carried  up  in  front  of  the  castle 
on  a  certain  hill.  Indeed,  all  were  shouting  in  the  city  together. 
Moreover,  when  at  earliest  dawn  those  in  the  tents  outside  heard 
the  most  violent  outcry  sounding  through  the  city,  they  rushed  out 
hurriedly  and  saw  the  standard  of  Bohemund  up  on  the  mount,  and 
with  rapid  pace  all  ran  hastily  and  entered  the  city.  They  killed 
the  Turks  and  Saracens  whom  they  found  there,  except  those 
who  had  fled  into  the  citadel.  Others  of  the  Turks  went  out  through 
the  gates,  and  by  fleeing  escaped  alive. 

But  Cassianus,  their  lord,  fearing  the  race  of  the  Franks  greatly, 
took  flight  with  the  many  others  who  were  with  him  and  came 
in  flight  to  the  land  of  Tancred,  not  far  from  the  city.  Their 
horses,  however,  were  worn  out,  and,  taking  refuge  in  a  certain 
villa,  they  dashed  into  a  house.  The  inhabitants  of  the  mountain, 
Syrians  and  Armenians,  upon  recognizing  him  (Casstanus\) , 
straightway  seized  him,  cut  off  his  head,  and  took  it  into  the 
presence  of  Bohemund,  so  that  they  might  gain  their  liberty.  They 
also  sold  his  sword-belt  and  scabbard  for  sixty  hesants.  All  this 
occurred  on  the  third  day  of  the  incoming  month  of  June,  the  fifth 
day  of  the  week,  the  third  day  before  the  Nones  of  June.  All  the 
squares  of  the  city  were  already  everywhere  full  of  the  corpses  of 
the  dead,  so  that  no  one  could  endure  it  there  for  the  excessive 
stench.  No  one  could  go  along  a  street  of  the  city  except  over  the 
bodies  of  the  dead. 

{Raymond).     Meanwhile,     messengers     began    to     come     very 


154  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

frequently,  saying  that  aid  was  coming  to  the  enemy.  Moreover, 
this  report  came  to  us  not  only  from  the  Armenians  and  the  Greeks, 
but  was  also  announced  to  us  by  those  who  were  in  the  city.  When 
the  Turks  had  obtained  Antioch  fourteen  years  before,  they  had 
converted  Armenians  and  Greek  youths,  as  if  for  want  of  servants, 
and  had  given  them  wives.  When  such  men  as  these  had  a  chance 
to  escape,  they  came  to  us  with  horses  and  arms.  And  when  this 
report  became  frequent,  many  of  our  men  and  the  Armenian  mer- 
chants began  to  flee  in  terror.  Meanwhile,  good  knights  who  were 
scattered  among  the  fortresses  came  and  brought  arms,  fitted,  and 
repaired  them.  And  when  the  gradually  lessening  swelling  (of 
pride)  had  flowed  from  our  army,  and  courage,  ever  ready  to  under- 
go dangers  with  brothers  and  for  brothers,  had  come  (in  its  place), 
one  of  the  converted  who  was  in  the  city  sent  word  to  our  princes 
through  Bohemund  that  he  would  surrender  the  city  to  us. 

Accordingly,  when  the  plan  had  been  communicated,  the  princes 
sent  Bohemund  and  the  Duke  of  Lorraine  and  the  Count  of  Flanders 
to  try  it  out.  And  when  they  had  come  to  the  hill  of  the  city  at 
midnight,  an  intermediary  sent  back  by  him  who  was  surrendering 
the  city  said,  'Wait  until  the  light  passes."  For  three  or  four  men 
went  along  the  walls  of  the  city  with  lamps  all  night,  arousing  and 
admonishing  the  watchers.  After  this,  however,  our  men  ap- 
proached the  wall,  -raised  a  ladder,  and  began  to  ascend  it.  A 
certain  Frank,  Fulger  by  name,  brother  of  Budellus  of  Chartres, 
was  the  first  boldly  to  ascend  the  wall ;  the  Count  of  Flanders,  fol- 
lowing, sent  word  to  Bohemund  and  the  Duke  to  ascend ;  and  since 
all  hurried,  each  to  go  ahead  of  the  other,  the  ladder  was  broken. 
But  those  who  had  climbed  up  went  down  into  the  city  and  opened 
a  certain  little  postern.  Thus  our  men  went  in,  and  they  did  not 
take  captive  any  of  those  whom  they  found.  When  the  dawn  of 
day  appeared,  they  shouted  out.  The  whole  city  was  disturbed  at 
this  shout,  and  the  women  and  small  children  began  to  weep.  Those 
who  were  in  the  castle  of  the  Count,  aroused  at  this  outcry  since- 
they  were  nearer  (it),  began  to  say  to  one  another,  "Their  aid  has 
come!"  Others,  however,  replied,  "That  does  not  sound  Hke  the 
voice  of  joyful  people."  And  when  the  day  whitened,  our  standards 
appeared  on  the  southern  hill  of  the  city.  When  the  disturbed 
citizens  saw  our  men  on  the  mountain  above  them,  some  fled  through 
the  gate,  others  hurled  themselves  headlong.  No  one  resisted;  in 
truth,  the  Lord  had  confounded  them.  Then  after  a  long  time,  a 
joyful  spectacle  was  made  for  us,  in  that  those  who  had  so  long 
defended  Antioch  against  us  were  now  unable  to  flee  from  Antioch. 
Even  if  some  of  them  had  dared  to  take  flight,  yet  they  could  not 


t/ 

THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  155 

escape  death.  A  certain  incident  occurred  there,  joyful  and  delight- 
ful enough  for  us.  For  when  some  Turks  strove  to  flee  among  the 
cliffs  which  divide  the  hill  in  two  from  the  north;  they  encountered 
some  of  our  men,  and  when  the  Turks  were  forced  to  go  back,  the 
repulsed  fugitives  went  with  such  rapidity  that  they  all  fell  over 
the  precipice  together.  Our  joy  over  the  fallen  enemy  was  great,  but 
we  grieved  over  the  more  than  thirty  horses  who  had  their  necks 
broken  there. 

How  great  were  the  spoils  captured  in  Antioch  it  is  impossible 
for  us  to  say,  except  that  you  may  believe  as  much  as  you  wish  and 
then  add  to  it.  Moreover,  we  cannot  say  how  many  Turks  and 
Saracens  then  perished ;  it  is,  furthermore,  cruel  to  explain  by  what 
diverse  and  various  deaths  they  died.  When  those  foes  who  guarded 
the  castle  on  the  middle  hill  saw  the  destruction  of  their  men  and 
that  our  men  were  refraining  from  besieging  them,  they  kept  their 
castle.  Gracianus,  however,  who  had  gone  out  by  a  certain  postern, 
was  captured  and  beheaded  by  some  Armenian  peasants,  and  his 
head  was  brought  to  us.  This,  I  believe,  was  done  by  the  ineffable 
disposition  of  God,  that  he  who  had  caused  many  men  of  this  same 
race  to  be  beheaded  should  be  deprived  of  his  head  by  them.  The 
city  of  Antioch  was  captured  on  the  third  day  before  the  Nones  of 
June;  it  had  been  besieged,  however,  since  about  the  eleventh  day 
before  the  Kalends  of  November. 

12.    Summary  of  the  siege  of  Antioch,     (End  of  October  1097 — 
June  3,  1098). 

{Stephen).  Hastening  to  the  aforesaid  city  of  Antioch  with 
great  joy,  we  placed  it  in  siege  and  there  we  very  often  had  many 
corrflicts  with  the  Turks.  Seven  times,  in  truth,  we  fought  with  the 
inhabitants  of  Antioch,  and  with  innumerable  allies  advancing  to 
their  aid,  whom  we  chanced  to  meet.  We  fought  them  with  fiercer 
spirits,  Christ  leading,  and  in  all  the  seven  aforesaid  battles,  the 
Lord  God  cooperating,  we  were  victorious;  and  most  truly  we 
killed  numbers  of  them  beyond  all  count.  But  in  these  same  battles, 
and  in  very  many  attacks  made  against  the  city,  they  killed  many 
of  our  brothers  who  worship  Christ,  whose  souls  have  truly  gone 
to  the  joys  of  Paradise. 

Moreover,  we  found  Antioch  a  city  great  beyond  belief,  very 
strong  and  unassailable.  And  too,  more  than  five  thousand  bold 
Turkish  knights  had  collected  within  the  city,  not  to  mention  the 
Saracens,  Publicani,  Arabs,  Turcopoles,  Syrians,  Armenians,  and 
various  other  peoples,  of  whom  an  infinite  multitude  had  come 
together   there.     Thus,    in    the   work   of   besieging   these   enemies 


156  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

of  God  and  of  ourselves,  by  the  grace  of  God  we  have  endured 
up  to  this  time  many  trials  and  countless  afflictions.  Likewise, 
many  have  already  consumed  all  their  substance  in  this  most  holy 
passion..  Very  many  of  our  Frankish-born,  indeed,  would  have 
undergone  temporal  death  through  hunger,  had  not  the  clemency 
of  God  and  our  wealth  come  to  their  aid.  Furthermore,  through  the 
whole  winter  we  have  endured  excessive  cold  for  the  Lord  Christ, 
and  an  immoderate  abundance  of  rain.  What  some  say,  that  in  all 
Syria  one  can  scarcely  endure  the  heat  of  the  sun,  is  false,  for 
winter  among  them  is  like  our  western  winter. 

Moreover,  when  Caspianus,  Emir  of  Antioch,  that  is,  its  prince 
and  lord,  saw  himself  so  closely  pressed  by  us,  he  sent  his  son, 
Sensadolus-"^  by  name,  to  the  prince  who  holds  Jerusalem,  and 
to  Rodoan,  Prince  of  Aleppo  and  to  Docap,  Prince  of  Damascus. 
He  likewise  sent  him  into  Arabia  for  Bolianuth  and  into  Chorosan 
for  Hamehmthr^  These  five  emirs,  with  twelve  thousand  chosen 
Turkish  knights,  suddenly  came  to  aid  Antioch.  But  unaware  of 
all  this,  we  had  sent  many  of  our  knights  among  the  cities  and  fort- 
resses. We  have,  indeed,  one  hundred  and  sixty-five  towns  and 
fortresses  throughout  Syria  within  our  own  dominion.  But  a  short 
time  before  they  came  to  the  city,  we,  with  seven  hundred  knights, 
went  out  three  leagues  to  meet  them  at  a  certain  plain  near  the 
Iron  Bridge.  God,  moreover,  fought  for  us.  His  faithful,  against 
them;  for  on  this  day,  with  the  might  of  God,  we  were  victorious 
in  fighting  them,  and  we  killed  large  numbers  of  them,  God  ever 
fighting  in  our  behalf.  We  likewise  brought  back  to  the  army  more 
than  two  hundred  of  their  heads,  so  that  Christ's  people  might 
derive  great  joy  therefrom.  Moreover,  the  Emperor  of  Babylon^** 
sent  his  Saracen  envoys  with  letters  to  us  in  camp,  and  by  this  means 
he  established  peace  and  concord  with  us. 

I  love  to  tell  you,  dearest,  what  befell  us  this  Lent.  Our  princes 
decided  to  erect  a  fort  before  a  certain  gate  which  was  situated 
between  our  camp  and  the  sea.  The  Turks,  passing  out  through 
this  gate  daily,  used  to  kill  our  men  on  their  way  to  the  sea,  for 
the  city  of  Antioch  is  five  leagues  distant  from  the  sea.  On  this 
account  they  sent  the  distinguished  Bohemund  and  Raymond,  Count 
of  St.  Gilles,  with  a  company  of  only  sixty  knights,  to  the  sea,  thence 
to  fetch  sailors  to  aid  in  this  work.  However,  when  they  were 
returning  to  us  with  these  sailors,  an  army  of  Turks,  which  had 
assembled,  came  upon  our  two  unsuspecting  princes  and  drove  them 
into  perilous  flight.  In  this  rout,  unexpected,  as  we  have  said 
before,  we  lost  more  than  five  hundred  foot-soldiers  to  the  glory 
of  God ;  of  our  knights,  we  lost  only  two  for  certain.     Moreover, 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  157 

on  that  very  day  we  went  out  along  the  road  to  receive  our  brothers 
with  joy,  knowing  nothing  of  their  misfortune. 

But  while  we  were  approaching  the  aforesaid  gate  of  the 
city,  a  horde  of  knights  and  foot-soldiers  from  Antioch,  bearing 
themselves  in  a  triumphant  manner,  rushed  likewise  against  us. 
Upon  seeing  them,  we  sent  word  to  the  Christian  camp  that  all 
should  follow  us  ready  for  battle.  While  our  men  were  still 
assembling,  the  separated  princes — namely  Bohemund  and  Ray- 
mond, with  the  remainder  of  their  army — came  up  and  recounted 
the  great  misfortune  which  had  befallen  them.  At  this  very  bad 
news,  our  men,  inflamed  with  anger  against  the  sacrilegious  Turks, 
and  ready  to  die  for  Christ,  went  into  battle  for  the  loss  of  their 
brothers.  However,  the  enemy  of  God  and  of  ourselves  fled  before 
us  in  haste  and  tried  to  enter  their  city,  but  by  the  grace  of  God 
the  affair  turned  out  far  otherwise.  For  when  they  wanted  to  cross 
over  the  river  by  the  bridge  which  ended  at  a  mosque,  we,  following 
them  closely,  killed  many  of  them  before  they  reached  the  bridge; 
many  we  hurled  off  into  the  river,  all  of  whom  were  killed;  more- 
over, we  killed  many  on  the  bridge  and  likewise  very  many  before 
the  entrance  to  the  city.  Verily  I  tell  you,  my  beloved,  and  you 
may  believe  most  truly,  that  in  that  same  battle  we  killed  thirty 
emirs,  that  is,  princes,  and  three  hundred  other  noble  Turkish 
knights,  not  to  mention  the  other  Turks  and  pagans.  Indeed,  the 
dead  Turks  and  Saracens  are  reckoned  1230  in  number!  Of  our 
men,  however,  we  lost  not  one  single  man. 

Moreover,  on  the  day  following  Easter,  while  my  chaplain, 
Alexander,  was  writing  this  letter  with  the  greatest  haste,  a  portion 
of  our  men  who  were  lying  in  wait  for  the  Turks  had  a  victorious 
battle  with  them,  the  Lord  leading,  and  they  killed  sixty  of  their 
knights,  whose  heads  they  brought  back  to  the  army. 

These  things  which  I  am  writing  to  you,  dearest,  are  indeed  few 
of  the  many  (that  have  happened),  and  since  I  cannot  express  to  you 
all  that  my  heart  holds,  dearest,  I  (only)  bid  you  do  well  and  make 
excellent  arrangement  for  your  land,  and  treat  your  children  and 
your  vassals  with  honor,  as  befits  you,  for  you  will  surely  see 
me  as  soon  as  I  can  possibly  come.    Farewell. 

(Anselm).    In  the  name  of  the  Lord! 

To  his  lord  and  father,  Manasses,  by  grace  of  God  venerable 
Archbishop  of  Rheims,  Anselm  of  Ribemont,  his  loyal  vassal  and 
humble  servant ;  greeting. 

Let  your  Eminence,  reverend  father  and  lord,  know  that,  even 
though  absent  and  not  present,  we  are  daily  asking  aid  in  our  hearts 


158  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

from  you — not  only  from  you,  but,  also,  from  all  the  sons  of  the 
Holy  Mother  Church  of  Rheims,  in  whom  we  have  the  greatest 
faith.  Likewise,  inasmuch  as  you  are  our  lord,  and  the  counsel  of 
the  whole  kingdom  of  France  is  especially  dependent  upon  you,  we 
are  keeping  you,  father,  informed  of  whatever  happy  and  adverse 
events  have  happened  to  us.  Let  the  others,  moreover,  be  informed 
through  you,  that  you  may  share  equally  in  our  sufferings,  and  re- 
joice with  us  in  our  success. 

We  have  informed  you  how  we  fared  in  the  siege  and  capture 
of  Nicaea,  in  our  departure  thence  and  our  journey  through  all 
Romania  and  Armenia.  It  now  remains  for  us  to  tell  you  a  little 
about  the  siege  of  Antioch,  the  many  kinds  of  danger  we  there 
tasted,  and  the  innumerable  battles  which  we  fought  against  the 
King  of  Aleppo,  the  King  of  Damascus,  and  against  the  adulterous 
King  of  Jerusalem. ^° 

Antioch  has  been  besieged  by  the  army  of  the  Lord  since 
the  thirteenth  day  before  the  Kalends  of  November  with  ex- 
ceeding valor  and  courage  beyond  words.  What  unheard  of 
battles  you  might  have  perceived  there  at  a  certain  gateway  to  the 
west !  How  marvelous  it  would  seem  to  you,  were  you  present, 
to  see  them  daily  rushing  forth  through  six  gates — both  they  and 
ourselves  fighting  for  safety  and  life !  At  that  time  our  princes, 
seeking  to  enclose  the  city  more  and  more  closely,  first  besieged  the 
eastern  gate,  and  Bohemund,  having  built  a  fort  there,  stationed  a 
part  of  his  army  in  it.  However,  since  our  princes  then  felt  some- 
what elated,  God,  who  chasteneth  every  son  whom  he  loveth,  so 
chastened  us  that  hardly  seven  hundred  horses  could  be  found  in  our 
army ;  and  thus,  not  because  we  lacked  proven  and  valiant  men, 
but  from  lack  of  horses,  or  food,  or  through  excessive  cold,  almost 
all  were  dying.  The  Turks,  moreover,  supplied  with  horses  and  all 
necessities  in  abundance,  were  wont  daily  to  ride  around  our  camp, 
a  certain  stream  which  lay  between  serving  as  a  wall.  There  was 
likewise  a  castle  of  the  Turks  almost  eight  miles  away ;  and  these 
Turks  were  daily  killing  many  of  our  men,  who  were  going  back  and 
forth  from  our  army.  Our  princes  went  out  against  them  and  with 
God's  help  put  them  to  flight  and  killed  many  of  them.  Therefore 
the  ruler  of  Antioch,  seeing  himself  afflicted,  called  the  King  of 
Damascus  to  his  aid.  By  God's  providence,  this  King  met  Bohemund 
and  the  Count  of  Flanders,  who  had  gone  to  find  food  with  a  part  of 
our  army,  and,  God's  help  prevailing,  he  was  defeated  and  routed 
by  them.  The  ruler  of  Antioch,  still  concerned  about  his  safety, 
sent  to  the  King  of  Aleppo  and  aroused  him  with  promises  of  very 
great  wealth,  to  the  end  that  he  should  come  with  all  his  forces. 


I 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  159 

Upon  his  arrival,  our  princes  went  forth  from  camp,  and  that  day, 
God  being  their  helper,  with  seven  hundred  knights  and  a  few  foot- 
soldiers  they  defeated  twelve  thousand  Turks  with  their  King,  put 
them  to  flight,  and  killed  many  of  them.  Our  men  regained  not  a 
few  horses  from  that  battle,  and  returned  rejoicing  with  victory. 
Growing  stronger  and  stronger,  therefore,  from  that  day  our  men 
took  counsel  with  renewed  courage  as  to  how  they  might  besiege 
the  western  gate  which  cut  off  access  to  the  sea,  wood,  and  fodder. 
By  common  agreement,  therefore,  Bohemund  and  the  Count  of  St. 
Gilles  went  to  the  coast  to  fetch  those  who  were  staying  there. 
Meanwhile,  those  who  had  remained  to  look  after  the  possessions, 
seeking  to  acquire  a  name  for  themselves,  went  out  incautiously  one 
day  after  breakfast,  near  that  western  gate  from  which  they  were 
ingloriously  repulsed  and  put  to  flight.  On  the  third  day  after 
this,  Bohemund  and  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  on  their  way  back,  sent 
word  to  the  princes  of  the  army  to  meet  them,  (intending)  together 
to  besiege  the  gate.  However,  since  the  latter  delayed  for  a  short 
time,  Bohemund  and  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  were  beaten  and  put  to 
flight.  Therefore  all  our  men,  grieving  and  bewailing  their  dis- 
grace, as  well,  for  a  thousand  of  our  men  fell  that  day,  formed 
their  lines  and  defeated  and  put  to  flight  the  Turks,  who  offered 
great  resistance.  On  this  day,  moreover,  almost  fourteen  hundred 
of  the  enemy  perished  both  by  weapons  and  in  the  river,  which  was 
swollen  with  winter  rains. 

And  so,  when  this  had  been  accomplished,  our  men  began  to 
built  the  fortress,  which  they  strengthened,  also,  with  a  double 
moat  and  a  very  strong  wall,  as  well  as  with  two  towers.  In  it  they 
placed  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  with  machine  men  and  bowmen. 
Oh,  with  what  great  labor  we  established  the  fortress!  One  part 
of  our  army  served  the  eastern  front,  another  looked  after  the 
camp,  while  all  the  rest  worked  on  this  fortress.  Of  the  latter,  the 
machine  men  and  bowmen  kept  watch  on  the  gate;  the  rest,  in- 
cluding the  princes  themselves,  did  not  stop  in  the  work  of  carry- 
ing stones,  and  building  the  wall.  Why  recount  the  trials  of 
many  kinds,  which,  even  if  passed  over  in  silence,  are  sufficiently 
evident  in  themselves — hunger,  intemperate  weather,  and  the  de- 
sertion of  faint-hearted  soldiers?  The  more  bitter  they  were,  the 
more  ready  our  men  were  in  enduring  them.  Yet,  indeed,  we  think 
that  we  should  by  no  means  pass  in  silence  the  fact  that  on  a  certain 
day  the  Turks  pretended  that  they  would  surrender  the  city  and 
carried  the  deception  so  far  as  to  receive  some  of  our  men  among 
them,  and  several  of  their  men  came  out  to  us.  While  this  was 
going  on  in  this  manner,  they,  like  the  faithless  people  that  they 


i6o  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

were,  set  a  trap  for  us  in  which  Walo,  the  Constable,  and  others 
of  them  as  well  as  of  us  were  destroyed.  A  few  days  after  this, 
moreover,  it  was  announced  to  us  that  Corhara,^^  chief  of  the  army 
of  the  king  of  the  Persians,  had  sworn  to  our  death,  and  had  already 
crossed  the  great  Euphrates  river  with  an  innumerable  army.  God, 
however,  who  does  not  desert  those  who  place  their  trust  in  Him, 
did  not  abandon  His  people,  but  on  the  Nones  of  June  compas- 
sionately gave  to  us  the  city  of  Antioch,  which  three  of  its  citizens 
betrayed.  We,  however,  devastated  the  city,  and  on  that  same  day 
killed  all  the  pagans  in  it,  except  some  who  were  holding  out  in  the 
castle  of  the  city. 

{The  Crusading  Princes).  To  the  venerable  lord  Pope  Urban, 
Bohemund  and  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  Godfrey,  Duke  of 
Lorraine,  Robert,  Count  of  Normandy,  Robert,  Count  of  Flanders 
and  Eustace,  Count  of  Boulogne;  greeting  and  loyal  service  and, 
as  sons  of  their  spiritual  father,  true  subjection  in  Christ. 

We  all  wish  and  desire  that  it  be  made  known  to  you  how,  by  the 
compassion  of  God  and  by  His  most  manifest  assistance,  Antioch  has 
been  captured  by  us,  and  how  the  Turks,  who  had  hurled  many  in- 
sults at  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  have  been  captured  and  killed: 
how  we,  pilgrims  of  Jesus  Christ  on  our  way  to  Jerusalem,  have 
avenged  the  wrong  against  Most  High  God ;  how  we,  who  were  at 
first  besieging  the  Turks,  were  later  besieged  by  Turks  coming  from 
Chorosan,  Jerusalem,  Damascus,  and  many  other  lands;  and  how, 
by  the  compassion  of  Jesus  Christ,  we  have  been  liberated. 

Accordingly,  when,  after  the  capture  of  Nicaea,  we  had  defeated 
that  very  great  multitude  of  Turks  which  met  us,  as  you  have 
heard,  in  the  valley  of  Dorylaeum  on  the  Kalends  of  July,  and 
had  put  that  great  Soliman  to  flight,  despoiled  his  land  and  all  his 
possessions,  and  had  acquired  and  pacified  all  Romania,  we  went 
to  besiege  Antioch.  In  this  siege  we  suffered  very  many  ills, 
especially  from  battles  with  the  neighboring  Turks  and  pagans,  who 
rushed  upon  us  so  often,  and  in  such  numbers,  that  we  might  more 
truly  have  been  spoken  of  as  besieged  by  those  whom  we  were 
besieging  in  Antioch.  Nevertheless,  when  we  had  won  all  these 
battles,  the  Christian  faith  being  greatly  exalted  by  their  outcome, 
I,  Bohemund,  by  an  agreement  made  with  a  certain  Turk,  who 
betrayed  the  city  itself  to  me,  shortly  before  daybreak,  placed 
scaling  ladders  against  the  wall  with  the  help  of  many  soldiers  of 
Christ.  Accordingly,  on  the  third  day  before  the  Nones  of  June, 
we  took  the  city,  which  before  this  time  was  resisting  Christ. 
Cassianus  himself,  the  tyrant  of  the  city,  we  killed,  together  with 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  i6i 

many  of  his  soldiers,  and  we  kept  their  wives,  children,  and  ser- 
vants, together  with  their  gold,  silver,  and  all  possessions.  The 
citadel,  however,  which  had  been  previously  fortified  by  the  Turks, 
we  could  not  obtain. 

{People  of  Lucca),  To  the  primates,  archbishops,  bishops,  and 
other  rectors,  and  to  all  the  faithful  of  the  lands  of  Christ  any- 
where; the  clergy  and  people  of  Lucca  (send)  greeting  full  of  peace 
and  gladness  in  the  Lord. 

To  the  praise  and  glory  of  the  Redeemer,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
we  are  truly  and  faithfully  making  known  to  all  (the  news)  which 
we  received  truly  and  faithfully  from  participants  in  the  affairs 
themselves — at  what  time,  with  what  great  triumph,  the  most 
mighty  right  hand  of  Christ  gave  complete  victory  over  the  pagans 
to  our  brethren.  His  champions,  after  trial  and  perils.  A  certain 
citizen  of  ours,  Bruno  by  name,  known  and  very  dear  to  all  of  us, 
in  the  year  preceding  this,  went  with  the  ships  of  the  Angles  even 
to  Antioch  itself.  There,  as  a  partner  in  work  and  danger,  sharer 
of  triumph  and  joy,  he  fought  along  with  the  fighters,  starved  with 
the  starving  and  conquered,  also,  with  the  conquering;  and  when 
the  complete  victory  had  already  been  achieved,  and  he  had  re- 
joiced three  weeks  there  with  all,  he  returned  to  us,  after  a  happy 
voyage.  Placing  him  in  our  midst,  we  received  from  him  the 
pure  and  simple  truth  of  the  matter — lo!  in  his  own  account,  as 
follows : 

"When  we  who  were  voyaging  by  sea  had  come  to  Antioch,  the 
army,  which  had  gathered  together  from  everywhere  by  land,  had 
already  surrounded  the  city  in  siege,  though  not  very  well.  On  the 
following  day,  our  princes  proceeded  to  the  sea,  for  the  sake  of 
visiting  us.  They  urged  us  to  get  together  an  abundant  supply  of 
wood  for  the  construction  of  war  engines,  which  we  did  at  great 
expense.  On  the  third  day,  moreover,  before  the  Nones  of  March, 
that  is  the  first  Friday,  our  princes  decided  to  erect  a  fortress  at 
the  western  gate  of  the  city.  This  fortress,  a  very  short  ballista- 
shot  away  (from  the  city),  is  now  called  by  the  name  of  the  Blessed 
Mary.  There,  on  that  same  day,  in  an  attack  of  the  Turks,  in 
which  they  killed  2,055  of  our  men,  we  killed  800  of  the  enemy. 
From  the  third  day,  morever,  when  the  fortress  had  been  erected, 
until  the  third  day  before  the  Nones  of  June,  our  men  endured  many 
hardships,  and,  weakened  by  hunger  and  the  sword,  they  toiled 
there  at  great  cost.  However,  on  this  day  the  city  was  captured  in 
the  following  manner:  Four  brothers,  noble  men  of  Antioch,  on 
the  second  day  of  June  promise  to  surrender  the  city  to  Bohemund, 


i62  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Robert  Curtose,''^  and  Robert,  Count  of  Flanders.  These,  however, 
with  the  common  assent  of  all  our  princes,  at  nightfall  conduct  the 
whole  army  to  the  wall  of  the  city,  without  the  knowledge  of  the 
Tui'ks.  And  in  the  morning,  when  the  citizens  of  Antioch  open  the 
gates  to  receive  the  three  named  princes  alone,  according  to  promise, 
all  of  our  men  suddenly  rush  in  together.  There  is  the  greatest 
clamor :  our  men  obtain  all  the  fortified  places,  except  the  very  high 
citadel;  the  Turks — these  they  kill,  those  they  hurl  to  destruction 
over  the  precipice." 


I 


CHAPTER  V. 
Kerbogha  and  the  Finding  of  the  Lance. 

(When  the  Crusaders  entered  Syria,  the  Mohammedans  whom  they  dis- 
possessed fled  as  refugees  to  Bagdad.  Their  pitiable  flight  and  their  pleas 
moved  the  Caliph  deeply.  He  sent  a  personal  embassy  to  the  warring  Sul- 
tans begging  them  to  unite  against  the  common  foe,  but  they  did  not  heed 
him.  Many  of  the  lesser  Turkish  princes  did  respond,  however,  and  a  con- 
siderable army  was  brought  together,  which  the  Caliph  placed  in  charge  of 
Kerbogha^asjgeneral.  Kerbogha  wasted  three  whole  weeks  before  Edessa 
and  then  moved  on  to  Antioch,  which  he  reached  just  as  the  Crusaders  had 
entered  it — two  days  too  late.  The  whole  First  Crusade  forms  an  unpleasant 
chapter  in  Saracen  history,  one  which  their  historians  do  not  love  to  describe. 
They  did  not  treat  of  it  at  length  until  the  more  favorable  turn  of  events 
under  Nured-din  and  Saladin  affords  them  the  opportunity  of  contrasting 
the  period  with  the  happier  conditions  of  their  own  times.  Hence,  eye-witness  -/ 
accounts  of  the  First  Crusade  by  Mohammedan  writers  do  not  exist.  Later 
Mohammedan  authors  have  charged  Kerbogha  with  incapacity  and  ill  treat- 
ment of  his  subordinate  officers  as  an  explanation  of  his  failure  to  relieve 
Antioch  and  destroy  the  Christian  army.  However,  Baldwin's  fortunate 
presence  at  Edessa,  which  served  to  delay  Kerbogha,  and  the  astonishing 
discovery  of  the  Holy  Lance,  with  its  marvelous  effect  upon  the  discouraged 
Latins  in  Antioch,  must  be  counted  as  no  mean  factors  in  that  result.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  the  practically  unanimous  belief  of  the  writers  and  Cru- 
saders in  the  Lance  at  this  time). 

I.  Kerbogha  lays  siege  to  the  Crusaders  in  Antioch.  (June  5, 
1098). 
(Gesta).  Some  time  before,  Cassianus,  Emir  of  Antioch,  had  sent 
a  message  to  Curbara,  chief  of  the  Sultan  of  Persia,  while  he  was 
still  at  Chorosan,  to  come  and  help  him  while  there  was  yet  time, 
because  a  very  mighty  host  of  Franks  was  besieging  him  shut  up 
in  Antioch.  If  the  Emir  would  aid  him,  he  (Cassianus)  would  give 
him  Antioch,  or  would  enrich  him  with  a  very  great  gift.  Since 
Curbara  had  had  a  very  large  army  of  Turks  collected  for  a  long 
time,  and  had  received  permission  from  the  Caliph,  their  Pope,  to 
kill  the  Christians,  he  began  a  long  march  to  Antioch.  The  Emir  of 
Jerusalem  came  to  his  aid  with  an  army,  and  the  King  of  Damascus 
arrived  there  with  a  very  large  host.  Indeed,  Curbara  likewise 
collected  countless  pagan  folk,  Turks,  Arabs,  Saracens,  Publicani, 
Azimites,^  Kurds,  Persians,  Agulani  and  countless  other  peoples.- 


i64  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

The  Agulani  were  three  thousand  in  number  and  feared  neither 
lances,  arrows,  nor  any  kind  of  arms,  because  they  and  all  their 
horses  were  fitted  with  iron  all  around,  and  they  refused  to  carry 
any  arms  except  swords  into  battle.  All  of  these  came  to  the  siege 
of  Antioch  to  disperse  the  gathering  of  Franks. 

And  when  they  neared  the  city,  Sensadolus,  son  of  Cassianus, 
Emir  of  Antioch,  went  to  meet  them,  and  straightway  rushed  in 
tears  to  Curbara,  beseeching  him  with  these  words:  "Most  in- 
vincible chief,  I,  a  supplicant,  pray  thee  to  help  me,  now  that  the 
Franks  are  besieging  me  on  every  side  in  the  city  of  Antioch ;  now 
that  they  hold  the  city  in  their  sway  and  seek  to  alienate  us  from  the 
region  of  Romania,  or  even  yet  from  Syria  and  Chorosan.  They 
have  done  everything  that  they  wished ;  they  have  killed  my  father ; 
now  nothing  else  remains  except  to  kill  me,  and  you,  and  all  the 
others  of  our  race.  For  a  long  time  now  I  have  been  waiting  for 
your  help  to  succor  m^e  in  this  danger." 

To  him  Curbara  replied:  *Tf  you  want  me  to  enter  whole- 
heartedly into  your  service  and  to  help  you  loyally  in  this  danger, 
give  that  town  into  my  hands,  and  then  see  how  I  will  serve  you  and 
protect  it  with  my  men." 

Scnsadolus  replied,  'Tf  you  can  kill  all  the  Franks  and  give  me 
their  heads,  I  will  give  you  the  town,  and  I  will  do  homage  to  you 
and  guard  the  town  in  your  fealty." 

To  this  Curbara  answered :  '*That  won't  do ;  hand  over  the  town 
to  me  immediately."  And  then,  willy-nilly,  he  handed  the  town 
over  to  him. 

But  on  the  third  day  after  we  had  entered  the  town,  Curbara's 
advance  guard  ran  in  front  of  the  city;  his  army,  however,  en- 
camped at  the  Iron  Gate.  They  took  the  fortress  by  siege  and  killed 
all  of  the  defenders,  whom  we  found  in  iron  chains  after  the  greater 
battle  had  been  fought. 

On  the  next  day,  the  army<of  the  pagans  moved  on,  and,  nearing 
the  city,  they  encamped  between  the  two  rivers  and  stayed  thefe 
for  two  days.  After  they  had  retaken  the  fortress,  Curbara  sum- 
moned one  of  his  emirs  whom  he  knew  to  be  truthful,  gentle,  and 
peaceable  and  said  to  him :  'T  want  you  to  undertake  to  guard  this 
fortress  in  fealty  to  me,  because  for  the  longest  time  I  have  known 
you  to  be  most  loyal;  therefore,  I  pray  you,  keep  this  castle  with 
the  greatest  care,  for,  since  I  know  you  to  be  the  most  prudent  in 
action,  I  can  find  no  one  here  more  truthful  and  valiant." 

To  him  the  Emir  replied:  ''Never  would  I  refuse  to  obey  you 
in  such  service,  but  before  you  persuade  me  by  urging,  I  will  consent, 
on  the  condition  that  if  the  Franks  drive  your  men  from  the  deadly 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  165 

field  of  battle  and  conquer,  I  will  straightway  surrender  this  fort- 
ress to  them." 

Curbara  said  to  him:  "I  recognize  you  as  so  honorable  and  wise 
that  I  will  fully  consent  to  whatever  good  you  wish  to  do."  And 
thereupon  Curbara  returned  to  his  army. 

Forthwith  the  Turks,  making  sport  of  the  gatherings  of  Franks, 
brought  into  the  presence  of  Curbara  sl  certain  very  miserable  sword 
covered  with  rust,  a  very  worn  wooden  bow,  and  an  exceedingly 
useless  lance,  which  they  had  just  recently  taken  from  poor  pilgrims, 
and  said,  ^'Behold  the  arms  which  the  Franks  carry  to  meet  us  in 
battle !"  Then  Curbara  began  to  laugh,  saying  before  all  who  were 
in  that  gathering,  "These  are  the  warlike  and  shining  arms  which  the 
Christians  have  brought  against  us  into  Asia,  with  which  they  hope 
and  expect  to  drive  us  beyond  the  confines  of  Chorosan  and  to  wipe 
out  our  names  beyond  the  Amazon  rivers,  they  who  have  driven  our 
reUtives  from  Romania  and  the  royal  city  of  Antioch,  which  is  the 
renowned  capital  of  all  Syria !"  Then  he  summoned  his  scribe  and 
said:  "Write  quickly  several  documents  which  are  to  be  read  in 
Chorosan." 

"To  the  Caliph,  our  Pope,  and  to  our  King,  the  Lord  Sultan,  most 
valiant  knight,  and  to  all  most  illustrious  knights  of  Chorosan; 
greeting  and  honor  beyond  measure. 

Let  them  be  glad  enough  and  delight  with  joyful  concord  and 
satisfy  their  appetites ;  let  them  command  and  make  known  through 
all  that  region  that  the  people  give  themselves  entirely  to  exuberance 
and  luxury,  and  that  they  rejoice  to  bear  many  children  to  fight 
stoutly  against  the  Christians.  Let  them  gladly  receive  these  three 
weapons  which  we  recently  took  from  a  squad  of  Franks,  and  let 
them  now  learn  what  arms  the  Frankish  host  bears  against  us; 
how  very  fine  and  perfect  they  are  to  fight  against  our  arms  which 
are  twice,  thrice,  or  even  four  times  welded,  or  purified,  like  the 
purest  silver  or  gold.  In  addition,  let  all  know,  also,  that  I  have 
the  Franks  shut  up  in  Antioch,  and  that  I  hold  the  citadel  at  my 
free  disposal,  while  they  (the  enemy)  are  below  in  the  city.  Like- 
wise, I  hold  all  of  them  now  in  my  hand.  I  shall  make  them  either 
undergo  sentence  of  death,  or  be  led  into  Chorosan  into  the  harshest 
captivity,  because  they  are  threatening  with  their  arms  to  drive  us 
forth  and  to  expel  us  from  all  our  territory,  or  to  cast  us  out  beyond 
upper  India,  as  they  have  cast  out  all  our  kinsmen  from  Romania  or 
Syria.  Now  I  swear  to  you  by  Mohammed  and  all  the  names  of  the 
gods^  that  I  will  not  return  before  your  face  until  I  shall  have 
acquired  with  my  strong  right  hand  the  regal  city  of  Antioch,  all 
Syria,  Romania,  and  Bulgaria,  even  to  Apulia,  to  the  honor  of  the 


i66  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

gods,  and  to  your  glory,  and  to  that  of  all  who  are  of  the  race  of  the 
Turks."    And  thus  he  put  an  end  to  his  words. 

The  mother  of  the  same  Curhara,  who  dwelt  in  the  city  of  Aleppo, 
came  immediately  to  him  and,  weeping,  said :  "Son,  are  these  things 
true  which  I  hear?" 

"What  things?"  he  said. 

"I  have  heard  that  you  are  going  to  engage  in  battle  with  the  host 
of  the  Franks,"  she  replied. 

And  he  answered:    "You  know  the  truth  fully." 

She  then  said,  "I  warn  you,  son,  in  the  names  of  all  the  gods 
and  by  your  great  kindness,  not  to  enter  into  battle  with  the  Franks, 
because  you  are  an  unconquered  knight,  and  I  have  never  at  all 
heard  of  any  imprudence  from  you  or  your  army.  No  one  has 
ever  found  you  fleeing  from  the  field  before  any  victor.  The  fame 
of  your  army  is  spread  abroad,  and  all  illustrious  knights  tremble 
when  your  name  is  heard.  For  we  know  well  enough,  son,  that  you 
are  mighty  in  battle,  and  valiant  and  resourceful,  and  that  no  host 
of  Christians  or  pagans  can  have  any  courage  before  your  face,  but 
are  wont  to  flee  at  the  mention  of  your  name,  as  sheep  flee  before 
the  wrath  of  a  lion.  And  so  I  beseech  you,  dearest  son,  to  yield 
to  my  advice  never  to  let  it  rest  in  your  mind,  or  be  found  in  your 
counsel,  to  wish  to  undertake  war  with  the  Christian  host." 

Then  Curhara,  upon  hearing  his  mother's  warning,  replied  with 
wrathful  speech:  "What  is  this,  mother,  that  you  tell  me?  I  think 
that  you  are  insane,  or  full  of  furies.  For  I  have  with  me  more 
emirs  than  there  are  Christians,  whether  of  greater  or  lesser  state." 

His  mother  replied  to  him:  "O  sweetest  son,  the  Christians 
cannot  fight  with  your  forces,  for  I  know  that  they  are  not  able 
to  prevail  against  you ;  but  their  God  is  fighting  for  them  daily  and 
is  watching  over  them  and  defending  them  with  His  protection  by 
day  and  night,  as  a  shepherd  watches  over  his  flock.  He  does  not 
permit  them  to  be  hurt  or  disturbed  by  any  folk,  and  whoever 
seeks  to  stand  in  their  way  this  same  God  of  theirs  likewise  puts  to 
rout,  just  as  He  said  through  the  mouth  of  the  prophet  David: 
'Scatter  the  people  that  delight  in  wars,'  and  in  another  place: 
Tour  out  Thy  wrath  upon  the  nations  that  know  Thee  not  and 
against  the  kingdoms  that  call  not  upon  Thy  name.'^  Before  they 
are  ready  to  begin  battle,  their  God,  all  powerful  and  potent  in 
battle,  together  with  His  saints,  has  all  their  enemies  already  con- 
quered. How  much  more  will  He  now  prevail  against  you,  who 
are  His  enemies,  and  who  are  preparing  to  resist  them  with  all  your 
valor !  This,  moreover,  dearest,  know  in  very  truth :  these  Chris- 
tians, called  'sons  of  Christ'  and  by  the  mouth  of  the  prophets  'sons 


■  ~  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  167 

of  adoption  and  promise,'  according  to  the  apostle  are  the  ^e^rs  of 
Christ  to  whom  He  has  already  given  the  promised  inheritance, 
saymg  through  the  prophets,  'From  the  rising  to  the  setting  of 
the  sun  shall  be  your  border  and  no  one  shall  stand  before  you.'* 
Who  can  contradict  or  oppose  these  words?  Certainly,  if  you 
undertake  this  battle  against  them,  yours  will  be  the  very  greatest 
loss  and  disgrace,  and  you  will  lose  many  of  your  faithful  knights 
and  all  the  spoils  which  you  have  with  you,  and  you  will  turn  in 
flight  with  exceeding  fear.  However,  you  shall  not  die  now  in  this 
battle,  but,  nevertheless,  in  this  year,  because  God  does  not  with 
quick  anger  immediately  judge  him  who  has  offended  Him,  but  when 
He  wills.  He  punishes  with  manifest  vengeance,  and  so  I  fear  He 
will  exact  of  you  a  bitter  penalty.  You  shall  not  die,  now,  I  say, 
but  you  shall  perish  after  all  your  present  possessions." 

Then  Curhara,  deeply  grieved  in  his  heart  at  his  mother's  words, 
replied:  "Dearest  mother,  pray,  who  told  you  such  things  about 
the  Christian  folk,  that  God  loves  only  them,  and  that  He  restrains 
the  mightiest  host  from  fighting  against  Him,  and  that  those  Chris- 
tians will  conquer  us  in  the  battle  of  Antioch,  and  that  they  will 
capture  our  spoils,  and  will  pursue  us  with  great  victory,  and  that 
I  shall  die  in  this  year  by  a  sudden  death?" 

Then  his  mother  answered  him  sadly:  ''Dearest  son,  behold  the 
times  are  more  than  a  hundred  years  since  it  was  found  in  our  book 
and  in  the  volumes  of  the  Gentiles  that  the  Christian  host  would 
come  against  us,  would  conquer  us  everywhere  and  rule  over  the 
pagans,  and  that  our  people  would  be  everywhere  subject  to  them. 
But  I  do  not  know  whether  these  things  are  to  happen  now  or  in 
the  future.  Wretched  woman  that  I  am,  I  have  followed  you  from 
Aleppo,  most  beautiful  city,  in  which,  by  gazing  and  contriving  in- 
genious rhymes,  I  looked  back  at  the  stars  of  the  skies  and  wisely 
scrutinized  the  planets  and  the  twelve  signs,  or  countless  lots.  In 
all  of  these  I  found  that  the  Christian  host  would  win  everywhere, 
and  so  I  am  exceedingly  sad  and  fear  greatly  lest  I  remain  bereft 
of  you." 

Curhara  said  to  her:  "Dearest  mother,  explain  to  me  all  the  in- 
credible things  which  are  in  my  heart." 

Answering  this,  she  said:  "This,  dearest,  I  will  do  freely,  if  I 
know  the  things  which  are  unknown  to  you." 

He  said  to  her:  "Are  not  Bohemund  and  Tancred  gods  of  the 
Franks,  and  do  they  not  free  them  from  their  enemies,  and  do  not 
these  men  in  one  meal  eat  two  thousand  heifers  and  four  thousand 
hogs?" 

His  mother  answered :  "Dearest  son,  Bohemund  and  Tancred  are 


i^  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

mortals,  like  all  the  rest;  but  their  God  loves  them  greatly  above 
all  the  others  and  gives  them  valor  in  fighting  beyond  the  rest.  For 
(it  is)  their  God,  Omnipotent  is  His  name,  who  made  heaven  and 
earth  and  established  the  seas  and  all  things  that  in  them  are,  w^hose 
dwelling-place  is  in  heaven  prepared  for  all  eternity,  whose  might 
is  everywhere  to  be  feared." 

Her  son  said:  "(Even)  if  such  is  the  case,  I  will  not  refrain 
from  fighting  with  them."  Thereupon,  when  his  mother  heard  that 
he  would  in  no  way  yield  to  her  advice,  she  returned,  a  very  sad 
woman,  to  Aleppo,  carrying  with  her  all  the  gifts  that  she  could 
take  along. 

But  on  the  third  day  Curbara  armed  himself  and  most  of  the 
Turks  with  him  and  went  toward  the  city  from  the  side  on  which 
the  fortress  was  located.  Thinking  that  we  could  resist  them, 
we  prepared  ourselves  for  battle  against  them,  but  so  great  was 
their  valor  that  we  could  not  withstand  them,  and  under  compul- 
sion, therefore,  we  entered  the  city.  The  gate  was  so  amazingly 
;^  close  and  narrow  for  them  that  many  died  there  from  the  pressure 
of  the  rest.  Meanwhile,  some  fought  outside  the  city,  others  within, 
on  the  fifth  day  of  the  week  throughout  the  day  until  the  evening. 

(Raymond).  In  the  meantime,  while  our  men,  engaged  in 
counting  and  identifying  their  spoils,  had  desisted  from  the  siege 
of  the  upper  fortress,  and,  while  listening  to  the  pagan  dancing  girls, 
had  feasted  in  splendor  and  magnificence,  not  at  all  mindful  of 
God  who  had  granted  them  so  great  a  blessing,  they  were  besieged 
by  the  pagans  on  the  third  day,  on  the  Nones  of  the  same  June. 
And  so  it  was  brought  about  that  they  who  by  the  mercy  of  God 
had  so  long  besieged  the  Turks  in  Antioch  were  through  His  dis- 
position in  turn  besieged  by  the  Turks.  And  that  we  might  be  the 
more  fearful,  the  upper  fortress  which  is  a  kind  of  citadel,  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  enemy.  Our  men,  accordingly,  under  the  stress 
of  fear,  took  up  the  siege  of  the  fortress. 

Corbaga,  however,  lord  of  the  Turks,  expecting  the  battle  to 
take  place  there,  fixed  his  tents  at  a  distance  of  about  two  miles 
from  the  city  and,  with  ranks  arrayed,  came  up  to  the  bridge  of  the 
city.  Our  men,  however,  had  strengthened  the  fortress  of  the  Count 
on  the  first  day,  fearing  that  if  they  proceeded  to  battle  it  would  be 
seized  by  the  enemy  who  were  in  the  citadel,  or,  if  they  deserted  the 
fortress  which  was  before  the  bridge  and  the  enemy  occupied  it, 
that  the  enemy  would  shut  us  off  from  a  chance  to  fight  and  block 
our  exit. 

There  was  in  the  army  a  knight  most  distinguished  and  very 
dear  to  all,  Roger  of  Barneville  bv  name,  who,  while  pursuing  the 


i 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  169 

army  of  the  retiring  enemy,  was  captured  and  deprived  of  his  head. 
Fear  and  grief,  accordingly,  assailed  our  men,  so  that  many  were 
led  to  the  desperate  hope  of  flight.  Thereupon,  when  the  Turks 
had  once  and  again  suffered  a  repulse  in  fighting,  they  besieged  the 
fortress  on  the  third  day;  and  the  fighting  was  carried  on  there 
with  such  violence  that  the  might  of  God  alone  was  believed  to 
defend  the  fortress  and  resist  the  adversaries.  For  when  the  Turks 
were  already  prepared  to  cross  the  moat  and  destroy  the  walls, 
they  were  taken  with  fright,  I  know  not  why,  and  rushed  headlong 
into  flight.  Then,  seeing  no  reason  for  their  flight,  they  returned 
to  the  siege  after  they  had  run  a  short  distance,  blaming  their  own 
timidity;  and,  as  if  to  atone  for  the  disgrace  of  the  flight  they  had 
made,  they  attacked  more  violently  and  again  were  more  violently 
terrified  by  the  might  of  God.  Therefore  the  enemy  returned  to 
their  camp  on  that  day.  On  the  next  day,  however,  they  returned 
to  the  fortress  with  a  very  great  supply  of  siege  machinery,  but 
our  men  set  fire  to  the  fortress  and  thrust  themselves  within  the 
walls  of  the  city.  And  thus,  as  the  fear  of  the  Franks  was  increased, 
the  boldness  of  the  enemy  grew;  forsooth,  we  had  nothing  outside 
the  city,  and  the  fortress,  which  was  the  head  of  the  city,  was  held 
by  our  foes.  The  Turks,  emboldened  by  this,  arranged  to  enter 
against  us  by  the  fortress.  Our  men,  however,  relying  on  their 
favorable  and  lofty  location,  fought  against  the  enemy  and  at  the 
first  attack  overthrew  them ;  but,  forgetful  of  the  threatening  battle 
and  intent  upon  plunder,  they  (in  turn)  were  most  vilely  put  to 
flight.  For  more  than  a  hundred  men  were  sufifocated  in  the  gate  y< 
of  the  city,  and  even  more  horses.  Then  the  Turks  who  had  entered 
the  fortress  wanted  to  go  down  into  the  city.  For  the  valley 
between  our  mountain  and  their  fortress  was  not  large,  and  in  the 
middle  of  it  was  a  certain  cistern  and  a  little  level  place.  Nor  did 
the  enemy  have  a  path  down  into  the  city  except  through  our  moun- 
tain; wherefore  they  strove  with  every  intent  and  all  their  might 
to  drive  us  out  and  remove  us  from  their  path.  The  battle  was 
waged  with  such  force  from  morning  to  evening  that  nothing  like 
it  was  ever  heard  of.  There  was  a  certaia  frightful  and  as  yet  un- 
heard of  calamity  befell  us,  for  amidst  the  hail  of  arrows  and 
rocks,  and  the  consta^at  charge  of  javeHns,  and  the  deaths  of  so 
many,  our  men  became  unconscious.  If  you  ask  for  the  end  of 
this  fight,  it  was  night. 

2.    Dire  straits  of  the  Crusaders.     (June,  1098). 

(Gesta).     In   the  midst  of   this,   William  of   Grandmesnil,   his 
brother  Alberic,  Wido  Trursellus,  and  Lambert  the  Pauper,  all  of 


I70  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

them  frightened  by  yesterday's  battle  which  had  lasted  until  even- 
ing, secretly  slipped  away  by  night  and  fled  over  the  wall  on  foot 
to  the  sea,  so  that  nothing  remained  either  on  their  hands  or  feet, 
except  bone  alone.  Many  others  whose  names  I  do  not  know  fled 
with  them.  Accordingly,  when  they  came  to  the  ships  which  were 
at  the  Port  of  St.  Simeon,  they  said  to  the  sailors :  "Why  do  you 
stay  here,  wretched  men  ?  All  of  our  men  are  dead,  and  we  barely 
escaped  with  our  lives,  for  the  army  of  the  Turks  is  besieging  the 
rest  in  the  city  on  all  sides."  But  when  those  men  heard  this,  they 
stood  stupefied  and,  terrified  with  fear,  rushed  to  the  boats  and 
put  out  to  sea.  Then  the  Turks  came  up  and  killed  all  whom 
they  found,  burned  the  ships  which  rested  on  the  bed  of  the  river, 
and  took  off  their  spoils.  We  who  remained  could  no  longer  with- 
stand the  force  of  their  arms.  We  made  a  wall  between  them  and 
ourselves,  which  we  guarded  day  and  night.  Meanwhile,  we  were 
oppressed  by  such  need  that  we  ate  our  horses  and  asses. 

Then  the  Turks  who  were  up  in  the  castle  pressed  us  on  all  sides 
so  closely  that  on  a  certain  day  they  shut  three  of  our  knights  in  a 
tower  which  was  before  their  castle.  For  the  Gentiles  had  gone 
out  and  rushed  upon  the  knights  so  fiercely  that  they  could  not 
resist  their  force.  Two  of  the  knights  went  out  from  the  tower 
wounded,  but  the  third  manfully  defended  himself  from  the  attack 
of  the  Turks  throughout  the  whole  day  with  such  skill  that  on  that 
day  he  stretched  out  two  Turks  over  the  entrance  to  the  tower  with 
tlieir  spears  broken.  Thus,  three  were  that  day  shattered  in  his 
hands.  But  the  Turks  suffered  the  sentence  of  death.  The  knight's 
name  was  Hugh  de  Forcenez  of  the  army  of  Gosfrid  of  Mt.  Scag- 
lioso.  However,  when  that  venerable  man,  Bohemund,  saw  that  he 
could  not  again  lead  the  people  up  into  the  fortress  to  battle  (for 
of  those  who  were  shut  up  in  the  houses,  some  feared  starvation 
and  others  the  Turks),  he  was  greatly  angered  and  ordered  fire  to 
be  placed  immediately  throughout  the  city  on  that  side  where 
the  palace  of  Cassianus  was  located.  When  those  who  were  in  the 
city  saw  this,  they  left  their  homes  and  everything  that  they  had, 
and  fled,  some  to  the  castle,  and  others  to  the  gate  of  the  Count  of 
.  St.  Gilles,  others  to  the  gate  of  Duke  Godfrey — each  one  to  his  own 
people. 

Then  a  very  seyere_^torm  so  suddenly  arose  that  no  one  could 
guide  himself  aright.  Theraipon,  that  wise  man,  Bohemund,  was 
exceedingly  sad,  fearing  for  the  churches  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Mary 
and  other  churches.  This  fury  lasted  from  the  third  hour  even  to 
midnight,  and  almost  two  thousand  churches  and  homes  were 
burned.     However,  at  the  approach  of  midnight  all  the  fury  of  the 


: 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  .   171 

fire  suddenly  fell.  Thereupon,  the  Turks  who  lived  in  the  cattle 
fought  with  us  inside  the  city  day  and  night,  and  nothing  else 
separated  us  from  our  arms.  However,  when  our  men  saw  that 
they  could  not  -long  endure  this,  because  whoever  had  bread  was  not 
allowed  (time)  to  eat  it,  and  whoever  had  water  did  not  get  a  chance 
to  drink  it,  they  built  a  fortress  and  machines,  that  they  might  be 
more  secure.  A  part  of  the  Turks,  however,  remained  in  the  castle, 
keeping  up  battle  with  us,  but  the  other  portion  was  lodged  near  , 

the  castle  in  a  valley.  When  the  night  came,  forsooth,  a  fire  from  '*'*' 
heaven  appeared,  coming  from  the  west ;  and,  drawing  near7  it  fell 
withiiTthe  army  of  the  Turks,  whereat  both  our  men  and  the  Turks 
marvelled.  Moreover,  when  it  became  morning,  the  Turks,  terrified 
by  fear  of  the  fire,  all  fled  before  the  gate  of  Bohemund  and  were 
there  lodged.  But  that  part  (of  the  Turkg)  in  the  castle  kept  up 
battle  with  us  by  day  and  night,  shooting,  wounding,  and  killing.  - 
The  other  part,  however,  beset  the  city  everywhere  on  all  sides,  so 
that  none  of  us  dared  go  out  or  in,  except  at  night,  and  (then) 
stealthily.  Thus  were  we  besieged  and  oppressed  by  these  pagans, 
enemies  of  God  and  Christianity,  whose  number  was  innumerable.^ 

These  profane  enemies  of  God  held  us  so  inclosed  in  the  city  of 
Antioch  that  many  died  of  hunger  because  a  little  loaf  of  bread 
sold  for  a  hesant.  Of  wine  I  won't  speak.  They  sold  and  ate  horse 
and  ass-flesh ;  they  also  sold  a  cock  for  fifteen  soHdi,  an  egg  for  two 
solidi,  and  a  nut  for  a  denarius.  Thus  everything  was  very  dear. 
They  cooked  and  ate  the  leaves  of  the  fig  tree,  grapevine,  and 
thistle,  and  of  all  trees,  so  tremendous  was  their  hunger.  Others 
cooked  the  dry  hides  of  horses,  camels,  asses,  cattle  or  buffalos  and 
ate  them.  These  and  many  such  troubles  and  straits  which  I  can- 
not name,  we  suffered  for  the  name  of  Christ,  and  to  free  the  wayV 
to  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  Such  tribulation,  famine,  and  fears  we  en- 
dured for  twenty-six  days. 

Then  the  base  Stephen.  Count  of  Chartres,  whom  all  our  nobles 
had  chosen  to  be  our  leader,  and  who  had  feigned  very  great  illness 
before  Antioch  was  captured,  basely  withdrew  to  another  fortified 
place  called  Alexandretta.  Therefore,  we  who  had  been  shut  up 
in  the  city  without  saving  aid  daily  besought  him  to  come  to  our 
reHef.  But  after  he  heard  that  a  host  of  Turks  was  surrounding 
and  besieging  us,  he  stealthily  climbed  upon  the, mountain  nearest 
to  Antioch  and  saw  the  countless  tents.  Seized  with  a  most  violent 
fear,  he  turned  and  fled  hastily  with  his  army.  Then  coming  to  his 
own  fortress,  he  despoiled  it  and  withdrew  at  rapid  pace.  But 
after  he  came  upon  the  Emperor  at  PhilomeHum,  he  called  him 
apart  and  said  secretly :    "Know  for  a  truth  that  Antioch  has  been 


172     ^  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

captured,  but  the  citadel  has  not  been  taken;  all  our  men  are  be- 
sieged with  great  pressure  and,  as  I  think,  have  now  been  killed 
by  the  Turks.  Go  back,  therefore,  as  quickly  as  you  can,  lest  they 
find  you  and  this  people  which  you  are  leading  with  you." 

Then  the  Emperor,  terrified  with  fear,  secretly  called  Wido, 
brother  of  Bohemund,  and  certain  others  and  said  to  them:  "Seig- 
iiors,  what  shall  we  do  ?  Behold,  all  our  men  have  been  held  in  close 
siege,  and  perchance  at  this  hour  have  all  been  killed  by  the  Turks, 
or  led  into  captivity,  just  as  that  ill-favored  Count,  who  is  basely 
fieeing,  reports.  If  you  wish,  let  us  turn  back  at  a  quick  pace, 
lest  we,  too,  should  die  a  sudden  death,  even  as  they,  also,  are 
dead."  When  Wido,  a  knight  most  honorable,  heard  such  false- 
lioods,  he  began  to  weep  with  all  the  rest,  and  to  complain  with 
most  violent  outcry.  With  one  voice  all  exclaimed:  ''O  true  God, 
Three  and  One,  why  hast  Thou  permitted  this  to  come  to  pass? 
Why  hast  Thou  permitted  the  people  who  followed  Thee  to  fall 
into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  and  so  quickly  abandoned  them  who 
wished  to  free  the  way  of  Thy  journey  and  Sepulchre?  Surely,  if 
this  word  which  we  have  heard  from  these  most  iniquitous  men  be 
true,  we  and  the  other  Christians  will  depart  from  Thee,  and  no 
more  remember  Thee,  and  not  one  of  us  will  again  dare  to  call 
upon  Thy  name."  And  there  was  this  most  gloomy  talk  in  the 
whole  army,  sO  that  none  of  them,  whether  bishop,  abbot,  cleric,  or 
lay,  dared  to  call  upon  the  name  of  Christ  for  several  days. 

And  no  one  could  console  Wido,  who  wept  and  beat  himself 
with  his  hands  and  broke  liis  fingers  and  said:  "Woe  is  me!  My 
lord  Bohemund,  honor  and  glury  of  the  world,  whom  all  the  world 
was  wont  to  fear  and  love !  Alas,  what  sadness  is  mine !  I  did 
not  deserve  in  grief  to  see  your  most  honorable  face,  I  who  desired 
to  see  nothing  else  more.  Who  will  let  me  die  for  you,  sweetest 
friend  and  lord?  Why  was  I  not  dead,  as  I  came  from  the  womb 
of  my  mother?  Why  did  I  come  to  this  sad  day?  Why  was  I  not 
drowned  in  the  sea?  Why  did  I  not  fall  from  my  horse  to  meet 
sudden  death  from  a  broken  neck?  Would  that  I  had  gained  a 
hapi)y  martyrdom  with  yon,  so  that  I  might  behold  you  receiving  a 
most  glorious  end !"  When  all  had  run  to  him  to  console  him,  so  as 
to  bring  an  end  to  his  grief,  he  turned  away  and  said  to  himeslf : 
"Perchance  you  believe  this  grizzled,  shameless  knight?  Truly,  I 
have  not  ever  heard  mention  of  any  campaign  which  he  has  made. 
But  basely  and  dishonorably  he  turns  back,  like  a  most  iniquitous 
and  ill-favored  man,  and  whatever  that  wretch  reports  you  may 
know  to  be  false." 

Meanwhile,  the  Emperor  commanded  his  men,  saying:     "Go  and 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  173 

lead  all  of  the  men  of  this  land  into  Bulgaria,  and  seek  out  and 
devastate  all  places,  so  that  when  the  Turks  come  they  will  Be  able 
to  find  nothing."  Willy-nilly  our  men  turned  back,  grieving  most 
bitterly  even  to  death,  and  many  of  the  pilgrims  died.  Failing  in 
strength,  and  unable  vigorously  to  follow  the  army,  they  stopped 
and  died  along  the  way.    But  all  the  rest  returned  to  Constantinople.^ 

(Raymond).  In  the  night,  however,  when  our  men  should  have 
expected  the  mercy  of  God,  many  began  to  despair  and  let  them- 
selves down  headlong  from  the  top  of  the  walls  by  ropes.  Others, 
moreover,  withdrawing  from  the  battle  into  the  city,  announced 
to  everybody  that  the  general  beheading  of  all  had  come;  and,  to 
increase  their  fears,  while  some  were  urging  others  to  resist  bravely, 
these  same  men  turned  in  flight.  .  .  . 

In  the  meanwhile,  there  was  such  famine  in  the  city  that  a 
horse's  head  without  the  tongue  was  sold  for  two  or  three  solidi, 
the  intestines  of  goats  for  five,  a  cock  for  eight  or  nine.  What  shall 
I  say  about  bread,  five  solidi  s  worth  of  which  was  not  enough  to 
satisfy  the  hunger  of  one  person?  This  was  not  astonishing,  nor 
when  they  had  abundant  gold  and  silver  and  clothes  could  it  have 
weighed  heavily  upon  those  who  bought  at  such  a  price.  However, 
these  things  were  (now)  so  dear  because  the  consciences  of  the 
soldiers,  troubled  with  crimes,  were  bereft  of  courage.  Moreover, 
they  plucked  unripe  figs  from  the  trees,  cooked  them,  and  sold  them 
very  dearly.  Indeed,  the  hides  of  cattle  and  horses  and  other 
things  which  they  had  disregarded  for  a  long  time  they  now  slowly 
cooked  and  sold  so  dearly  that  any  one  could  eat  the  worth  of  two 
solidi.  Most  of  the  knights  lived  on  the  blood  of  their  own  horses ; 
awaiting  the  mercy  of  God,  they  did  not  yet  want  to  kill  them. 
Moreover,  these  and  many  other  evils  difficult  to  enumerate  threat- 
ened and  besieged.  Another  very  serious  calamity  happened  in  that 
some  of  our  men  fled  to  the  Turks  and  told  them  of  the  misery, 
in  the  city.  The  Turks,  emboldened  by  this  and  other  occurrences, 
threatened  us  most  violently.  Moreover,  one  day  at  mid-day  about 
thirty  Turks  climbed  into  one  of  our  towers,  whereat  our  men 
became  exceedingly  terrified.  Nevertheless,  because  of  the  danger, 
they  fought  with  the  help  of  God,  killed  some,  and  forced  the  others 
to  flee  precipitately.  For  this  reason,  accordingly,  all  promised 
obedience  to  Bohemund  for  fifteen  days  after  the  battle,  so  that 
he^rniglTTarrange^about  the  battle  and  the  custody  of  the  city.  For 
the  Count  was  very  ill,  also  the  Bishop;  and  Count  Stephen,  whom 
the  other  princes  had  chosen  as  ruler  before  the  capture  of  the  city, 
had  fled  when  he  heard  rumors  of  the  battle. 


174  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

3.  Revelation  of  the  Lance.     (June  4,  1098.) 

(Gesta).  But  one  day  as  our  leaders,  sad  and  disconsolate,  were 
standing  back  before  the  fortress,  a  certain  priest  came  to  them  and 
said:  **Seignors,  if  it  please  you,  listen  to  a  certain  matter  which 
I  saw  in  a  vision.  When  one  night  I  was  lying  in  the  church  of 
St.  Mary,  Mother  of  God,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  the  Saviour  of 
the  world,  appeared  to  me  with  His  mother  and  St.  Peter,  prince  of 
the  apostles,  and  stood  before  me  and  said,  'Knowest  thou  me?' 

"I  answered,  'No.'  At  these  words,  lo,  a  whole  cross  appeared 
on  His  head. 

*'A  second  time,  therefore,  the  Lord  asked  me  'Knowest  thou 


me  r 


"To  Him  I  replied :  'I  do  not  know  Thee  except  that  I  see  a  cross 
on  thy  head  like  that  of  Our  Saviour.' 

"He  answered,  T  am  He.' 

"Immediately  I  fell  at  His  feet,  humbly  beseeching  that  He  help 
us  in  the  oppression  which  was  upon  us.  The  Lord  responded :  'I 
have  helped  you  in  goodly  manner  and  I  will  now  help  you.  I 
permitted  you  to  have  the  city  of  Nicaea,  and  to  win  all  battles, 
and  I  conducted  you  hither  to  this  point,  and  I  have  grieved  at  the 
misery  which  you  have  suffered  in  the  siege  of  Antioch.  Behold, 
with  timely  aid  I  sent  you  safe  and  unharmed  into  the  city,  and  lo ! 
(you  are)  working  much  evil  pleasure  with  Christian  and  depraved 
pagan  women,  whereof  a  stench  beyond  measure  arises  unto  heaven.' 

"Then  the  loving  Virgin  and  the  blessed  Peter  fell  at  His  feet, 
praying  and  beseeching  Him  to  aid  His  people  in  this  tribulation, 
and  the  blessed  Peter  said :  'Lord,  for  so  long  a  time  the  pagan  host 
has  held  my  house,  and  in  it  they  have  committed  many  unspeak- 
able wrongs.  But  now,  since  the  enemy  have  been  driven  hence, 
Lord,  the  angels  rejoice  in  heaven.' 

"The  Lord  then  said  to  me :  'Go  and  tell  my  people  to  return  to 
Me,  and  I  will  return  to  them,  and  within  five  days  I  will  send  them 
great  help.  Let  them  daily  chant  the  response  Congregati  sunt,  all 
of  it,  including  the  verse.' 

"Seignors,  if  you  do  not  believe  that  this  is  true,  let  me  climb  up 
into  this  tower,  and  I  will  throw  myself  down,  and  if  I  am  un- 
\f\/'  "  harmed,  believe  that  this  is  true.  If,  however,  I  shall  have  suffered 
any  hurt,  behead  me,  or  cast  me  into  the  fire."  Then  the  Bishop  of 
J^y  ordered  that  the  Gospel  and  the  Cross  be  brought,  so  that  he 
might  take  oath  that  this  was  true. 

All  our  leaders  were  counselled  at  that  time  to  take  oath  that 
not  one  of  them  would  flee,  either  for  life  or  death,  as  long  as  they 
were  alive.     Bohemund  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  take  the 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  175 

oath,  then  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  Robert  of  Normandy,  Duke  God- 
frey, and  the  Count  of  Flanders.  Tancred,  indeed,  swore  and 
promised  in  this  manner:  that  as  long  as  he  had  forty  knights  with 
him  he  would  not  only  not  withdraw  from  that  battle,  but,  likewise, 
not  from  the  march  to  Jerusalem.  Moreover,  the  Christian  assem- 
blage exulted  greatly  upon  hearing  this  oath. 

There  was  a  certain  pilgrim  of  our  army,  whose  name  was 
Peter,  to  whom  before  we  entered  the  city  St.  Andrew,  the  apostle, 
appeared  and  said:     ''What  art  thou  doing,  good  man?" 

Peter  answered,  "Who  art  thou?" 

The  apostle  said  to  him :  "I  am  St.  Andrew,  the  apostle.  Know, 
my  son,  that  when  thou  shalt  enter  the  town,  go  to  the  church 
of  St.  Peter.  There  thou  wilt  find  the  Lance  of  our  Saviour,  Jesus 
Christ,  with  which  He  was  wounded  as  HT  hung  on  the  arm  of  the 
cross."     Having  said  all  this,  the  apostle  straightway  withdrew. 

But  Peter,  afraid  to  reveal  the  advice  of  the  apostle,  was  unwilling 
to  make  it  known  to  the  pilgrims.  However,  he  thought  that  he  had 
seen  a  vision,  and  said:  "Lord,  who  would  believe  this?"  But  at 
that  hour  St.  Andrew  took  him  and  carried  him  to  the  place  where 
the  Lance  w^s  hidden  in  the  ground.  When  we  were  a  second  time 
situated  in  such  (straits)  as  we  have  stated  above,  St.  Andrew 
came  again,  saying  to  him:  "Wherefore  hast  thou  not  yet  taken 
the  Lance  from  the  earth  as  I  commanded  thee  ?  Know,  verily,  that) 
whoever  shall  bear  this  lance  in  battle  shall  never  be  overcome! 
by  an  enemy."  Peter,  indeed,  straightway  made  known  to  our  men' 
the  mystery  of  the  apostle. 

The  people,  however,  did  not  beheve  (it),  but  refused,  saying: 
"How  can  we  believe  this?"  For  they  were  utterly  terrified  and 
thought  that  they  were  to  die  forthwith.  Thereupon,  this  man 
came  forth  and  swore  that  it  was  all  most  true,  since  St.  Andrew 
had  twice  appeared  to  him  in  a  vision  and  had  said  to  him :  "Rise, 
go  and  tell  the  people  of  God  not  to  fear,  but  to  trust  firmly  with 
whole  heart  in  the  one  true  God  and  they  will  be  everywhere  vic- 
torious. Within  five  days  the  Lord  will  send  them  such  a  token 
that  they  will  remain  happy  and  joyful,  and  if  they  wish  to  figfit, 
let  them  go  out  immediately  to  battle,  all  together,  and  all  their 
enemies  will  be  conquered,  and  no  one  will  stand  against  them." 
Thereupon,  when  they  heard  that  their  enemies  were  to  be  over- 
come by  them,  they  began  straightway  to  revive  and  to  encourage 
one  another,  saying:  "Bestir  yourselves,  and  be  everywhere  brave "^ 
and  alert,  since  the  Lord  will  come  to  our  aid  in  the  next 
battle  and  will  be  the  greatest  refuge  to  His  people  whom  He^ 
beholds  lingering  in  sorrow." 


176  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Accordingly,  upon  hearing  the  statements  of  that  man  who  re- 
ported to  us  the  revelation  of  Christ  through  the  words  of  the 
apostle,  we  went  in  haste  immediately  to  the  place  in  the  church 
of  St.  Peter  which  he  had  pointed  out.  Thirteen  men  dug  there 
from  morning  until  vespers.  And  so  that  man  found  the  Lance, 
just  as  he  had  indicated.  They  received  it  with  great  gladness  and 
fear,  and  a  joy  beyond  measure  arose  in  the  whole  city. 

(Raymond).  And  so,  as  we  said,  when  our  men  were  in  a  panic 
and  while  they  were  on  the  verge  of  despair,  divine  mercy  was  at 
hand  for  them;  and  that  mercy  which  had  corrected  the  children 
when  they  were  wanton,  consoled  them  when  they  were  very  sad, 
in  the  following  way.  Thus,  when  the  city  of  Antioch  had  been 
captured,  the  Lord,  employing  His  power  and  kindness,  chose  a 
certain  poor  peasant,  Provengal  by  race,  through  whom  He  com- 
forted us;  and  He  sent  these  words  to  the  Count  and  Bishop  of 
Puy: 

"Andrew,  apostle  of  God  and  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  has 
recently  admonished  me  a  fourth  time  and  has  commanded  me  to 
come  to  you  and  to  give  back  to  you,  after  the  city  was  captured, 
the  Lance  which  opened  the  side  of  the  Saviour.  To-day,  moreover, 
when  I  had  set  out  from  the  city  with  the  rest  to  battle,  and  when, 
caught  between  two  horsemen,  I  was  almost  suffocated  on  the  re- 
treat, I  sat  down  sadly  upon  a  certain  rock,  almost  lifeless.  When 
I  was  reeling  like  a  woe-begone  from  fear  and  grief,  St.  Andrew 
came  to  me  with  a  companion,  and  he  threatened  me  much  unless 
I  returned  the  Lance  to  you  quickly." 

And  when  the  Count  and  Bishop  asked  him  to  tell  in  order  the 
apostolic  revelation  and  command,  he  replied:  ''At  the  first  earth- 
quake which  occurred  at  Antioch  when  the  army  of  the  Franks 
was  besieging  it,  such  fear  assailed  me  that  I  could  say  nothing  ex- 
cept 'Ciod  help  me.'  For  it  was  night,  and  I  was  lying  down;  nor 
was  there  anyone  else  in  my  hut  to  sustain  me  by  his  presence. 
When,  moreover,  the  shaking  of  the  earth  had  lasted  a  long  time, 
and  my  fear  had  ever  increased,  two  men  stood  before  me  in  the 
brightest  raiment.  The  one  was  older,  with  red  and  white  hair, 
black  eyes,  and  kindly  face,  his  beard,  indeed,  white,  wide,  and  thick, 
and  his  stature  medium;  the  other  was  younger  and  taller,  hand- 
some in  form  beyond  the  children  of  men.  And  the  older  said  to 
me  'What  doest  thou?'  and  I  was  very  greatly  frightened  because 
I  knew  that  there  was  no  one  present.  And  I  answered,  'Who  art 
thou  ?' 

"He  replied,  'Rise,  and  fear  not;  and  heed  what  I  say  to  thee. 
I  am  Andrew  the  Apostle.    Bring  together  the  Bishop  of  Puy  and 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  .      177 

the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  and  Peter  Raymond  of  Hautpoul,  and  say 
these  words  to  them:  "Why  has  the  Bishop  neglected  to  preacfTf 
and  admonish  and  daily  to  sign  his  people  with  the  cross  which  he. 
bears  before  them,  for  it  would  profit  them  much?"  '  And  he  added," 
'Come  and  I  will  show  thee  the  Lance  of  our  father,  Jesus  Christ, 
which  thou  shalt  give  to  the  Count.  For  God  has  granted  if  to 
him  ever  since  he  was  born.' 

**I  arose,  therefore,  and  followed  him  into  the  city,  dressed  in 
nothing  except  a  shirt.  And  he  led  me  into  the  church  of  the 
apostle  of  St.  Peter  through  the  north  gate,  before  which  the 
Saracens  had  built  a  mosque.  In  the  church,  indeed,  were  two 
lamps,  which  there  gave  as  much  light  as  if  the  sun  had  illuminated 
it.  And  he  said  to  me,  'Wait  here.'  And  he  commanded  me  to  sit 
upon  a  column,  which  was  closest  to  the  stairs  by  which  one  ascends 
to  the  altar  from  the  south;  but  his  companion  stood  at  a  distance 
before  the  altar  steps.  Then  St.  Andrew,  going  under  ground, 
brought  forth  the  Lance  and  gave  it  into  my  hands. 

"And  he  said  to  me  'Behold  the  Lance  which  opened  His  side, 
whence  the  salvation  of  the  whole  world  has  come.' 

"While  I  held  it  in  my  hands,  weeping  for  joy,  I  said  to  him, 
'Lord,  if  it  is  Thy  will,  I  will  take  it  and  give  it  to  the  Count!' 

"And  he  said  to  me  'Not  now,  for  it  will  happen  that  the  city  will 
be  taken.  Then  come  with  twelve  men  and  seek  it  here  whence  I 
drew  it  forth  and  where  I  hide  it.'    And  he  hid  it. 

"After  these  things  had  been  so  done,  he  led  me  back  over  the 
wall  to  my  home;  and  so  they  left  me.  Then  I  thought  to  myself 
of  the  condition  of  my  poverty  and  your  greatness,  and  I  feared  to 
approach  you.  After  this,  when  I  had  set  forth  for  food  to  a  certain 
fortress  which  is  near  Edessa,  on  the  first  day  of  Lent  at  cock-crow, 
St.  Andrew  appeared  to  me  in  the  same  garb  and  with  the  same 
companion  with  whom  he  had  come  before,  and  a  great  brightness 
filled  the  house.     And  St.  Andrew  said  'Art  thou  awake?' 

"Thus  aroused,  I  replied  'No,  Lord;  my  Lord,  I  am  not  asleep.' 

"And  he  said  to  me  'Hast  thou  told  those  things  which  I  bade 
thee  tell  some  time  ago  ?' 

"And  I  answered  'Lord,  have  I  not  prayed  thee  to  send  some  one 
else  to  them,  for,  fearful  of  my  poverty,  I  hesitated  to  go  before 
them  ?' 

"And  he  said  'Dost  thou  not  know  why  the  Lord  led  you  hither, 
and  how  much  He  loves  you  and  why  He  chose  you  especially? 
He  made  you  come  hither  (to  rebuke)  contempt  of  Him  and  to 
avenge  His  people.  He  loves  you  so  dearly  that  the  saints  already 
at  rest,   fore-knowing  the  grace  of  Divine  arrangements,   wished 


178  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

that  they  were  in  the  flesh  and  struggling  along  with  you.  God 
has  chosen  you  from  all  peoples,  as  grains  of  wheat  are  gathered 
from  the  oats.  For  you  excel  in  favor  and  rewards  all  who  may 
come  before  or  after  you,  just  as  gold  excels  silver  in  value.' 

''After  this  they  withdrew,  and  such  illness  oppressed  me  that 
I  was  about  to  lose  the  light  of  my  eyes,  and  I  was  arranging  to 
dispose  of  my  very  meagre  belongings.  Then  I  began  to  meditate 
that  these  things  had  justly  befallen  me  because  of  my  neglect 
of  the  apostolic  command.  Thus  comforted,  I  returned  to  the 
siege.  Thinking  again  of  the  handicap  of  my  poverty,  I  began  to 
fear  that  if  I  went  to  you,  you  would  say  that  I  was  a  serf  and 
was  telling  this  for  the  sake  of  food ;  therefore,  I  was  silent  instead. 
And  thus  in  the  course  of  time,  when  at  the  Port  of  St.  Simeon  on 
Palm  Sunday  I  was  lying  down  in  the  tent  with  my  lord,  William 
Peter,  St.  Andrew  appeared  with  a  companion.  Clad  in  the  same 
habit  in  which  he  had  come  before,  he  spoke  thus  to  me,  'Why 
hast  thou  not  told  the  Count  and  Bishop  and  the  others  what  I 
commanded  thee?' 

"And  I  answered  'Lord,  have  I  not  prayed  thee  to  send  another 
in  my  place  who  would  be  wiser  and  to  whom  they  would  listen? 
Besides  the  Turks  are  along  the  way  and  they  kill  those  who  come 
and  go.' 

"And  St.  Andrew  said  'Fear  not  that  they  will  harm  thee.  Say 
also  to  the  Count  not  to  dip  in  the  river  Jordan  when  he  comes  there, 
but  to  cross  in  a  boat ;  moreover  when  he  has  crossed,  dressed  in 
a  linen  shirt  and  breeches,  let  him  be  sprinkled  from  the  river.  And 
after  his  garments  are  dry,  let  him  lay  them  away  and  keep  them 
with  the  Lance  of  the  Lord.'  And  this  my  lord,  William  Peter, 
heard,  though  he  did  not  see,  the  apostle. 

"Thus  comforted,  I  returned  to  the  army.  And  when  I  wanted 
to  tell  you  this,  I  could  not  bring  you  together.  And  so  I  set  out 
to  the  port  of  Mamistra.  There,  indeed,  when  I  was  about  to  sail 
to  the  island  of  Cyprus  for  food,  St.  Andrew  threatened  me  much 
if  I  did  not  quickly  return  to  you  and  tell  you  what  had  been  com- 
manded me.  And  when  I  thought  to  myself  how  I  would  return 
to  camp,  for  that  port  was  three  days  distant  from  the  camp,  I 
began  to  weep  most  bitterly,  since  I  could  find  no  way  of  returning. 
At  length,  admonished  by  my  lord  and  my  companions,  we  entered 
the  ship  and  began  to  row  to  Cyprus.  And  although  we  were 
borne  along  all  day  by  oar  and  favoring  winds  up  to  sunset,  a 
storm  then  suddenly  arose,  and  in  the  space  of  one  or  two  hours  we 
returned  to  the  i)ort  which  we  had  left.  And  thus  checked  from 
crossing  a  second  and  a  third  time,  we  returned  to  the  island  at  the 


I 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  179 

Port  of  St.  Simeon.  There  I  fell  seriously  ill.  However,  when  the 
city  was  taken,  I  came  to  you.  And  now,  if  it  please  you,  test  what 
I  say." 

The  Bishop,  however,  thought  it  nothing  except  words;  but  the   \/ 
Count  believed  it  and  handed  over  the  man  that  had  said  this  to 
his  chaplain,  Raymond,  to  guard. 

Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  appeared  on  the  very  night  which  fol- 
lowed to  a  certain  priest  named  Stephen,  who  was  weeping  for 
the  death  of  himself  and  his  companions,  which  he  expected  there. 
For  some  who  came  down  from  the  fortress  frightened  him,  saying 
that  the  Turks  were  already  descending  from  the  mountain  into  the 
city,  and  thaf  our  men  were  fleeing  and  had  been  defeated.  For  this 
reason  the  priest,  wishing  to  have  God  witness  of  his  death,  went 
into  the  church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  in  the  garb  of  confession  and, 
after  obtaining  pardon,  began  to  sing  psalms  with  some  companions. 
While  the  rest  were  sleeping,  and  while  he  watched  alone,  after 
having  said,  "Lord,  who  shall  dwell  in  Thy  tabernacle,  or  who  shall 
rest  in  Thy  holy  hill?"^  a  certain  man  stood  before  him,  beautiful 
beyond  all,  and  said  to  him,  "Man,  who  are  these  people  that  have 
entered  the  city?" 

And  the  priest  answered  "Christians." 

"Christians  of  what  kind?" 

"Christians  who  believe  that  Christ  was  born  of  a  Virgin  and 
suffered  on  the  Cross,  died,  and  was  buried,  and  that  He  arose  on 
the  third  day  and  ascended  into  heaven." 

And  that  man  said  "And  if  they  are  Christians,  why  do  they  fear 
the  multitude  of  pagans?"  And  he  added,  "Dost  thou  not  know 
me?" 

The  priest  replied  "I  do  not  know  thee,  but  I  see  that  thou  art 
most  beautiful  of  all." 

And  the  man  said,  "Look  at  me  closely." 

And  when  the  priest  intently  scrutinized  him,  he  saw  a  kind  of 
cross  much  brighter  than  the  sun  proceeding  from  his  head.  And 
the  priest  said  to  the  man  who  was  questioning  him,  "Lord,  we 
say  that  they  are  images  of  Jesus  Christ  which  present  a  form 
like  thine." 

The  Lord  said  to  him,  "Thou  hast  said  well,  since  I  am  He.  Is 
it  not  written  of  me  that  I  am  the  Lord,  strong  and  mighty  in 
battle?    And  who  is  the  Lord  in  the  army?" 

"Lord,"  replied  the  priest,  "there  -  never  v^as  in  the  army  but  one 
Lord,  for  rather  do  they  put  trust  in  the  Bishop." 

And  the  Lord  said,  "Say  this  to  the  Bishop,  that  these  people 
have  put  me  afar  from  them  by  evil  doing,  and  then  let  him  speak 


y" 


i8o  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

to  them  as  follows:  The  Lord  says  this:  ''Return  to  me,  and  I 
will  return  to  you."  '  And  when  they  enter  battle,  let  them  say 
this  'Our  enemy  are  assembled  and  glory  in  their  own  bravery; 
destroy  their  might,  O  Lord,  and  scatter  them,  so  that  they  may 
know  that  there  is  no  other  who  will  fight  for  us  except  Thee,  O 
Lord,'  And  say  this  also  to  them  Tf  ye  do  whatever  I  command 
you,  even  for  five  days,  I  will  have  mercy  upon  you !'  " 

Moreover,  while  He  was  saying  this,  a  woman  of  countenance 
radiant  beyond  measure  approached  and,  g^^zmg  upon  the  Lord, 
said  to  him,  "Lord,  what  are  thou  saying  to  this  man?" 

And  the  Lord  said  to  her,  "I  am  asking  him  about  these  people 
who  have  entered  the  city,  who  they  are." 

Then  the  Lady  replied,  "O,  my  Lord,  these  are  the  people  for 
whom  I  entreat  thee  so  much." 

And  when  the  priest  shook  his  companion  who  was  sleeping  near 
him,  so  that  he  might  have  a  witness  of  so  great  a  vision,  they  had 
disappeared  from  his  eyes. 

However,  when  morning  came  the  priest  climbed  the  hill  opposite 
the  castle  of  the  Turks,  where  our  princes  were  staying,  all  except 
the  Duke,  who  was  guarding  the  castle  on  the  north  hill.  And 
thus,  after  assembling  a  gathering,  he  told  these  words  to  our 
princes,  and,  in  order  to  show  that  it  was  true,  he  swore  upon  the 
Cross.  Moreover,  wishing  to  satisfy  the  incredulous.  He  was  willing 
to  pass  through  fire,  or  to  jump  from  the  top  of  the  tower.  Then 
the  princes  swore  that  they  would  neither  flee  from  Antioch  nor 
go  out,  except  with  the  common  consent  of  all ;  for  the  people  at 
this  time  thought  that  the  princes  wanted  to  flee  to  the  fort.  And 
thus  many  were  comforted,  since  in  the  past  night  there  were  few 
who  stood  steadfast  in  the  faith  and  did  not  wish  to  flee.  And  had 
not  the  Bishop  and  Bohemund  shut  the  gates  of  the  city,  very  few 
would  have  remained.  Nevertheless,  William  of  Grandmesnil  fled, 
and  his  brother,  and  many  others,  cleric  and  lay.  It  befell  many, 
however,  that  when  they  had  escaped  from  the  city  with  the  greatest 
danger,  they  faced  the  greater  danger  of  death  at  the  hands  of  the 
Turks. 

At  this  time  very  many  things  were  revealed  to  us  through  our 
brethren;  and  we  beheld  a  marvelous  sign  in  the  sky.  For  during 
the  night  there  stood  over  the  city  a  very  large_star,  which,  after  a 
short  time,  divided  into  three  parts  and  fell  in  the  camp  of  the 
Turks. 

Our  men,  somewhat  comforted,  accordingly,  awaited  the  fifth 
(lay  which  the  priest  had  mentioned.  On  that  day,  moreover,  after 
the  necessary  preparations,  and  after  every  one  had  been  sent  out 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  i8i 

of  the  Church  of  St.  Peter,  twelve  men,  together  with  that  man  who 
had  spoken  of  the  Lance,  began  to  dig.    There  were,  moreover,  among        *^*^^ 
those  twelve  men  the  Bishop  of  Orange,  and  Raymond,  chaplain  of  \4^-^^  ^ 
the  Count,  who  has  written  this,  and  the  Count  himself,  and  Pontius   \'^ 
of  Balasun,  and  Feraldus  of  Thouars.    Andafter  we  had  dug  from 
morning  to  evening,  some  began  to  despair  of  finding  the  Lance. 
The  Count  left,  because  he  had  to  guard  the  castle ;  but  in  place  of 
him  and  the  rest  who  were  tired  out  from  digging,  we  induced 
others,  who  were  fresh  to  continue  the  work  sturdily.     The  youth 
who  had  spoken  of  the  Lance,  however,  upon  seeing  us  worn  out, 
disrobed  and,  taking  off  his  shoes,  descended  into  the  pit  in  his  shirt, 
earnestly  entreating  us  to  pray  God  to  give  us  His  Cance  for  the 
comfort  and  victory  of  His  people.  /At  length,  the  Lord  w^s  minded 
through  the  grace  of  His  mercy  to  show  us  His  Lance.    And  I,  who) 
have  written  this,  kissed  it  when  the  point  alone  had  as  yet  appeared  > 
above  ground.     What  great  joy  and  exultation  then  filled  the  city) 
I  cannot  describe. '  Moreover,  the  Lance  was  found  on  the  eighteenth 
day  before  the  Kalends  of  July. 

•On  the  second  night,  St.  Andrew  appeared  to  the  youth  through 
whom  he  had  given  the  Lance  to  us  and  said  to  him  ''Behold,  God 
has  given  to  the  Count  that  which  he  never  wished  to  give  to  anyone 
and  has  made  him" "standard-bearer  of  this  army,  as  long  as  he  shall 
continue  in  His  love.'* 

When  the  youth  asked  mercy  from  him  for  the  people,  St.  Andrew 
replied  to  him  that  verily  would  the  Lord  show  mercy  to  His  people. 
And,  again,  when  he  asked  the  same  saint  about  his  companion,  who 
it  was  he  had  so  often  seen  with  him,  St.  Andrew  answered,  "Draw 
near  and  kiss  His  foot." 

And  so,  when  he  was  about  to  draw  near,  he  saw  a  wound  on 
His  foot  as  fresh  and  bloody  as  if  it  had  just  been  made.  When, 
however,  he  hesitated  to  draw  near  because  of  the  wound  and  blood, 
St.  Andrew  said  to  him: 

"Behold,  the  Father  who  was  wounded  on  the  Cross  for  us, 
whence  this  wound.  The  Lord  likewise  commands  that  you  cele- 
brate_that  day  on  which  He  gave  you  His  Lance.  And  since  it  was 
found  at  vespers,  and  that  day  cannot  be  celebrated,  celebrate  the 
solemn  festival  on  the  eighth  day  in  the  following  week,  and  then 
each  year  on  the  day  of  the  finding  of  the  Lance.  Say,  also,  to 
them  that  they  conduct  themselves  as  is  taught  in  the  Epistle  of  my 
brother,  Peter,  which  is  read  to-day."  (And  the  Epistle  was  this: 
"Humble  yourselves  under  the  mighty  hand  of  God.")^  "Let  the 
clerics  sing  this  hymn  before  the  Lance :  Lustra  sex  qui  jam  per- 
acta  tempus  implens  corporis.     And  when  they  shall  have  said, 


i 


i82  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Agnus  in  cruce  levatus  immolandus  stipite,  let  them  finish  the  hymn 
on  bended  knees." 

When,  however,  the  Bishop  of  Orange  and  I,  after  this,  asked 
Peter  Bartholomew  if  he  knew  letters,  he  replied,  'T  do  not,"  think- 
ing that  if  he  were  to  say  "1  do,"  we  would  not  believe  him.  He 
did  know  a  little ;  but  at  that  hour  he  was  so  ignorant  that  he  neither 
knew  letters  nor  had  any  remembrance  of  the  things  he  had  learned 
from  letters,  except  the  Paternoster,  Credo  in  Deum,  Magnificat, 
Glory  in  Excelsis  Deo,  and  Benedictus  Dominus  Deus  Israel.  He 
had  lost  the  others  as  if  he  had  never  heard  them,  and  though  he 
was  able  afterwards  to  recover  a  few,  it  was  with  the  greatest  effort. 

4.    Defeat  of  Kerhogha.     (June  28,  1098.) 

(Gesta).  From  that  hour  we  took  counsel  of  battle  among  our- 
selves. Fortwith,  all  our  leaders  decided  upon  the  vplan  of  sending 
a  messenger  to  the  Turks,  enemies  of  Christ,  to  ask  them  with 
assured  address:  "Wherefore  have  you  most  haughtily  entered 
the  land  of  the  Christians,  and  why  have  you  encamped,  and  why 
do  you  kill  and  assail  servants  of  Christ?"  When  their  speech  was 
already  ended,  they  found  certain  men,  Peter  the  Hermit  and  Herl- 
win,  and  they  told  them  as  follows :  ''Go  to  the  accursed  army  of 
the  Turks  and  carefully  tell  them  all  this,  asking  them  why  they 
have  boldly  and  haughtily  entered  the  land  of  the  Christians  and 
our  own?" 

At  these  words,  the  messengers  left  and  went  to  the  profane  assem- 
blage, saying  everything  to  Curhara  and  the  others  as  follows : 
"Our  leaders  and  nobles  wonder  wherefore  you  have  rashly  and 
most  haughtily  entered  their  land,  the  land  of  the  Christians?  We 
think,  forsooth,  and  believe  that  you  have  thus  come  hither  because 
you  wish  to  become  Christians  fully ;  or  have  you  come  hither  for 
the  purpose  of  harassing  the  Christians  in  every  way?  All  our 
leaders  together  ask  you,  therefore,  quickly  to  leave  the  land  of 
God  and  the  Christians,  which  the  blessed  apostle,  Peter,  by  his 
preaching  converted  long  ago  to  the  worship  of  Christ.  But  they 
grant,  in  addition,  that  you  may  take  away  all  your  belongings,  horses, 
mules,  asses,  camels,  sheep,  and  cattle;  all  other  belongings  they 
permit  you  to  carry  with  you,  wherever  you  may  wish." 

Then  Curhara,  chief  of  the  army  of  the  Sultan  of  Persia,  with 
all  the  others  full  of  haughtiness,  answered  in  fierce  language :  "Your 
God  and  your  Christianity  we  neither  seek  nor  desire,  and  we  spurn 
you  and  them  absolutely.  We  have  now  come  even  hither  because 
we  marvelled  greatly  why  the  princes  and  nobles  whom  you  mention 
call  this  land  theirs,  the  land  we  took  from  an  effeminate  people. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  183 

Now,  do  you  want  to  know  what  we  are  saying  to  you?  Go  back 
quickly,  therefore,  and  tell  your  seignors  that  if  they  desire  to 
become  Turks  in  everything,  and  wish  to  deny  the  God  whom  you 
worship  with  bowed  heads,  and  to  spurn  your  laws,  we  will  give 
them  this  and  enough  more  of  lands,  castles,  and  cities.  In  addition, 
moreover,  (we  will  grant)  that  none  of  you  will  longer  remain  a 
foot-soldier,  but  will  all  be  knights,  just  as  we"  are;  and  we  will 
ever  hold  you  in  the  highest  friendship.  But  if  not,  let  them  know 
that  they  will  all  undergo  capital  sentence,  or  will  be  led  in  chains 
to  Chorosan,  to  serve  us  and  our  children  in  perpetual  captivity 
forever." 

Our  messengers  speedily  came  back,  reporting  all  this  most  cruel 
race  had  replied.  Herlwin  is  said  to  have  known  both  tongues,  and 
to  have  been  the  interpreter  for  Peter  the  Hermit.  Meanwhile, 
our  army,  frightened  on  both  sides,  did  not  know  what  to  do;  for 
on  one  side  excruciating  famine  harassed  them,  on  the  other  fear  of 
the  Turks  constrained  them. 

At  length,  when  the  three  days  f as^  had  been  fulfilled,  and  a  pro- 
cession had  been  held  from  one  church  to  another,  they  confessed 
theiT  sins,  were  absolved,  and  faithfully  took  the  communion  of 
the  body  and  blood  of  Christ ;  and  when  alms  had  been  given,  they 
celebrated  mass.  Then  six^  batde  lmes_were  formed  from  the  forces 
wjtJiinjhecity.  In  the  first  line,  that  is  at  the  very  head,  was  Hugh 
the  Great  with  the  Franks  and  the  Count  of  Flanders ;  in  the  second, 
Duke  Godfrey  with  his  army;  in  the  third  was  Robert  the  Norman 
with  his  knights ;  in  the  fourth,  carrying  with  him  the  Lance  of  the 
Saviour,  was  the  Bishop  of  Puy,  together  with  his  people  and  with 
the  army  of  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  who  remained  behind 
to  watch  the  citadel  for  fear  lest  the  Turks  descend  into  the  city; 
in  the  fifth  line  was  Tancred,  son  of  Marchisus,  with  his  people,  and 
in  the  sixth  line  was  the  wise  man,  Bohemund,  with  his  army.  Our 
bishops,  priests,  clericj,  an^  monks,  dressed  in  holy  vestments,  came 
out  with  us  wfEE  crosses,  praying  and" beseeching  the  Lord  to  make 
us  safe,  guard  us,  and  deliver  us  from  all  evil.  Some  stood  on  the 
wall  of  the  gate,  holding  the  sacred  crosses  in  their  hands,  making 
the  sign  (of  the  cross)  and  blessing  us.  Thus  were  we  arrayed, 
and,  protected  with  the  sign  of  the  cross,  we  went  forth  through  the 
gate  which  is  before  the  mosque. 

After  Curbara  saw  the  lines  of  the  Franks,  so  beautifully  formed, 
coming  out  one  after  the  other,  he  said :  "Let  them  come  out,  that 
we  may  the  better  have  them  in  our  power!"  But  after  they  were 
outside  the  city  and  Curbara  saw  the  huge  host  of  the  Franks,  he 
was  greatly  frightened.     He  straightway  sent  word  to  his  Emir, 


i84  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

who  had  everything  in  charge,  that  if  he  saw  a  light  burn  at  the 
head  of  the  army  he  should  have  the  trumpets  sounded  for  it 
to  retreat,  knowing  that  the  Turks  had  lost  the  battle.  Curbara 
began  immediately  to  retreat  little  by  little  toward  the  mountain, 
and  our  men  followed  them  little  by  little.  At  length  th^  Turks 
dmded;  one  party  went  toward  the  sea  and  the  rest  halted  there, 
expecting  to  enclose  our  men  between  them.  As  our  men  saw  this, 
they  did  likewise.  There  a  seventh  line_was  formed  from  the  lines 
of  Duke  Godfrey  and  the  Count  of  Normandy,  and  its  head  was 
Reinald.  They  sent  this  (line)  to  meet  the  Turks,  who  were  coming 
from  the  sea.  The  Turks,  however,  engaged  them  in  battle  and  by 
shooting  killed  many  of  our  men.  Other  squadrons,  moreover, 
were  drawn  out  from  the  river  to  the  mountain,  which  was  about 
two  miles  distant.  The  squadrons  began  to  go  forth  from  both 
sides  and  to  surround  our  men  on  all  sides,  hurling,  shooting,  and 
wounding  them.  There  came  out  from  the  mountains,  also,_count- 
less  armies  with  white  horses,  whose  standards  were  all  w)iitfe. 
And  so,  when  our  leaders  saw  this  army,  they  were  entirely  ignorant 
as  to  what  it  was,  and  who  they  were,  until  they  recognized  the  aid 
of  Christ,  whose  leaders  were  St.  George,  Mercurius,  and  Demetrius.^ 
This  is  to  be  believed,  for  many  of  our  men  saw  it.  However,  when 
the  Turks  who  were  stationed  on  the  side  toward  the  sea  saw  that 
that  they  could  hold  out  no  longer,  they  set  fi^  to  the  grass,  so  that, 
upon  seeing  it,  those  who  were  in  the  tents  might  flee.  The  latter, 
recognizing  that  signal,  seized  all  the  precious  spoils  and  fled.  But 
our  men  fought  yet  a  little  while  where  their  (the  Turks)  greatest 
strength  was,  that  is,  in  the  region  of  their  tents.  Duke  Godfrey, 
the  Count  of  Flanders,  and  Hugh  the  Great  rode  near  the  water, 
where  the  enemy's  strength  lay.  These  men,  fortified  by  the  sign 
of  the  cross,  together  attacked  the  enemy  first.  When  the  other 
lines  saw  this,  they  likewise  attacked.  The  Turks  and  the  Persians 
in  their  turn  cried  out.  Thereupon,  we  invoked  the  Living  and  True 
God  and  charged  against  them,  and  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ 
and  of  the  Ho]y  Sepulchre  we  began  the  battle,  and,  God  helping, 
we  overcame  them.  But  the  terrified  Turks  took  to  flight,  and  our 
men  followed  them  to  the  tents.  Thereupon,  the  knights  of  Christ 
chose  rather  to  pursue  them  than  to  seek  any  spoils,  and  they  pursued 
them  even  to  the  Iron  Bridge,  and  then  up  to  the  fortress  of  Tan- 
cred.  The  enemy,  indeed,  left  their  pavilions  there,  gold,  silver, 
and  many  ornaments,  also  sheep,  cattle,  horses,  mules,  camels,  asses, 
grain,  wine,  butter,  and  many  other  things  which  we  needed.  When 
the  Armenians  and  Syrians  who  dwelt  in  those  regions  heard  that 
we  had' overcome  theTiirks,  they  ran  to  the  mountain  to  meet  them 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  185 

and  killed  as  many  of  them  as  they  could  catch.  We,  however, 
returned  to  the  city  with  great  joy  and  praised  and  blessed  God, 
who  gave  the  victory  to  His  people. 

Thereupon,  when  the  Emir  who  was  guarding  the  citadel  saw  that 
Curbara  and  all  the  rest  had  fled  from  the  field  befofethe  army  of 
the  Franks,  he  was  greatly  frightened.  Immediately  and  with  great 
haste  he  sought  the  standards  of  the  Franks.  Accordingly,  the 
Count  of  St.  Gilles,  who  was  stationed  before  the  citadel,  ordered 
his  standard  to  be  brought  to  him.  The  Emir  took  it  and  carefully 
placed  it  on  the  tower.  The  Longobards  who  were  there  said  im- 
mediately: "This  is  not  Bohemund's  standard!"  Then  the  Emir 
asked  and  said:  "Whose  is  it?"  They  answered:  "It  belongs  to 
the  Count  of  St.  Gilles."  Thereupon,  the  Emir  went  and  seized 
the  standard  and  returned  it  to  the  Count.  But  at  that  hour  the 
venerable  man,  Bohemund,  came  and  gave  him  his  standard.  He 
received  it  with  great  joy  and  entered  into  an  agreement  with  Bohe- 
mund that  the  pagans  who  wished  to  take  up  Christianity  might 
remain  with  him  (Bohemund),  and  that  he  should  permit  those  who 
wished  to  go  away  to  depart  safe  and  without  any  hurt.  He  agreed 
to  all  that  the  Emir  demanded  and  straightway  sent  his  servants 
into  the  citadel.  Not  many  days  after  this  the  Emir  was  baptized 
with  those  of  his  men  who  preferred  to  recognize  Christ.  But 
those  who  wished  to  adhere  to  their  own  laws  Lord  Bohemund  had 
conducted  to  the  land  of  the  Saracens. 

,  This  battle  was  fought  on  the  fourth  day  before  the  Kalends  o£ 
July,  on  the  vigil  of  the  apostles  Peter  and  Paul,  in  the  reign  of 
our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  has  honor  and  glory  forever  and  ever. 
Amen.  And  after  our  enemies  had  now  been  completely  conquered, 
we  gave  fitting  thanks  to  God,  Three  and  One,  and  the  Highest. 
Some  of  the  enemy,  exhausted,  others,  wounded  in  their  flight  hither 
and  thither,  succumbed  to  death  in  valley,  forest,  fields,  and  roads. 
But  the  people  of  Christ,  that  is,  the  victorious  pilgrims,  returned 
to  the  city,  rejoicing  in  the  happy  triumph  over  their  defeated  foes. 

(Raymond).  As  we  have  said,  when  our  men  were  beaten, 
discouraged,  and  in  narrow  straits,  divine  aid  appeared.  And  the 
blessed  Andrew  taught  us  through  the  youth  who  had  spoken  of 
the  Lance  how  we  ought  to  conduct  ourselves  before  the  battle 
and  in  the  battle: — 

"You  have  all  offended  deeply,  and  you  have  been  deeply  humbled ; 
and  you  have  cried  out  to  the  Lord,  and  the  Lord  has  heard  you. 
And  now  let  each  one  turn  himself  to  the  Lord  because  of  his  sins, 
and  let  him  give  five  alms  because  of  the  five  wounds  of  the  Lord, 


i86  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

If  he  cannot  do  this,  let  him  say  the  Paternoster  five  times.  When 
this  has  been  done,  begin  battle  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  by  day  or 
by  night,  as  the  judgment  of  the  princes  deems  best,  because  the 
hand  of  God  will  be  with  you.  If  anyone  has  doubt  of  victory, 
let  the  gates  be  opened  for  him,  and  let Jiim  go  forth  to  the  Turks, 
and  he  will  see  how  their  God  will  save  him.  "Moreover,  if  any- 
one shall  refuse  to  fight,  let  him  be  classed  with  Judas,  the  Ugtray^r 
of  the  Lojd,  who  deserted  the  apostles  and  solcfms  Lord  to  the 
Jews.  Let  them  fight  in  the  faith  of  St.  Peter,  holding  in  mind  that 
God  promised  him  that  after  the  third  day  He  would  arise  and 
appear  to  him,  and  for  this  reason,  also,  because  this  land  is  justly 
St.  Peter's,  and  not  the  pagans'.  And  let  your  battle-cry  be  *God 
help  us !'  and  verily  God  will  help  you.  All  your  brotfiets  who  died 
since  the  beginning  of  the  expedition  are  present  with  you  in  this 
fight ;  you  have  only  to  storm  the  tenth  part  of  the  enemy,  because 
they  will  assail  nine  parts  in  the  might  and  command  of  God.  And 
do  not  put  off  the  battle,  because  (if  you  do),  the  Lord  will  lead 
as  many  enemies  from  the  other  sides  as  you  have  on  this  side,  and 
He  will  keep  you  shut  up  here  until  you  devour  one  another.  But 
know  certainly  that  those  days  are  at  hand  which  the  Lord  promised 
to  the  Blessed  Mary  and  to  His  apostles,  saying  that  He  would 
raise  up  the  kingdom  of  the  Christians,  after  the  kingdom  of  the 
pagans  had  been  cast  down  and  ground  into  dust.  But  do  not  turn 
to  their  tents  in  search  of  gold  and  silver." 

Then  the  power  of  God  was  disclosed,  in  that  He  who  had  com- 
manded the  above  words  to  be  preached  to  us  through  His  apostle  so 
comforted  the  hearts  of  all  that  each  one  in  faith  and  hope  seemed 
to  himself  already  to  have  triumphed  over  his  enemy.  They  urged 
on  one  another,  and  in  urging  regained  courage  for  fighting.  The 
crowd,  too,  which  in  the  past  days  seemed  to  be  consumed  with 
want  and  fright,  now  reproached  the  princes  and  complained  of  the 
delay  of  the  battle.  However,  when  the  day  for  battle  had  been 
fixed,  our  princes  sent  word  by  Peter  the  Hermit  to  Corbara,  leader 
of  the  Turks,  to  give  up  the  siege  of  the  city,  because  it  was  by 
right  the  property  of  St.  Peter  and  the  Christians.  That  proud 
leader  replied  that,  rightly  or  wrongly,  he  was  going  to  rule  over 
the  Franks  and  the  city.  And  he  compelled  Peter  the  Hermit,  who 
was  unwilling  to  bow,  to  kneel  to  him. 

The  question  was  raised  at  this  time  as  to  who  should  guard  the 
city  against  those  who  were  in  the  citadel,  while  the  rest  went  forth 
to  fight.  They  ^^It  a  stone  wall  and  ramparts  on  pur  hill  against 
the  ^n^iy ;  these  they  fortified  with  many  rocks'^  finally  leaving 
Count  Raymond,  who  was  deathly  ill,  and  about  two  hundred  men 
there. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  187 

The  day  of  the  fight  had  come.  In  the  morning  all  partook  of;  com-  , 
munipn  and  gave  themselves  to  God,  to  death,  if  He  willed,  or  to 
the  glory  of  the  Roman  church  and  the  race  of  the  Franks.  More- 
over, they  decided  about  the  battle  as  follows :  that  two  double  lines 
should  be  made  of  the  Count's  and  Bishop's  people,  soTlhat  the  fppt- 
soldiers  went  before  the  knights  and  halted  at  the  command  of  the 
princes;  and  the  knights  "were  lo  follow  them  and  guard  them,  from 
the  rear.  Similar  arrangement  was  made  of  the  people  of  Bohe- 
mund  and  Tancred;  the  like  of  the  people  of  the  Count  of  Nor- 
mandy and  the  Franks;  likewise,  of  the  people  of  the  Duke  and 
the  Burgundians.  Moreover,  trumpeters  went  through  the  city 
shouting  that  each  man  should  stay  with  the  princes  of  his  people. 
It  was  likewise  ordered  that  Hugh  the  Great,  the  CounFof  Flanders,  ^  j^ 
and  the  Count  of  Normandy  should  advance  to  the  battle  first,  then  ^'' 
the  Duke,  the  Bishop  after  the  Duke,  and  Bohemund  after  the 
Bishop.  They  assembled,  each  man  to  hiajown  standard  and  kin- 
folk^  within  tjie  city  before  tlie  gate,  of  the  bridg^e. 

'Oh,  how  blessed  is  the  people  whose  Lord  is  God!  Oh,  how 
blessed  the  people  whom  God  has  chosen!  Oh,  how  unaltered  His 
face!.^How  changed  the  army  from  sadness  to  eagerness! ^Indeed, 
during  the  past  days  princes  and  nobles  went  along  the  city  streets 
calling  upon  the  aid  of  God  at  the  churches,  the  common  people 
(walked)  with  bare  feet,  weeping  and  striking  their  breasts.  They 
had  been  so  sad  that  father  did  not  greet  son,  nor  brother  brother, 
upon  meeting,  nor  did  they  look  back.  But  now  you  could  see 
them  going  forth  like  swift  horses,  rattling  their  arms,  and  bran- 
dishing their  spears,  nor  could  they  bear  to  refrain  from  showing 
their  happiness  in  word  and  deed.  But  why  do  I  grieve  about  many 
matters?  They  were  given  the  power  to  go  forth,  and  what  had 
been  agreed  upon  by  the  princes  was  fulfilled  in  order. 

Meanwhile  Carbara,  leader  of  the  Turks,  was  playing  at  chess 
within  his  tent.  When  he  received  the  message  that  the  Franks 
were  advancing  to  battle,  he  was  disturbed  in  mind  because  this 
seemed  beyond  expectation,  and  he  called  to  him  a  certain  Turk  who 
had  fled  from  Antioch,  Mirdalin  by  name,  a  noble  known  to  us  for 
his  military  prowess.  ''What  is  this?"  he  said?"  "Didn't  you  tell 
me  the  Franks  were  few  and  would  not  fight  with  us?"  And 
Mirdalin  replied  to  him,  "I  did  not  say  that  they  would  not  fight, 
but  come,  and  I  will  look  at  them  and  tell  you  if,  you  can  easily 
overcome  them." 

And  now  the  third  line  of  our  men  was  advancing.  When  he 
saw  how  the  lines  were  arrayed,  MirdaHn  said  to  Corhara,  "These 
men  can  be  killed ;  but  they  cannot  be  put  to  flight." 


i88  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

And  then  Corhara  said  "Can  none  of  them  be  driven  back  at  all?" 

And  Mirdalin  replied,  "They  will  not  yield  a  footstep,  even  if 
all  the  people  of  the  pagans  attack  them." 

Then,  although  disturbed  in  mind,  he  drew  up  his  many  and 
multiple  lines  against  us.  And  when  at  first  they  could  have  pre- 
vented our  exit,  they  allowed  us  to  go  out  in  peace.  Our  men,  how- 
ever, now  directed  their  lines  toward  the  mountains,  fearing  that 
the  Turlcs  might  surround  them  from  the  rear.  However,  the 
mountains  were  about  two  long  miles  from  the  bridge.  We  were 
adv^^incing  in  open.file_as  the  clergy  are  wont  to  marchjn  processions. 
And  verily  wejiad  a  procession !  For  the  priests  and  many  monks, 
dressed  in  white  robes;wentln  front  of  the  lines  of  our  knights, 
chanting  and  invoking  the  aid  of  the  Lord  and  the  benejiiction  of 
the  saints.  The  enemy,  on  the  contrary,  rushed  against  us  and  shot 
arrows.  Corhara,  now  ready  to  do  what  he  had  just  recently  re- 
fused, likewise  sent  word  to  our  princes  (proposing)  that  five  or  ten 
Turks  should  do  battle  with  a  like  number  of  Franks,  and  that 
those  whose  knights  were  conquered  should  peacefully  yield  to 
the  others.  To  this  our  leaders  replied,  "You  were  unwilling  when 
we  wanted  to  do  this ;  now  that  we  have  advanced  to  fight,  let  each 
fight  for  his  right." 

And  when  we  had  occupied  the  whole  plain,  as  we  said,  a  certain 
portion  of  the  Turks  remained  behind  us  and  attacked  some  of 
our  foot-soldiers.  But  those  foot-soldiers,  turning  about,  sustained 
the  attack  of  the  enemy  vigorousTyy'  When,  indeed,  the  Turlcs  could 
in  no  way  drive  them  "out,  they^et  fire  around  them,  so  that  those 
who  did  not  fear  the  swords  might  at  all  events  be  terrified  by  fire. 
And  thus  they  forced  them  to  give  way,  for  that  place  had  much 
dry  hay. 

And  when  the  lines  had  gone  forth,  the  priests,  witlj^bare  feet  and 
garbed  in  their  priestly  vestments,  stood  on  the  walls  of  the  city, 
calling  upon  God  to  defend  His  people,  and  through  the  victory  of 
the  Franks  in  this  battle  to  afford  a  testimony  hallowed  by  His 
blood.  Moreover,  as  we  were  advancing  from  the  bridge  up  to 
the  mountain,  we  met  with  great  difficulty  because  the  enemy  wanted 
to  surround  us.  In  the  midst  of  this,  the  fines  of  the  enemy  fell 
upon  us  who  were  in  the  squadron  of  the  Bishop,  and  though  their 
forces  were  greater  than  ours,  yet,  through  the  protection  of  the 
HflJbi^-L^nce  which  was  there,  they  there  wounded  no  one;  neither 
(fid  they  hit  any  of  us  with  arrows.  I  beheld  these  things  of  which 
I  speak  and  ^bore  the  Lance  of  the  Lord  there.  If  anyone  says 
that  Viscount  Heraclius,  The  standard-bearer  "of  the  Bishop,  was 
wounded  in  this  battle,  let  him  know  that  he  handed  over  this 
standard  to  another  and  fell  behind  our  line  some  distance. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  189 

When  all  our  fighting  men  had  left  the  city,  five  other  lines 
appeared  among  us.  For,  as  has  already  been  said,  our  princes  had 
drawn  up  only  eight,  and  we  were  thirteen  lines  outside  the  city.  In 
the  beginning  of  the  march  out  to  battle  the  Lord  sent  down  upon 
all  His  army  a  divine  shower,  little  but  full  of  blessing.  All  those 
touched  by  this  were  filled'with  all  grace  and  fortitude  and,  despising 
the  enemy,  rode  forth  as  if  always  nourished  on  the  delicacies  of 
kings.  This  miracle  also  affected  our  horses  no  less.  For  whose 
horse  failed  until  the  fight  was  over,  even  though  it  had 
tasted  nothing  except  the  bark  or  leaves  of  trees  for  eight  days? 
God  so  multiplied  our  army  that  we,  who  before  seemed  fewer  y 
than  the  enemy,  were  in  the  battle  more  numerous  than  they.  And 
when  our  men  had  thus  advanced  and  formed  in  line,  the  enemy 
turned  in  flight  without  giving  us  a  chance  to  engage  in  battle.  Our 
men  pursued  them  until  sunset.  There  the  Lord  worked  mar- 
velously  as  well  in  the  horses  as  in  the  men ;  forsooth,  the  men  were 
not  called  away  from  battle  by  avarice,  and  those  pack  horses  which 
their  masters  had  led  into  battle,  after  a  scant  feeding,  now  very 
easily  followed  the  sleekest  and  swiftest  horses  of  the  Turks. 

But  the  Lord  did  not  wish  us  to  have  this  joy  only.  For  the 
Turks  who  were  guarding  the  citadel  of  the  city  gave  up  hope  upon 
seeing  the  headlong  flight  of  their  people;  some,  on  the  pledge  of 
their  lives  alone,  surrendered  themselves  to  us,  and  the  rest  fled 
headlong.  And  though  this  battle  was  so  terrible  and  frightful,  yet 
few  knights  of  the  enemy  fell  there ;  but  of  their  foot-soldiers  scarcely 
an^Tescaged!"  Moreover,  all  tEe' tents  of  the  enemy  were  captured, 
much  gold  and  silver,  and  the  greatest  amouht  of  spoils — grain  and 
cattle  and  camels  without  measure  or  number.  And  that  incident 
of  Samaria^®  about  the  measures  of  wheat  and  barley  which  werq 
bought  for  a  shekel  was  renewed  for  us.  Moreover,  these  events 
occurred  on  the  vigils  of  St.  Peter  and,  Paul,  through  which  inter- 
cessors was  granted  this  victory  to  the  pilgrim  church  of  the  Franks 
by  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  liveth  and  reigneth  God  through  all 
ages.    Amen. 

5,.    Summwry  of  events.     (June  5 —  beginning  of  July  1098). 

(Anselm.)  >But  on  the  following  day  Corbara  approached  with 
the  King  of  Damascus,  Duke  Baldach,^^  the  King  of  Jerusalem,  and 
very  many  others  and  laid  siege  to  the  city.  Accordingly,  we  were 
both  besieged  by  them,  and  (were  ourselves)  besieging  the  afore- 
said few  in  the  castle  of  the  city,  and  we  were  thus  ^driven  to  eat_ 
the  flesh  of  horses  and  asses.  Moreover,  on  the  second  day  "alter 
their  arrival  they  killed  Roger  of  BamevilleP    On  the  third  day, 


\r 


190  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

they  attacked  the.  fortress  which  we  had  erected  against  the  An- 
tiochenes,  btlT  accomplished  nothing.  However,  they  did  inflict  a 
, wound  upon  Roger,  chatelain  of  Lille,  from  which  he  died.  Seeing 
that  they  were  accomplishing  nothing  on  that  side,  they  ascended  the 
\  hills.  However,  when  we  went  out  against  them,  we  were  beaten 
and  put  to  flight.  Then  they  entered  inside  the  wall,  and  that 
day  and  the  following  night  we  were  only  a  stone's  throw  from 
each  other.  On  the  following  day  at  daybreak  they  called  upon 
Baphometh}^  at  the  top  of  their  voices,  but  we,  calling  upon  our 
God  in  our  hearts,  made  a  charge  upon  them  and  drove  them  all 
outside  the  walls  of  the  city.  There  Roger  of  Beiheniville  died. 
But  they  moved  their  camp  and  set  siege  to  all  the  gates  of  the  city, 
seeking  to  compel  our  surrender  through  lack  of  food. 

Thereupon,  when  His  servants  had  been  placed  in  such  tribula- 
tion, God  stretched  forth  His  right  hand  in  aid  and  mercifully 
revealed  the  Lance  with  which  the  body  of  Christ  was  pierced.  It 
lay  buried,  moreover,  to  a  depth  of  two  men's  stature  beneath  the 
floor  in  the  church  of  St.  Peter.  So,  when  this  precious  gem  was 
found,  all  our  spirits  were  revived. 

On  the  vigil  of  the  apostles  Peter  and  Paul,^*  (our  princes), 
after  taking  counsel  among  themselves,  sent  envoys  to  Corbara  to 
say :  "The  army  of  the  Lord  sends  this  message :  'Leave  us  and 
the  inheritance  of  St.  Peter,  or,  otherwise,  thou  shalt  be  put  to  flight 
by  arms !'  "  When  he  heard  this,  Corbara  unsheathed  his  sword 
and  swore  by  his  kingdom  and  throne  that  he  would  defend  himself 
from  all  the  Franks ;  and  he  further  said  that  he  himself  owned  the 
land  and  would  possess  it,  justly  or  unjustly.  For,  he  answered, 
they  would  hear  no  word  from  him  until,  abandoning  Antioch,  they 
denied  Christ  and  professed  the  law  of  the  Persians.^^  When  this 
message  was  heard,  the  Christians,  cleansed  by  confession,  and 
stoutly  armed  by  partaking  of  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ,  went 
out  from  the  gate  ready  for  battle.  The  first  to  go  forth  was 
Hugh  the  Great,  with  his  Franks;  next  the  Count  of  the  Normans 
and  the  Count  of  Flanders;  after  them,  the  venerable  Bishop  of 
Puy  and  the  battle  line  of  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles;  after  him, 
Tancred;  and  last  of  all,  unconquered  Bohemund.  When,  accord- 
ingly, the  lines  had  been  formed,  with  the  Lance  of  the  Lord  and 
the  Cross  before  them,  they  began  battle  with  the  greatest  con- 
fidence. God  helping,  they  turned  in  flight  the  Turkish  princes, 
who  were  confused  and  utterly  beaten,  and  killed  countless  numbers 
of  them.  Returning,  therefore,  with  victory,  we  gave  thanks  to  the 
Lord  and  celebrated  the  festival  of  the  apostles  with  the  greatest 
rejoicing.  On  that  day  the  citadel  wa5  surrendered  to  us,  the  son 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  igi^ 

of  the  King  of  Antioch  having  fled  with  Cptrbara.  The  King  him- 
self had  been  killed  by  peasants  while  fleeing  in  the  mountains  on 
the  day  that  the  city  was  surrendered. 

We  have  sent  this  news  to  you,  father,  that  you  may  take  pleasure 
in  the  rescue  of  the  Christians  and  the  liberation  of  Antioch,  and 
that  you  may  pray  God  with  greater  devotion  for  all  of  us.  For 
we  place  great  faith  in  your  prayers,  and  all  that  we  accomplish 
we  ascribe,  not  to  our  merit,  but  to  your  prayers.  Now  we  pray  you 
to  keep  our  land  in  peace,  and  to  defend  the  churches  and  the  poor 
from  the  hands  of  tyrants.  We  pray,  likewise,  that  you  take  counsel 
about  the  false  pilgrims,  either  that  they  again  take  up  the  sign  of 
the  saving  cross  with  penance,  and  resume  the  journey  of  th^ 
Lord,  or  that  they  undergo  the  peril  of  excommunication.  Know 
for  certain  that  the  door  of  the  land  has  been  opened  to  us,  and  that, 
among  our  other  good  fortunes,  the  King  of  Babylon,  by  envoys 
sent  to  us,  has  said  that  he  will  obey  our  will.  Farewell.  We  be- 
seech in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus  that  all  whom  this  letter  reaches 
pray  God  for  us  and  our  dead. 

(The  People  of  Lucca).  "One  day  later,  however,  an  innumerable 
army  of  Turks  was  at  hand.  They  immediately  besieged  all  the 
gates  of  the  city ;  they  shut  us  off  from  all  exit  or  entrance.  Those 
of  our  men,  moreover,  who  were  stationed  at  the  sea  coast,  they 
destroy ed_J)y  fire  and  sword.  '^' 

"And,  too,  with  this  wretchedness  of  living  and  distress  of  dying, 
a  great  famine  began  to  afflict  us  extremely.  Moreover,  Count 
Stephen,  William,  Bohemund's  relative,^^  and  very  many  others, 
terrified  with  fear  at  this,  went  down  to  Constantinople.  As  a  re- 
sult, anyone  who  heard  that  these  men  had  thus  withdrawn  aban- 
doned the  expedition  which  he  had  begun,  thinking  that  the  whole 
army  had  perished.  In  the  city,  moreover,  bread  now  failed  those 
whom  the  greatest  famine  was  wasting;  then  the  flesh  of  horses  and 
asses  failed,  an^d,  finally,  every  means  of  subsistence. 

"But  the  holy  and  merciful  Xorii  was  moved  to  pity  at  th^ir 
lamentations,  wailing,  and  tears  and  granted  this  favor.  For  there 
was  a  certain  man,  the  poorest  and  nearly  the  most  abject  of  all,  a 
Provengal  by  birth,  to  whom  St.  Andrew  appeared  most  clearly 
and,  taking  him  by  the  hand,  led  him  to  the  church  of  Sj^PeJer  and, 
pointing  out  a  place  with  his  finger,  said:  'Here  lies  buried  the 
Lance  with  which  the  Lord  was  wounded  as  He  hung  upon  the 
Cross;  go  to  the  princes  of  the  army  of  the  Lord  and  tell  them  what 
thou  hast  seen.'  That  poor  man  was  frightened  and  unwilling  to 
go.  Warned  a  second  time,  he  went  and  set  forth  the  vision.  The 
faithful  dug  and  found  it;  then,  rejoicing  and  certain  of  the  com- 


1^  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

passion  of  God,  they  glorified  Christ.  Moreover,  after  ajast  of 
three  days  had  been  prescribed,  they  devoted  themselves  to  prayer, 
confessed  what  wrongs  they  had  done,  and  marched  around  the 
churches  with  bared  feet.  After  this  was  done,  each  army  equipped 
itself  for  battle. 

'*On  the  vigils  of  the  apostles  Peter  and  Paul,  our  men,  after 
invoking  the  name  of  Christ,  marched  out  of  the  city.  The  Bishop 
of  St.  Mary  of  Puy  preceded,  bearing  the  Cross  and  the  triumphal 
Lance  of  the  Saviour.  The  priests  and  many  clerics  followed, 
dressed  in  white  vestments.  And  when  they  had  advanced  thus  for 
about  three  miles  to  the  field,  they  beheld  a  wonderful  standard, 
white  and  exceeding  high,  and  with  it  a  countless  host  of  knights. 
At  the  same  time  a  wind  and  cloud_of  dust  arose  and  drove  the 
Turks  into  such  flight'tHat  the  fugitives~cast  away  their  arms,  and 
even  their  very  garments.  And  thus,  God  scattering  them,  they 
melted  away  never  more  to  appear  to  us.  Marvelous  it  is  to  relate, 
for  no  one  was  certain  whence  came  either  the  standard  or  those 
who  were  with  it.  And  so,  our  men,  collecting  the  equipment  and 
huge  plunder  of  the  fugitives,  went  into  the  city,  exulting  with 
great  joy.  Moreover,  on  that  day  the  Lord  gave  them  a  greater 
abundance  of  food  and  other  supplies  than  we  have  at  home  in 
harvest  time.  And  now  they  possess  freely  the  stronghold  of  the 
city,  and  all  the  region  about,  even  to  upper  Nicaea." 

This  Bruno  faithfully  explained  in  the  presence  of  all.  We,  more- 
over, dearest  brethren,  pray  and  beseech  you  who  are  in  charge  of 
the  people  to  recount  and  explain  to  your  sons  the  victory  of  Christ, 
and  by  admonishing  and  enjoining  remission  of  sins  to  prevail  upon 
all  who  are  fit,  paupers  and  women  excepted,  to  go  and  join  their 
brothers.  And  do  you  also  devote  yourselves  assiduously  to  psalms, 
vigils,  and  prayers,  that,  fortified  by  the  merits  of  intercessors  as 
well  as  by  the  arms  of  warriors,  they  may  lead  a  safe  and  tranquil 
life  along  the  way  which  they  are  to  take  among  barbarous  nations. 
We  also  make  it  known  to  you  that  Lord  Pope  Urban  holds  a 
council  at  Bari,  considering  and  arranging  (matters)  with  many 
senators  of  the  land  (who  are)  soon  to  take  the  road  to  Jerusalem. 
Farewell. 

(Crusading  Princes).  But  when  we  wished  to  attack  the  citadel 
on  the  next  day,  we  saw  overrunning  all  the  fields  an  infinite  multi- 
tude of  Turks,  whose  coming  we  had  been  expecting  for  many 
days,  while  outside  the  city.  These  besieged  us  on  the  third  day, 
and  more  than  one  hundred  of  their  soldiers  entered  the  citadel ; 
for  tfiey  wanted  to  break  tlirough  the  gate  into  the  portion  of  the 
city  located  below  the  citadel,  common  to  both  ourselves  and  them. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  193 

But  taking  a  stand  an..another  hill  opposite  the  citadel,  we- guarded 
the  road  passing  between  the  two  armies  down  to  the  city,  lest 
many  more  of  them  break  in  upon  us.  Fighting  night  and  dav. 
within  and  without,  we  forced  them  to  enter  the  gates  of  the  citadel 
which  led  them  to  the  city,  and  to  return  to  their  camp.  Accordingly, 
when  they  saw  that  they  could  do  no  harm  on  that  side,  they  sur- 
rounded us  all  about,  so  that  none  of  our  men  could  go  out  or  come 
to  us.  As  a  result  of  this,  we  were  all  so  destitute  and  afflicted  that 
many  of  our  men,  dying  of  starvation  and  many  other  wants,  killed 
and  ate  our  famished  horses  and  asses. 

But  meanwhile,  by  the  most  kind  compassion  of  Almighty  God, 
who  comes  to  our  aid,  and  is  watchful  in  our  behalf,  we  found  the 
Lgnce  of  the  Lord  by  which  the  side  of  our  Saviour  was  pierced 
at  the  hands  of  Longinus}"^  St.  Andrew  the  apostle  thrice  appeared 
to  a  certain  servant  of  God  and  pointed  out  where  the  Lance  lay 
buried  in  the  church  of  St,  Peter,  chief  of  the  apostles.  We  were  so 
comforted  and  strengthened  by  finding  it,  and  by  many  other  divine 
revelations,  that  we,  who  before  had  been  afflicted  and  timid,  were 
then  most  boldly  and  eagerly  urging  one  another  to  battle. 

Accordingly,  on  the  vigil  of  the  apostles,  Peter  and  Paul,  after 
we  had  been  besieged  for  three  weeks  and  four  days,  we  placed 
our  trust  in  God  and,  having  confessed  all  our  iniquities,  sought  the 
gates  of  the  city  from  which  we  went  out  with  the_.whole_army, 
ready  for  battle.  We  were  so  few  that  they  were  sure  that  we  were 
not  fighting  against  them,  but  rather  fleeing.  However,  when  all 
our  men  were  ready,  and  the  lines  of  foot-soldiers,  as  well  as  of 
knights,  had  been  definitely  formed,  we  boldly  sought  out  with  the 
Lance  of  the  Lord  (the  points)  where  their  valor  and  endurance 
was  greatest;  and  from  the  first  stand  of  battle  we  forced  them  to 
flee.  However,  as  is  their  custom,  they  began  to  scatter  themselves 
everywhere,  and,  by  occupying  hills  and  seizing  roads  wherever  they 
could,  they  wanted  to  encircle  us.  But  the  grace  and  mercy  of  God 
so  aided  us,  who  had  been  instructed  against  their  wiles  and  strata- 
gems by  many  battles,  that  we,  who  were  very  few  in  comparison 
with  them,  forced  them  all  together  into  one  body;  and  God's  right 
hand  fighting  with  us,  we  forced  them,  so  gathered,  to  flee  and 
abandon  their  camp  with  all  that  was  in  it.  When  we  had  con- 
quered them,  after  pursuing  them  all  day  and  killing  very  many 
of  their  knights,  we  returned  to  the  city,  happy  and  rejoicing. 
Moreover,  a  certain  Emir  who  was  in  the  aforesaid  citadel  with  a 
thousand  men  surrendered  to  Bohemund,  and  at  his  hand  they  un- 
animously yielded  to  the  Christian  faith.  And  thus  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  has  bound  the  city  of  Antioch  to  the  Roman  religion  and 
faith. 


CHAPTER  VI 

Dissension  Among  the  Leaders 

(With  the  overthrow  of  Kerbogha  all  pressing  danger  from  the  Seljukian 
Turks  and  the  Caliph  of  Bagdad  was  ended  for  several  years  at  least. 
Henceforth  the  most  serious  obstacle  from  the  Mohammedan  side  consisted 
in  the  Fatimite  Caliph  of  Egypt.  The  latter,  however,  had  entered  into 
negotiations  with  the  Crusaders,  so  that  there  was  little  cause  to  worry  on 
that  score.  All  Syria  was  now  at  the  disposal  of  the  Christians,  and  the  fear 
of  immediate  danger  was  removed.  But  this  situation  threatened  even  greater 
perils  to  the  cause  of  the  Crusaders.  For  the  main  incentive  for  close  co- 
operation and  harmony  was  lost  with  the  removal  of  danger  from  common 
foes.  The  death  of  Adhemar,  papal  vicar,  at  this  juncture  aggravated  the 
state  of  affairs,  for  it  took  away  'the  only  leader  who  had  claims  upon  the 
allegiance  of  them  all.  As  a  result,  the  leaders  quarrelled  and  all  but  fought 
with  each  other.  On  one  pretext  and  another  the  journey  to  Jerusalem  was 
postponed  to  satisfy  their  selfish  ambitions.  The  amazing  pressure  exerted 
at  length  by  the  common  knights  and  foot-soldiers  for  some  unity  of  action 
and  adhesion  to  the  original  vow  deserves  much  greater  attention  in  the 
history  of  feudal  organization  than  has  usually  been  accorded  it.  Count 
Raymond's  use  of  Peter  Bartholomew  to  support  his  personal  plans  was 
undoubtedly  the  chief  cause  for  questioning  the  Lance,  on  which  Peter's 
reputation  was  primarily  based.  Mediaeval  history  affords  few  instances  of 
the  -trial  by  the  ordeal  of  fire  so  stringent  or  so  graphically  described,  and 
the  varied  account  of  the  outcome  betrays  what  intense  feeling  had  sprung 
up  among  the  parties  since  the  capture  of  Antioch,  The  elaborate  version 
l)y  Raymond,  in  marked  contrast  with  the  absolute  silence  of  the  Anonymous, 
necessitates  the  addition  of  the  less  direct  testimony  of  Raoul  de  Caen  and 
Fulcher,  The  question  continued  a  subject  of  debate  for  years  in  the  West, 
as  well  as  in  the  East,  but  for  the  time  being  the  Ordeal  made  united  action 
again  possible,) 

I,  Disorganization  of  the  Army.     (June-November  i,  1098.) 

{The  Crusading  Princes.)  But  since  some  sorrow  is  ever  wont 
to  occur  in  the  midst  of  happiness,  that  Bishop  of  Puy  whom  you 
committed  to  us  as  your  vicar  died  on  the  Kalends  of  August,  after 
the  battle  in  which  he  had  taken  an  honorable  part  was  over  and  the 
city  pacified.  Now,  therefore,  we,  your  sons,  bereft  of  the  father 
committed  to  us,  bid  you,  our  spiritual  father,  who  started  this  ex- 
pedition, who,  by  your  sermons,  caused  us  all  to  leave  our  lands  and 
all  that  was  on  those  lands,  commanded  us  to  take  up  the  cross  to 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  195 

follow  Christ,  and  admonished  us  to  exalt  the  Christian  name — we 
bid  you  complete  the  task  which  you  urged;  come  to  us  and  per- 
suade all  whom  you  can  to  come  with  you.  For  here  the  blessed 
Peter  was  enthroned  in  the  church  which  we  see  daily,  and  those 
who  before  were  called  Galileans^  were  here  first  in  general  called 
Christians.  What  in  the  world,  therefore,  can  seem  more  proper 
than  that  you,  who  stand  forth  as  the  father  and  head  of  the  Chris- 
tian religion,  should  come  to  the  first  and  chief  city  of  the  Chris- 
tian name,  and  complete  on  your  part  the  war  which  is  your  own? 
For  we  have  driven  out  the  Turks  and  pagans ;  the  heretics,  how- 
ever, Greeks  and  Armenians,  Syrians,  and  Jacobites,^  we  cannot 
expel.  We  bid  you,  therefore,  again  and  again,  our  most  beloved 
father,  come  as  father  and  head  to  the  place  of  your  fatherhood, 
and,  as  the  vicar  of  St.  Peter,  take  your  seat  in  his  church  and  have 
us  as  your  obedient  sons  in  well  doing.  Root  out  and  destroy  all 
heresy  of  whatever  kind  by  your  authority  and  our  valor,  and  thus 
complete  the  expedition  of  Jesus  Christ,  begun  by  us,  and  preached 
by  yourself.  And,  likewise,  open  to  us  the  gates  of  both  Jerusalems, 
make  free  the  Sepulchre  of  the  Lord  and  exalt  the  Christian  name 
above,  every  name.  For,  if  you  will  come  to  us,  and  with  us  finish 
the  expedition  begun  by  you,  all  the  world  will  be  obedient  to  you. 
May  He  Himself  cause  you  to  do  this.  Who  liveth  and  reigneth  God 
for  ever  and  ever.    Amen. 

A  matter  has  been  related  to  me  which,  indeed,  is  very  much 
against  God  and  all  worshippers  of  Christ;  namely,  that  persons 
signed  with  the  cross  hold  permission  from  you  to  remain  among 
Christians.  I  marvel  greatly  at  this,  because,  since  you  are  the 
instigator  of  this  holy  journey,  those  who  put  off  that  journey  ought 
to  receive  neither  counsel  nor  anything  good  from  you  until  they 
have  fulfilled  the  journey  which  they  began.  And  it  is  not  only  our 
concern  that  you  thus  disturb  the  good  which  you  have  begun  but, 
also,  that  you  should  strengthen  us  by  the  coming  of  yourself  and 
all  whom  you  can  lead  with  you.  For  it  is  fitting  that  we,  who  by 
God's  help  and  your  pious  prayers  are  possessors  of  all  Romania, 
Cilicia,  Asia,  and  Syria,  should  have  you,  after  God,  as  our  aid  and 
succour.  Moreover,  most  holy  father,  you  ought  to  separate  us, 
sons  obedient  to  you  in  all  things,  from  the  unjust  Emperor  who 
has  made  us  many  good  promises,  but  has  not  at  all  carried  them 
out.    For  he  has  caused  us  all  the  ill  and  hindrance  which  he  could. 

This  document  was  written  on  the  nth  day  of  the  beginning  of 
September,  Fourth  Indiction. 

(Gesta.)  Immediately  all  our  leaders,  Godfrey,  Raymond,  Count 
of  St.  Gilles,  Bohemund,  Lord  Robert,  Count  of  Normandy,  the 


196  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Count  of  Flanders,  and  all  the  rest  sent  the  most  noble  knight  Hugh 
the  Great  to  the  Emperor  at  Constantinople  (with  a  message)  to 
come  and  receive  the  town  and  fulfil  the  agreements  which  he  had 
with  them.  He  went  and  never  afterward  returned.  After  all 
this  had  been  done,  all  our  leaders  assembled  and  held  a  council  as 
to  how  they  could  successfully  lead  and  rule  over  this  multitude 
until  they  should  have  accomplished  the  march  to  the  Holy  Sepul- 
chre, for  which  they  had  already  up  to  this  point  suffered  so  many 
dangers.  It  was  decided  in  the  council  that  they  should  not  yet 
dare  to  enter  the  land  of  the  pagans,  because  in  the  summer  time  it 
is  very  dry  and  has  no  water,  and  so  they  agreed  to  wait  until  the 
Kalends  of  November.  Then  the  leaders  separated,  and'  each  one 
set  out  into  his  own  land,  (to  wait)  until  the  time  for  going.  And 
the  princes  had  the  trumpets  sounded  throughout  the  whole  city, 
announcing  that  if  any  needy  person  without  gold  and  silver  wished 
to  remain  with  them,  he  would  be  gladly  maintained  by  them,  upon 
making  an  agreement. 

There  was  a  certain  knight  of  the  army  of  the  Count  of  St. 
Gilles,  whose  name  was  Raymond  Piletus.  He  retained  very  many 
vassels,  knights,  and  foot-soldiers.  He  went  out  with  this  assembled 
army  and  entered  the  land  of  the  Saracens  and,  setting  out  beyond 
two  cities,  came  to  a  certain  fortified  place,  the  name  of  which  was 
Talamania.  The  inhabitants  of  the  place,  Syrians,  immediately  sur- 
rendered to  him  of  their  own  accord.  And  when  all  had  been  there 
for  eight  days,  messengers  came  to  him  saying:  "There  is  near  us 
here  a  fortress  filled  with  a  multitude  of  Saracens."  To  this  camp 
went  the  pilgrim  knights  of  Christ  and  attacked  it  on  all  sides,  and 
it  was  straightway  captured  by  them  with  the  aid  of  Christ.  There- 
upon, they  took  all  the  inhabitants  of  this  place  and  killed  those 
who  were  unwilling  to  receive  Christianity.  And  when  this  had 
been  accomplished,  our  Franks  returned  with  great  joy  to  their 
former  camp. 

But  on  the  third  day  they  went  out  and  came  to  a  certain  city 
near  them,  Marra  by  name.  Moreover,  there  were  gathered  there 
many  Turks  and  Saracens  from  the  city  of  Aleppo,  and  from  all 
the  cities  and  towns  which  were  around  it.  The  barbarians,  accord- 
ingly, came  out  against  us  to  do  batle,  and  our  men,  thinking 
to  struggle  with  them  in  fighting,  forced  them  to  flight;  but  they, 
returning,  attacked  our  men  from  time  to  time  throughout  the  whole 
day,  and  their  attack  lasted  up  to  evening.  The  summer  being  hot 
beyond  measure,  our  men  were  already  unable  to  endure  such  great 
thirst  because  they  could  nowhere  find  water  to  drink ;  nevertheless, 
they  wished  to  return  in  safety  to  their  fortress.     But  because  of 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  197 

their  sins  the  Syrians  and  the  poor  people,  seized  with  great  fear, 
began  immediately  to  take  the  way  back  again.  As  the  Turks  saw 
them  coming  back,  they  began  at  once  to  pursue  them,  and  victory 
ministered  strength  to  them;  thus  many  of  these  people  gave  up 
their  souls  to  God  for  love  of  whom  they  had  there  assembled.  This 
slaughter  occurred  on  the  fifth  day  in  the  month  of  July.  However, 
the  Franks  who  had  remained  returned  to  their  camp,  and  there 
Raymond  lingered  with  his  people  for  several  days.  But  the  others 
who  had  remained  in  Antioch  stayed  in  the  city  with  great  joy  and 
gladness. 

Their  guide  and  shepherd  was  the  Bishop  of  Puy,  who  at  the 
nod  of  God  was  taken  with  a  serious  illness  and,  as  it  was  the  will 
of  God,  departed  from  this  earth  and,  resting  in  peace,  slept  in  the 
Lord  on  the  festival  of  St.  Peter  which  is  called  Ad  Vincula.^  As 
a  result,  there  was  great  anguish,  tribulation,  and  very  great  grief 
in  the  whole  Christian  army,  because  he  had  been  a  support  to  the 
poor,  counsel  to  the  rich,  and  he  had  ordained  clergy.  He  had 
preached  and  admonished  the  leaders  saying:  "No  one  of  you  can 
be  saved,  unless  he  respects  and  refreshes  the  poor.  You  cannot  be 
saved  without  them,  they  cannot  live  without  you;  it  is  fitting, 
therefore,  that  they  pray  God  in  daily  supplication  for  your  sins, 
because  you  offend  Him  daily  in  many  ways.  Therefore,  I  ask  you 
for  the  love  of  God  to  cherish  them  and  sustain  them  as  much  as 
you  can." 

Not  long  after  this,  the  venerable  man,  Raymond,  Count  of  St. 
Gilles,  went  out,  and,  entering  the  land  of  the  Saracens,  he  came  to 
a  certain  city  called  Baira,  which  he  attacked  with  his  army  and 
straightway  captured.  He  killed  all  the  Saracen  men  and  women, 
noble  and  common,  whom  he  found  there.  After  he  held  it  in  his 
power,  he  recalled  it  to  the  faith  of  Christ.  He  then  sought  coun- 
sel from  his  wisest  men,  that  he  might  have  a  bishop  most  devoutly 
ordained  in  this  city,  to  recall  it  loyally  to  the  worship  of  Christ 
and  out  of  the  house  of  the  devil  to  consecrate  a  temple  and  altars 
of  the  saints  to  the  true  and  living  God.  They  straightway  chose 
a  certain  honorable  and  very  wise  man  and  conducted  him  to  Anti- 
och to  be  consecrated,  and  this  was  done.  The  rest,  however,  who 
had  remained  in  Antioch  were  there  with  great  joy  and  gladness. 

(Raymond.)  After  this  victory  it  happened  that  our  princes, 
Bohemund,  the  Count,  the  Duke,  and  the  Count  of  Flanders,  re- 
ceived the  fortress  of  the  city;  but  Bohemund  took  the  highest 
towers,  already  at  that  time  plotting  the  wiles  by  which  he  caused 
an  injustice.  For  he  next  drove  the  men  of  the  Duke,  of  the 
Count  of  Flanders,  and  of  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  violently  from 


i^  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

the  citadel,  saying  that  he  had  given  oath  to  that  Turk  who  had 
surrendered  the  city  that  he  alone  would  hold  it.  On  this  account, 
too,  since  he  had  done  this  with  impunity,  he  began  to  seek  the 
castles  and  gates  of  the  city  which  the  Count,  Bishop,  and  Duke  had 
guarded  during  the  time  that  we  were  besieged.  All  gave  in  to  him, 
except  the  Count.  For,  though  ill,  he  was  yet  unwilling  to  give  up 
the  gate  of  the  bridge  either  for  prayer,  promises,  or  threats.  Dis- 
cord at  this  time  not  only  disturbed  our  princes,  but  it  also  so  de- 
stroyed harmony  among  the  people  that  there  were  few  who  did  not 
quarrel  with  their  companions  or  servants  about  matters  of  theft 
or  plunder.  Nor  was  there  in  the  city  any  judge  who  could,  or 
would,  settle  these  disputes,  but  as  much  injustice  as  he  could  bear 
befell  each  man.  Moreover,  the  Count  and  Bishop  were  very  ill 
and  could  not  in  the  least  protect  their  men  from  wrong.  But  why 
do  we  delay  over  these  matters?  Forsooth,  our  men,  once  more 
enjoying  ease  and  riches  against  the  command  of  God,  put  off  to  the 
Kalends  of  November  the  journey  on  which  account  they  had  come, 
although  at  this  time  the  cities  of  the  Saracens  were  so  terrified  and 
beset  with  fear  at  the  flight  of  the  Turks  that  if  our  Franks  had 
ridden  forth  then  we  believe  there  would  not  have  been  a  city,  even 
to  Jerusalem,  which  would  have  thrown  a  stone  at  them. 

Meanwhile  Lord  Bishop,  Adhemar  of  Puy,  beloved  of  God  and 
men,  a  man  dear  in  everything  to  all,  passed  in  peace  to  the  Lord 
on  the  Kalends  of  August.  So  great  was  the  grief  of  all  the  Chris- 
tains  at  his  death  that,  when  we  undertook  to  describe  it,  we  who 
saw  it  could  not  at  all  comprehend  it  because  of  its  magnitude.  How 
useful  he  had  been  to  the  princes  and  the  army  of  God  was  mani- 
fest after  his  death  when  the  princes  were  divided  among  them- 
selves, Bohemund  going  back  to  Romania  and  the  Duke  of  Lorraine 
setting  out  toward  Edessa. 

On  the  second  night  after  the  Bishop  had  been  buried  in 
the  church  of  St.  Peter  at  Antioch,  the  Lord  Jesus  Himself,  together 
with  St.  Andrew  and  the  same  Bishop,  stood  before  that  Peter 
Bartholomew  who  had  spoken  of  the  Lance,  in  the  chapel  of  the 
Count  where  the  Lance  of  the  Lord  was.  And  the  Bishop  spoke  to 
him,  saying: 

"Thanks  be  to  God,  to  Bohemund,  and  to  all  of  you,  my  brothers, 
who  have  delivered  me  from  hell.  For  I  had  sinned  gravely  after 
the  Lance  of  the  Lord  was  found.  On  this  account  I  was  led  down 
into  hell  and  there  most  severely  punished,  and  my  head  and  face 
were  burned,  as  you  can  see.  My  soul  was  there  from  the  hour  in 
which  it  went  forth  from  my  body  until  my  poor  body  was  given  to 
the  dust.    The  Lord  gave  to  me  amidst  the  burning  flames  the  gar- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  199 

ment  that  you  see,  because  when  I  received  the  order  of  the  episco- 
pate I  gave  it  in  the  name  of  God  to  a  certain  poor  man.  And 
though  Gehenna  was  exceedingly  hot  and  the  ministers  of  Tartarus 
raged  against  me,  yet  they  could  do  no  harm  beneath  it.  Nothing 
of  all  that  I  brought  from  my  fatherland  has  been  of  such  value 
to  me  as  this  candle  which  my  friends  offered  here  for  me  and 
those  three  denarii  which  I  offered  to  the  Lance,  for  these  have 
restored  me  when,  suffering  in  hell,  I  was  near  unto  death.  Lord 
Bohemund  said  that  he  would  bear  my  body  to  Jerusalem.  Let 
him  know  that  it  is  to  his  advantage  not  to  move  me,  for  the  blood 
of  the  Lord  who  accompanies  me  is  still  there.  But  if  he  doubts 
this  which  I  say,  let  him  open  my  tomb  and  he  will  see  my  head 
and  face  burned.  I  have  committed  my  following  to  my  lord  the 
Count;  let  it  comfort  him  that  God  bestows  His  mercy  upon  him 
and  fulfils  what  He  has  promised  him.  And  let  my  brothers  not 
grieve  that  I  have  finished  life,  since  I  never  was  so  useful  as  I  will 
now  be,  if  they  are  willing  to  observe  the  commands  of  God.  For 
I  shall  dwell  with  them  and  likewise  all  my  brothers  who,  like 
myself,  have  ended  this  life;  and  I  shall  appear  and  shall  counsel 
them  much  better  than  hitherto.  And  you,  my  brothers,  be  mindful 
of  the  punishments  of  hell  which  are  so  severe  and  so  dreadful. 
Accordingly,  serve  God  who  can  deliver  you  from  these  and  other 
evils.  How  well-born  is  he  who  shall  know  not  the  punishments  of 
hell!  This  the  Saviour  can  grant  to  those  who  observe  His  pre- 
cepts. Keep  what  remains  of  this  candle  in  the  morning.  And  let 
the  Count,  together  with  those  he  may  wish,  choose  a  bishop  in  my 
place,  since  it  is  not  just  for  the  Blessed  Mary  to  have  no  bishop 
after  my  death.  Give  one  of  my  cloaks  to  the  church  of  St.  An- 
drew.'' 

And  the  blessed  Andrew  knelt  down  to  Him.  After  this,  St. 
Andrew,  sitting  nearer,  spoke  as  follows:  "Let  all  hear  what  the 
Lord  speaks  through  me :  Be  mindful.  Count,  of  that  gift  which  the 
Lord  gave  to  thee ;  strive  to  work  in  His  name,  that  the  Lord  may 
direct  thy  deeds  and  words,  and  heed  thy  prayer.  The  first  gift 
which  the  Lord  conferred  upon  thee,  Nicaea,  has  been  turned  from 
Him.  God  gave  thee  His  city  and  took  it  from  His  enemies  and 
afterwards  was  not  recognized  there.  If  anyone  invoked  the  name 
of  the  Lord,  he  was  beaten  there,  and  the  deeds  of  the  Lord  were 
not  done  there.  But  because  of  His  kindness  the  Lord  has  not 
willed  to  refuse  that  which  thou  seekest,  and  even  more  than  thou 
hast  dared  to  ask.  For  he  gave  thee  the  Lance  which  wounded 
His  body,  whence  the  blood  of  our  redemption  flowed  forth. 
But  He  did  not  give  it  thee  to  do  with  as  thou  didst  with  the 


200  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

other;  thou  canst  see  that  the  Lord  has  given  thee  this  be- 
cause of  thy  deserts.  The  Lord  commands  thee,  O  Count,  to 
find  out  who  will  be  willing  to  make  himself  lord  of  this  city  over 
the  others;  and  to  seek  from  him  what  kind  of  dominion  he  shall 
wish  to  establish  for  the  sake  of  the  Lord.  If  thou  and  thy  brothers 
to  whom  God  gave  this  city  know  that  he  is  faithful  and  wishes  to 
maintain  the  justice  of  God,  let  him  have  it.  And  if  he  is  unwilling 
to  do  and  hold  justice  and  judgment,  but  wishes  to  keep  the  city 
through  his  might,  do  thou  alone,  and  through  thy  brothers,  ask  ad- 
vice of  God,  and  He  will  give  it  thee.  And  those  men  who  have  fol- 
lowed the  right  path,  or  whom  God  cherishes,  will  not  fail  thee ;  let 
those,  however,  who  are  unwilling  to  keep  the  right  way,  turn  to 
him  who  is  unwilling  to  execute  justice,  and  it  will  be  seen  how  God 
will  save  them.  For  they  shall  have  the  same  curse  from  God  and 
His  Mother  which  Lucifer  had  when  he  fell  from  heaven.  And 
do  you,  if  you  are  all  of  one  mind,  ask  advice  in  prayer  and  God 
will  give  it  to  you.  And  if  there  is  concord  among  you,  take  coun- 
sel about  a  patriarch  who  is  of  your  law.  Moreover,  do  not  loose 
those  men  who  have  come  to  you  from  captivity  to  keep  your  law. 
Do  not  receive  those  who  have  wandered  into  Chorosan  to  adore 
the  God  of  the  Turks,  but  hold  them  as  Turks  and  send  two  or 
three  of  them  to  prison  and  they  will  betray  the  rest  to  you.  More- 
over, after  the  deeds  above  named  have  been  done,  seek  advice- 
from  the  Lord  about  the  journey  because  of  which  you  came,  and 
He  will  advise  you.  Jerusalem  is  ten  days  from  you,  and  if  you 
are  not  willing  to  keep  the  above  written  commands,  you  shall  not 
go  into  Jerusalem  in  ten  years.  And  after  ten  years  I  will  lead  back 
the  infidels  in  honor,  and  a  hundred  of  them  shall  prevail  against 
a  thousand  of  you.  Do  you,  men  of  Christ,  seek  from  the  Lord  the 
petition  which  the  apostles  sought.  And  just  as  He  gave  it  to  them, 
so  also  will  He  now  give  it  to  you.  You,  Count  and  Bohemund,  go 
to  the  church  of  St.  Andrew,  and  he  will  give  you  the  best  counsel 
from  God.  And  that  which  God  shall  place  in  your  hearts  (to  do), 
do.  And  after  St.  Andrew  has  visited  you,  visit  him  and  have  your 
brothers  visit  him.  Between  you.  Count  and  Bohemund,  let  there 
be  concord  and  love  of  God  and  neighbor.  And  if,  indeed,  you  have 
fortunately  come  to  agreement,  nothing  will  be  able  to  separate 
you.  It  is  well  to  show  first  the  justice  which  you  ought  to  main- 
tain. According  as  the  men  are  followers  of  their  individual 
bishops,  let  them  profess  their  wealth;  let  them  aid  the  poor  of 
their  kind  just  as  they  can,  and  as  there  shall  be  need.  Moreover, 
about  other  matters  do  as  you  shall  agree.  If  any  are  unwilling  to 
do  this  and  other  justice,  constrain  them.    And  if  anyone  shall  wish 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  201 

to  retain  any  other  city  of  those  which  God  shall  give  you,  make 
him  conduct  himself  according  to  the  above  directions.  If,  how- 
ever, they  are  unwilling  to  do  this,  let  the  Count  with  the  children 
of  God  punish  them." 

These  words,  at  first  believed,  were  then  forgotten,  for  some  said, 
"Let  us  return  the  city  to  the  Emperor."    Others,  however,  said  not. 

When,  indeed,  Peter  was  pressed  by  death  at  the  siege  of  Archas, 
he  called  the  Count  to  him  and  said,  "When  you  have  reached 
Jerusalem,  have  the  army  ask  God  to  prolong  your  life  and  continue 
it,  and  God  will  prolong  it  as  much  as  you  have  already  lived.  How- 
ever, when  you  shall  have  returned,  place  the  Lance  of  God  five 
leagues  from  the  church  of  St.  Trophim,  and  have  a  church  built 
there,  and  let  there  be  a  medal  which  you  shall  swear  is  not  falsified, 
and  do  not  allow  anything  else  to  be  falsified  there.  That  place  will 
be  called  the  Mount  of  Joy.  Let  these  things  be  done  within  Pro- 
vence, for  St.  Peter  promised  to  his  disciple,  St.  Trophim,*  that 
he  would  send  the  Lance  of  God  to  him." 

And  thus  through  discord  and  seditions  of  this  kind  the  property 
of  the  poor  was  wiped  out.  Of  this  advice  which  the  princes  re- 
ceived from  St.  Andrew  nothing  came. 

Meanwhile,  the  Turks  of  the  Caliph  besieged  a  certain  fortified 
place  called  Asa.  Therefore  the  afflicted  Turks  who  were  within 
sent  word  to*me  Duke,  who  was  in  that  region,  to  receive  their 
fortress;  that  they  then  wished  to  have  no  lord  except  one  of  the 
race  of  the  Franks.  On  this  account,  therefore,  the  Duke,  return- 
ing to  Antioch,  summoned  together  the  Count,  who  had  already 
convalesced  from  his  illness,  and  all  his  knights  and  foot-soldiers, 
for  the  sake  of  the  poor  to  lead  them  into  Hispania  for  plunder. 
He  urged  greatly  that  the  Count,  for  God;  for  the  glory  of  the  race 
of  the  Franks,  and  for  himself,  should  aid  the  Turks  who  were  call- 
ing upon  God,  adding  that  the  besieged  Turks  held  forth  the  Cross 
against  the  machines  of  the  besieging  Turks.  After  these  and 
many  other  prayers  of  this  kind,  the  Count  set  out  with  the  Duke. 
However,  when  this  was  found  out  by  the  Turks,  they  withdrew 
from  the  siege.  As  our  army  came  to  Asa,  the  Duke  received  hos- 
tages from  the  fortress  for  fealty  thereafter,  and  the  Count,  with 
a  heavy  expense  to  his  army,  returned  to  Antioch.  Again  the  Count 
assembled  his  army  to  lead  the  poor  people  into  Hispania  because 
they  were  failing  from  hunger  and  illness  at  Antioch. 

However,  St.  Andrew  appeared  to  Peter  Bartholomew,  this  time 
at  Rugia,  in  a  tent  where  the  Bishop  of  Agde  was  staying  and  the 
chaplain  of  Count  Raymond  and  another  chaplain,  Simon  by  name. 
This  Simon,  moreover,  hearing  them  speaking  together,   that  is, 


202  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

St.  Andrew  with  Peter  Bartholomew,  lent  his  ears,  and,  as  he  said, 
heard  very  many  things,  but  remembered  only  this :    "Lord,  I  say." 

But  the  Bishop  of  Agde  said :  "I  know  not  whether  it  was  in  a 
dream  or  not.  A  certain  old  man  dressed  in  a  white  cloak  and 
holding  in  his  hand  the  Lance  of  the  Lord  stood  before  me  and  said 
to  me,  *Dost  thou  believe  that  this  is  the  Lance  of  Jesus  Christ?' 

"And  I  replied,  1  believe.  Lord.* 

"And  when  he  had  thus  questioned  me  a  second  and  a  third  time, 
I  said  'Verily  I  believe,  Lord,  that  this  is  the  Lance  which  drew 
forth  from  the  side  of  Jesus  Christ  the  blood  whence  we  all  have 
been  redeemed,' " 

And  after  this,  the  Bishop  violently  aroused  me,  who  was  sleep- 
ing near.  When  I  looked  out,  I  saw  an  unwonted  splendor,  and, 
feeling  a  certain  grace  of  spirit,  I  began  to  ask  of  those  who  were 
present  whether  they  had  noticed  any  disturbance  among  the  people. 
And  all  began  to  say,  "Not  at  all."  But  when  we  said  to  one  another 
the  things  which  we  said  above,  that  Peter  to  whom  this  revelation 
had  been  made  replied,  "And  truly  enough  did  you  here  see  a  grace- 
giving  splendor,  since  the  Father  from  whom  all  grace  proceeds 
stood  here  for  some  time." 

When,  moreover,  we  asked  him  to  make  clear  what  had  been  told 
him,  he  said  this  to  us  and  the  Count : 

"On  this  night  the  Lord  and  St.  Andrew  came  here  in  the  form 
in  which  they  have  been  wont  to  come  before,  together  with  a  cer- 
tain third  person  with  a  very  long  beard  whose  stature  was  slight 
and  who  was  dressed  in  linen.  Then  St.  Andrew  threatened  me 
much  because  I  had  left  in  an  unworthy  place  the  relics  of  his 
body  which  were  found  in  his  church  at  Antioch,  and  said  'When 
I  was  hurled  headlong  from  a  mountain  near  Antioch  by  the 
infidels,  I  broke  two  of  my  fingers,  and  after  my  death  this  man 
took  them  and  brought  them  to  Antioch.  But  thou,  when  thou 
didst  find  them,  neglected  them;  one  thou  hast  permitted  to  be 
taken  away  from  thee,  the  other  thou  hast  unworthily  neglected.' 
And  he  showed  his  hand  without  the  fingers.  Then,  Count,  he 
complained  much  about  you,  for,  although  you  have  received  the 
ineflfable  reward  granted  to  no  one  else  by  the  Lord,  you  do  not 
fear  to  sin  gravely  and  wickedly  in  the  sight  of  God.  Therefore 
the  Lord  showed  you  this  sign.  For  five  days  ago  when  you  offered 
a  candle  on  the  festival  of  the  blessed  Fidus^  large  enough  to  last 
for  three  days  and  nights,  it  did  not  even  give  light,  but  melted 
away  immediately  and  was  destroyed  on  the  ground.  Moreover, 
tonight  you  offered  a  candle  so  little  that  it  could  scarcely  last  till 
cockcrow,  and  it  is  now  day,  and  it  still  lasts,  nor  has  a  third  part 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  203 

of  it  been  burned.  Besides  this,  the  Lord  sends  you  word  to  begin 
nothing,  unless  you  have  first  done  penance;  otherwise  you  and 
whatever  you  do  will  sink,  like  the  melted  candle,  into  the  ground. 
And  he  says  that  if  you  do  penance,  all  that  you  begin  in  the  name 
of  the  Lord  God  will  perfect  and  finish,  and  as  you  see  this  little 
candle  last  a  long  time,  so  will  the  Lord  make  great  whatever  you 
shall  undertake,  even  though  it  be  small." 

And  when  the  Count  denied  that  he  had  sinned  so  gravely,  Peter 
also  narrated  the  sin  to  him,  and  the  Count  thus  confessed  and  did 
penance. 

And  again  Peter  said  to  the  Count,  "St.  Andrew  complains  of 
your  counsellors,  that  they  knowingly  advise  many  evil  things. 
Wherefore  he  commands  that  you  do  not  admit  them  to  your  coun- 
sel. Hear  also.  Count:  the  Lord  commands  you  not  to  delay,  be- 
cause, unless  Jerusalem  is  first  captured,  you  shall  have  no  aid. 
When,  however,  you  shall  draw  near  Jerusalem,  let  no  one  ride 
closer  than  two  leagues;  if  you  do  this,  God  will  give  the  city  to 
you.  After  this,  St.  Andrew  thanked  me  much  because  I  had 
caused  the  church  which  was  built  in  his  name  to  be  consecrated. 
St.  Andrew  said  this  and  other  things  to  me  about  which  it  is  not 
now  the  place  to  speak.  After  this  they  disappeared,  he  and  his 
companions."  'l^^-'l^'M 

Accordingly,  the  Count  set  out  with  the  poor  people  and  a  few 
knights  into  Syria  and  took  by  storm  the  first  city  of  the  Saracens, 
Barra  by  name;  and  he  killed  there  many  thousands  of  Saracens 
and  many  thousands  were  led  back  to  Antioch  to  be  sold.  But  he 
permitted  those  to  go  away  free  who,  for  fear  of  death,  gave  them- 
selves up  to  him  while  they  were  being  besieged.  Then,  after  taking 
counsel  with  his  chaplains  and  leaders,  he  there  very  laudably  and 
honorably  chose  a  certain  priest  as  Bishop.  When  all  who  were 
there  with  him  had  been  assembled,  the  chaplain  of  the  Count 
mounted  a  wall  and  made  clear  the  desire  of  the  Count  to  the  whole 
assemblage.  And  when  the  people  were  very  insistent  that  the 
election  should  be  made,  the  same  chaplain  of  the  Count  began  to 
seek  if  there  was  there  any  cleric  to  receive  the  vows  of  the  faith- 
ful and  to  serve  God  and  his  brothers  there,  as  much  as  he  could, 
in  resisting  the  pagans.  And  when  all  were  silent,  we  urged  a 
certain  Peter,  Narbonne  by  race,  to  whom  we  held  forth  the  work 
of*the  episcopate  in  the  presence  of  all  the  Council,  begging  that 
he  should  not  hesitate  to  accept  it  for  God  and  his  brothers,  if  he 
had  it  in  mind  to  prefer  to  die  rather  than  leave  that  city.  When 
he  professed  this,  all  the  people  unanimously  approved  him  and  of- 
fered great  thanks  to  God  that  through  the  administration  of  this 


204  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

man  He  wished  to  have  a  Roman  bishop  in  the  Oriental  church. 
The  Count  granted  to  the  Bishop  one  half  of  the  city  and  its  land.® 

2.  Disputes  between  Raymond  and  Bohemund.    (November  i,  1098- 
January  13,  1099.) 

(Gesta.)  But  as  the  time  set  approached,  that  is  the  Feast  of 
All  Saints,  all  our  leaders  returned  to  Antioch  and  together  began 
to  seek  how  they  might  accomplish  the  journey  to  the  Holy  Sepul- 
chre, saying:  "Since  the  time  set  for  going  has  arrived,  there  is  not 
time  for  further  quarrelling."  Bohemund,  however,  daily  sought 
(confirmation  of)  the  agreement  which  all  the  leaders  had  long  ago 
made  with  him  to  give  him  the  city."^  But  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles 
wished  to  commit  himself  to  no  agreement  with  Bohemund,  be- 
cause he  feared  to  perjure  himself  with  the  Emperor.  Neverthe- 
less, they  often  assembled  in  the  Church  of  St.  Peter  to  do  what 
was  just.  Bohemund  recited  his  agreement  and  presented  his  reck- 
oning. The  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  likewise,  laid  bare  his  words  and 
the  oath  which  he  had  made  to  the  Emperor  on  the  advice  of  Bo- 
hemund, The  bishops,  Duke  Godfrey,  the  Count  of  Flanders,  the 
Count  of  Normandy,  and  the  other  leaders  separated  from  the  rest 
and  entered  (the  space)  where  the  chair  of  St.  Peter  stands,  there 
to  decide  upon  a  judgment  between  the  two.  But  fearing  later  that 
the  journey  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre  might  be  interrupted,  they  were 
unwilling  to  make  public  their  judgment.  Then  the  Count  of  St. 
Gilles  said:  "Rather  than  see  the  way  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre  (un- 
achieved), if  Bohemund  will  consent  to  go  with  us,  I  will  faithfully 
agree  to  whatever  our  peers  (to  wit,  Duke  Godfrey,  the  Count  of 
Flanders,  Robert  of  Normandy,  and  the  other  seignors)  approve, 
saving  fealty  to  the  Emperor."^  Bohemund  approved  of  all  this, 
and  both  promised  in  the  hands  of  a  bishop  that  the  journey  to  the 
Holy  Sepulchre  would  in  no  way  be  disturbed  by  them.  Then 
Bohemund  took  counsel  with  his  vassals,  how  with  men  and  pro- 
visions he  might  fortify  the  citadel  on  the  high  mountain.  The 
Count  of  St.  Gilles,  likewise,  took  counsel  with  his  men,  how  he 
might  fortify  with  men  and  provisions  enough  for  a  long  time  the, 
palace  of  Cassianus,  and  the  tower  which  is  above  the  gate  of  the 
bridge,  on  the  side  toward  the  Port  of  St.  Simeon. 

This  city  of  Antioch  is  indeed  very  beautiful  and  glorious,  since 
within  its  walls  are  four  very  large  and  exceedingly  high  mountains. 
On  the  higher  one  has  been  built  a  castle,  wonderful  and  exceed- 
ingly strong.  Down  below  is  the  city  glorious,  near  at  hand  and 
adorned  with  honors  of  all  kinds,  since  many  churches  have  been 
built  within  it.     It  contains  three  hundred  and  sixty  monasteries. 


I 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  205 

and  the  Patriarch  holds  under  his  sway  one  hundred  and  fifty-three 
bishops.^  The  city  is  enclosed  by  two  walls;  the  greater  one,  fur- 
thermore, is  very  high  and  marvelously  wide,  and  constructed  of 
great  stones,  on  which  have  been  arranged  four  hundred  and  fifty 
towers.  The  city  is  beautiful  in  every  way.  On  the  east  it  is  en- 
closed by  four  mountains,  on  the  west  beside  the  walls  flows  a  cer- 
tain stream,  Orontes  by  name.  So  they  were  unwilling  foolishly  or 
senselessly  to  give  up  the  regal  city  of  Antioch,  which  was  of  such 
great  authority  that  it  held  seventy-five  kings  under  its  sway.  The 
chief  of  these  was  King  Antiochus,^^  from  whom  it  is  called  Anti- 
och. The  Franks  besieged  that  city  for  eight  months  and  a  day, 
and  afterwards  were  shut  up  in  it  for  three  weeks  by  the  Turks 
and  other  pagans,  than  whose  number  there  has  never  been  a  greater 
gathering  of  men,  whether  Christians  or  Pagans.  Nevertheless, 
after  those  people  had  been  defeated  by  God's  Christians,  with  the 
aid  of  God  and  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  we  rested  in  Antioch  with  great 
joy  and  gladness  for  five  months  and  eight  days. 

When  these  things  had  been  fulfilled,  Raymond,  Count  of  St. 
Gilles,  left  Antioch  with  his  army  in  the  month  of  November  and 
came  to  a  city  called  Rugia  and  to  another  which  is  called  Barra. 
But  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  day  of  outgoing  November  he  came 
to  the  city  of  Marra,  in  which  a  very  great  multitude  of  Saracens, 
Turks,  Arabs,  and  other  pagans  had  been  assembled,  and  the  Count 
himself  attacked  it  on  the  next  day.  Not  much  later,  Bohemund 
with  his  army  followed  the  Counts^^  and  joined  them  on  the  day 
of  the  Lord. 

On  the  second  day  of  the  week  they  attacked  the  city  vigorously 
on  all  sides,  so  fiercely  and  so  powerfully  that  their  ladders  were  set 
up  against  the  wall.  But  so  very  great  was  the  valor  of  the  pagans 
that  on  that  day  they  could  do  them  no  hurt  or  offense.  How- 
ever, when  our  leaders  saw  that  they  could  accomplish  nothing  and 
were  laboring  in  vain,  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  caused  a 
certain  wooden  fortress  to  be  made  strong  and  high.  This  fortress 
was  contrived  and  built  on  four  wheels.  On  (the  top  of)  it  were 
stationed  many  knights  and  Everard  the  Hunter,  who  sounded  his 
trumpet  loudly,  but  below  were  armed  knights  who  took  the  fort- 
ress up  to  the  very  wall  of  the  city,  near  a  certain  tower.  When 
the  pagan  people  saw  this,  they  immediately  constructed  a  machine 
by  means  of  which  to  cast  great  stones  on  the  fortress,  so  that  they 
almost  killed  our  knights.  They  also  threw  Greek  fire  on  the  fort- 
ress, expecting  it  to  burn  and  be  destroyed.  But  Almighty  God  was 
unwilling  to  burn  the  fortress  in  this  fashion,  for  it  towered  over 
all  the  walls  of  the  city.    Accordingly,  our  knights  who  were  in  the 


2o6  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

upper  conipartment,  William  of  Montpellier  and  many  others, 
hurled  gre^t  stones  upon  those  who  were  standing  on  the  wall  of 
the  city  and  thus  struck  them  over  their  shields,  so  that  enemy  and 
shield  fell  down  into  the  city  to  death.  So  were  these  men  doing; 
but  the  rest  held  glorious  banners  on  their  spears,  and  with  lances 
and  iron  hooks  planned  to  drag  the  enemy  to  them.  Thus  they 
fought  until  evening.  The  priests  and  clerics,  dressed  in  their  sacred 
vestments,  stood  behind  the  fortress,  praying  and  beseeching  God 
to  defend  His  people,  exalt  Christianity,  and  cast  down  paganism. 
On  the  other  side,  however,  our  knights  fought  with  the  pagans 
daily  and  raised  ladders  to  the  wall,  but  their  valor  was  so  great 
that  our  men  could  accomplish  nothing.  Godfrey  of  Lastour 
was  the  first  to  climb  up  the  ladder  to  the  wall,  but  the  ladder 
was  immediately  broken  by  the  multitude  of  the  others.  Yet 
he  climbed  onto  the  wall  with  a  few,  and  those  who  had  ascended 
cleared  the  wall  close  about  them.  The  others,  too,  found 
another  ladder  and  quickly  set  it  up  against  the  wall,  and  many 
knights  and  foot-soldiers,  ascending  by  it,  immediately  climbed  over 
the  wall.  Thereupon  the  Saracens  so  stoutly  attacked  them  from 
the  wall  and  from  the  ground  by  shooting  arrows  and  hurling  spears 
everywhere  that  many  of  our  men  in  terror  let  themselves  down 
from  the  wall.  For  a  long  time  those  most  illustrious  men  who 
remained  on  the  wall  bore  the  attack  of  the  enemy,  as  long  as  the 
rest  beneath  the  fortress  were  undermining  the  wall  of  the  city. 
But  when  the  Saracens  saw  that  our  men  had  undermined  the  wall, 
they  were  overcome  with  fright  and  immediately  fled  into  the  city. 
All  this  happened  on  the  Sabbath  day,  toward  the  hour  of  vespers, 
at  sunset  on  the  eleventh  day  of  incoming  December.^- 

Bohemund,  thereupon,  had  it  proclaimed  through  an  interpreter 
to  the  leaders  of  the  Saracens  that  they  might  place  themselves, 
with  their  wives  and  children  and  other  possessions,  in  a  palace 
near  the  gate,  and  that  he  would  defend  them  from  the  sentence  of 
death.  But  all  our  men  entered  the  city,  and  whatever  goods  they 
found  in  the  houses  and  in  the  pits  each  one  appropriated  as  his 
own.  However,  when  day  came  they  killed  many  of  them,  whether 
man  or  woman,  wherever  they  found  them.  No  corner  of  the  city 
was  free  from  corpses  of  the  Saracens,  and  we  could  scarcely  go 
anywhere  in  the  city  without  stepping  on  the  Saracen  dead.  At 
length,  Bohemund  seized  those  whom  he  had  commanded  to  enter 
the  palace  and  took  from  them  all  they  had:  to  wit,  gold,  silver, 
and  other  ornaments.  Some  he  had  killed;  others,  however,  he 
ordered  to  be  taken  to  Antioch  for  sale. 

Moreover,  the  delay  of  the  Franks  in  that  city  was  for  one  month 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  207 

< 
and  four  days,  during  which  time  the  Bishop  of  Orange  died. 
There  were  some  of  our  men  who  did  not  find  it  there  to  their  taste, 
not  only  because  of  the  long  stay,  but  also  because  of  the  pressure 
of  hunger,  since  they  could  find  nothing  outside  to  take.  But  they 
burned  the  bodies  of  the  dead  because  they  found  gold  besants  hid- 
den in  their  stomachs,  while  others  cut  the  flesh  of  the  bodies  to 
pieces  and  cooked  them  for  food. 

However,  Bohemund  could  not  get  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  to 
agree  to  this  matter  that  he  sought  and  returned  in  anger  to  Antioch. 
Accordingly  Count  Raymond,  without  long  delay,  sent  (word) 
through  his  legates  at  Antioch  to  Duke  Godfrey,  the  Count  of  Flan- 
ders, Robert  the  Norman,  and  Bohemund  that  they  should  come  to 
the  city  of  Rugia  to  speak  with  him.  All  the  leaders  went  there 
and  held  a  council  as  to  how  they  could  honorably  continue  the 
journey  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  for  the  sake  of  which  they  had  been 
aroused  and  had  come  hither  to  this  place.  They  could  not  bring 
Bohemund  into  accord  with  Raymond,  unless  Count  Raymond  gave 
Antioch  to  him.  The  Count  refused  to  agree  to  this  because  of  the 
pledge  which  he  had  made  to  the  Emperor.  The  Counts  and  the 
Dukes  then  returned  to  Antioch  with  Bohemund,  but  Count  Ray- 
mond returned  to  Marra,  where  the  pilgrims  were.  He  also  bade 
his  knights  strengthen  the  palace  and  castle  which  was  over  the 
gate  of  the  bridge  to  the  city. 

(Raymond.)  And  now  the  Kalends  of  November  was  pressing, 
the  day  on  which  all  the  princes  had  promised  to  convene  at  Antioch 
and  begin  the  journey  because  of  which  they  had  come.  Moreover, 
Barra  was  about  two  days  distant  from  Antioch.  Accordingly, 
the  Count  left  his  army  at  Barra  and,  with  his  Bishop-elect  and  many 
captives  and  much  booty,  returned  to  Antioch  with  great  exultation. 
All  the  princes  assembled  there  except  Baldwin,  brother  of  the 
Duke.  But  this  Baldwin,  who  had  set  out  before  the  capture  of 
Antioch  toward  the  Euphrates,  had  obtained  Edessa,  a  very  wealthy 
and  famous  city;  and  he  had  successfully  fought  many  battles  with 
the  Turks. 

But  before  we  go  on  to  the  rest,  this  one  incident  about  the  Du|ce 
of  Lorraine  should  not  be  passed  over.  When  he  was  coming  to 
Antioch  at  this  time  with  twelve  knights,  he  met  one  hundred  and 
fifty  Turks.  Thereupon,  after  taking  up  his  arms  and  urging  on 
his  knights,  he  bravely  attacked  the  enemy.  However,  when  the 
Turk^  saw  that  the  Franks  preferred  death  in  fighting  to  flight  with 
safety,  a  certain  portion  of  the  Turks  dismounted  so  that  the  other 
portion  might  fight  in  greater  security,  since  they  would  know  that 
their  companions,  having  left  their  horses,  would  not  withdraw  from 


208  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

the  battle.  And  thus,  since  the  battle,  once  begun,  was  lasting 
long  and  severely,  the  Duke's  knights,  who  equalled  the  number 
of  the  twelve  apostles  and  regarded  their  lord  as  the  vicar  of  God, 
encouraged  one  another  and  fearlessly  attacked  the  lines  of  the 
Turks.  There  God  granted  so  great  a  victory  to  the  Duke  that 
he  killed  almost  thirty  of  the  enemy  and  took  the  same  number 
captive;  and,  pursuing  the  rest  in  the  swamps  and  the  river  which 
were  nearby,  he  forced  some  to  be  destroyed,  some  drowned.  And 
so  he  came  to  Antioch  with  a  great  victory,  for  he  caused  several 
heads  of  the  dead  to  be  carried  by  the  living  Turks,  a  sight  joyful 
enough  for  us. 

And  so,  when  all  the  princes  had  come  together  into  the  church 
of  St.  Peter,  they  began  to  talk  about  our  journey.  Then  some  who 
held  castles  and  revenues  in  the  region  of  Antioch  said:  "What 
will  be  done  about  Antioch  ?  Who  will  keep  it  ?  The  Emperor  will 
not  come.  For  when  he  received  the  message  that  the  Turks  were 
besieging  us,  he  fled,  trusting  neither  his  own  courage  nor  the  multi- 
tude of  men  which  he  had  with  him.  Shall  we  still  wait  for  him? 
Surely  he  will  not  come  to  our  aid,  he  who  forced  our  brothers,  on 
their  way  to  the  aid  of  God  and  ourselves,  to  turn  back!  And  if 
we  leave  this  city,  and  the  Turks  occupy  it,  the  end  will  be  worse 
than  before.  But  let  us  all  grant  it  to  Bohemund,  since  he  is  wise 
and  will  guard  it  very  well ;  and  his  name  is  great  among  the  pagans." 

But  the  Count  and  the  others  said  on  the  contrary,  "We  swore 
to  the  Emperor  upon  the  Cross  of  the  Lord,  and  the  Crown  of 
thorns,  and  upon  many  other  holy  objects,  that  we  would  not  retain 
without  his  will  any  city  or  fortress  of  all  that  belonged  to  his 
Empire." 

And  thus,  with  some  contradicting  the  others  in  this  way  and  that, 
the  princes  suffered  such  discord  that  they  almost  came  to  blows. 
The  Duke  and  the  Count  of  Flanders  regarded  the  city  of  Antioch 
lightly ;  for  though  they  wished  Bohemund  to  have  it,  yet  they  dared 
not  approve  giving  it  to  him  for  fear  of  incurring  the  infamy  of 
perjury.i3  j^  ^^^^  ^^^^  accordingly,  the  matter  of  the  journey  and 
other  things  pertaining  to  the  journey  and  to  the  poor  were  put  off. 
However,  when  the  people  saw  this,  each  one  began  to  say  to  his 
companion  and  neighbor,  then  openly  to  all:  "Since  the  princes, 
either  from  fear  or  because  of  their  oaths  to  the  Emperor,  are  un- 
willing to  lead  us  to  Jerusalem,  let  us  choose  some  brave  knight  in 
serving  whom  loyally  we  can  be  safe,  and,  if  it  is  the  will  of  God, 
we  will  arrive  in  Jerusalem  with  this  same  knight  as  leader.  Alas ! 
is  it  not  enough  for  the  princes  that  we  have  been  here  a  year,  and 
two  hundred  thousand  armed  men  have  been  wasted?     Let  them 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  ^  209 

who  wish  to  have  the  Emperor's  gold  have  it,  and  those  who  wish 
to  have  the  revenues  of  Antioch,  likewise.  Let  us,  however,  take 
up  our  march  with  Christ  as  leader,  for  whom  we  have  come.  Let 
those  who  want  to  hold  Antioch  perish  miserably,  as  its  inhabitants 
recently  perished.  If  this  great  dispute  about  Antioch  is  con- 
tinued longer,  let  us  tear  down  its  walls,  and  the  peace  which  held 
the  princes  together  before  the  city  was  taken  will  unite  them  after 
it  has  been  destroyed.  Nay,  before  we  waste  away  utterly  here 
from  starvation  and  disease,  we  ought  to  return  to  our  own  homes." 
For  these  and  other  reasons  the  Count  and  Bohemund  made  dis- 
cordant peace  between  themselves.  So  when  the  day  had  been 
fixed,  the  people  were  ordered  to  prepare  for  the  avowed  journey. 

Accordingly,  when  the  necessary  preparations  had  been  made  and 
the  day  fixed,  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  and  the  Count  of  Flanders 
set  out  with  the  people  into  Syria,  and  there  they  besieged  Marra, 
a  very  rich  and  populous  city.  Marra  was  about  eight  miles  from 
Barra.  Its  citizens  were  so  haughty,  because,  at  one  time  in  a  cer- 
tain fight  they  had  killed  many  of  our  men,  that  they  cursed  our 
army  and  maligned  the  princes,  and,  to  provoke  us  most,  they 
placed  crosses  upon  the  walls  and  plied  them  with  insults.  For 
this  reason,  therefore,  on  the  second  day  after  our  arrival,  we  as- 
sailed them  so  fiercely  that  if  we  had  had  four  more  ladders  the 
city  would  have  been  taken:  but  since  we  had  only  two,  and  those 
so  short  and  fragile  that  one  cHmbed  upon  them  timidly,  it  was 
decided  that  machines,  hurdles,  and  mounds  be  constructed,  by  means 
of  which  the  wall  could  be  forced,  undermined,  and  levelled.  In 
the  meantime,  Bohemund  came  with  his  army  and  besieged  it  from 
the  other  side.  Again,  without  having  prepared  the  machines  which 
we  spoke  of  above,  as  if  because  of  the  encouragement  of  Bohe- 
mund, who  had  not  been  present  at  the  former  assault,  we  wished 
to  attack  the  city  by  filling  the  moat.  But  this  was  in  vain,  for  we 
then  fought  much  worse  than  we  did  before.  After  this,  there  was 
such  famine  in  the  army  that,  pitiful  to  say,  you  could  see  ten  thou- 
sand men  going  about  the  fields  like  cattle,  digging  and  looking 
(to  see)  if  by  chance  they  might  find  grains  of  wheat,  or  barley, 
or  beans,  or  the  grains  of  any  other  legume.  In  the  meanwhile, 
though  the  machines  of  which  we  spoke  above  were  being  prepared 
to  take  the  city  by  storm,  nevertheless  some  of  our  men,  upon  see- 
ing the  misery  of  our  people  and  the  boldness  of  the  Saracens, 
despaired  of  God's  mercy  and  fled. 

But  God,  who  has  concern  for  His  followers,  did  not  permit  His 
people  whom  He  saw  placed  in  extreme  tribulation  to  suffer  too 
far.     Therefore  He  sent  word  to  us  through  His  blessed  apostles 


210  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Peter  and  Andrew,  through  whom  we  should  both  learn  His  will 
and  be  able  to  satisfy  His  stern  will  towards  us.  Accordingly,  they 
came  into  the  chapel  of  the  Count  about  midnight  and  aroused  Peter 
to  whom  they  had  recently  shown  the  Lance.  When  he  then  sud- 
denly saw  them  clothed  in  ill-shapen  garb,  standing  near  the  chest 
where  the  relics  were,  he  believed  them  to  be  some  paupers  who 
wanted  to  steal  something  from  the  tent.  For  there  was  St.  Andrew, 
dressed  in  an  old  shirt  torn  at  the  shoulders  and  in  a  cloak  ripped 
at  the  opening  of  his  left  shoulder;  there  was  nothing  over  the 
right  shoulder  and  he  was  vilely  shod.  Peter  wore  only  a  coarse 
and  long  shirt  down  to  his  ankles. 

Then  Peter  Bartholomew  said  to  them,  "Who  are  you.  Sirs? 
What  do  you  want?" 

And  St.  Peter  replied,  ''We  are  envoys  of  God.  I  am  Peter,  ana 
this  is  Andrew.  But  we  wished  to  appear  to  thee  in  this  garb,  in 
order  that  thou  shouldst  see  how  much  it  profiteth  to  serve  Goc? 
devoutly.  In  this  season  and  garb,  as  thou  seest  us,  we  came  tc 
God,  and  such  we  now  are." 

And  at  this  word  nothing  was  brighter  than  they,  nothing  more 
beautiful.  Peter,  indeed,  who  saw  this,  terrified  at  the  bright  light, 
fell  to  the  earth  as  if  dead,  and,  sweating  from  excessive  anguish, 
he  moistened  the  earth  upon  which  he  had  fallen.  Then  St.  Peter 
raised  him  and  said  to  him,  "Thou  didst  fall  easily." 

And  he  replied,  "It  is  so,  Lord." 

Again  St.  Peter  (spoke)  :  "So  fall  all  who  are  in  unbelief,  or 
who  transgress  the  commands  of  God.  But  if  they  are  penitent  for 
their  evil  deeds,  and  call  out  to  God,  the  Lord  raises  them  just  as  I 
raised  thee  when  thou  hadst  fallen.  And  just  as  thy  sweat  remains 
on  the  ground,  so  God  will  take  up  and  bear  away  the  sins  of  those 
who  cry  out  to  Him.    Tell  me,  how  is  the  army  ?" 

And  he  replied,  "Indeed,  Sire,  they  are  in  great  fear  of  hunger 
and  all  wretchedness." 

And  then  St.  Peter  said :  "And  verily  can  they  be  in  great  fear 
who  had  deserted  Almighty  God!  They  do  not  remember  the 
dangers  from  which  He  rescued  them  to  give  Him  any  thanks.  For 
when  you  were  all  beaten  and  humbled  at  Antioch,  you  cried  out  to 
the  Lord  so  that  we  who  were  in  heaven  heard.  The  Lord  heeded 
you  and  gave  you  His  Lance  as  a  token  of  victory ;  then  He  caused 
you  miraculously  and  gloriously  to  triumph  over  your  enemies  who 
besieged  you.  And  now  to  which  Lord  do  you  entrust  your  safety, 
you  who  have  gravely  offended  God?  Will  the  high  mountains  or 
the  caves  protect  you?  For  even  if  you  should  be  on  a  very  high 
and  strong  place  and  have  abundance  of  all  the  necessaries  of  life, 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  211 

yet  you  could  not  be  secure,  since  a  hundred  thousand  adversaries 
would  threaten  each  one  of  you.  Among  you  is  killing  and  rapine 
and  theft,  no  justice,  and  very  much  adultery,  when  it  would  please 
God  if  you  should  all  take  wives.  But  concerning  justice,  the  Lord 
commands  thus;  that  if  any  one  shall  do  violence  to  a  poor  man, 
all  that  is  in  the  house  of  the  oppressors  shall  be  made  pubHc 
(property).  Of  the  tithes  the  Lord  says  that,  if  you  render  them. 
He  Himself  is  ready  to  give  whatever  is  necessary.  But  whenever 
you  wish  to  besiege  it,  he  will  give  you  that  city  out  of  His  com- 
passion and  not  for  your  deserts;  without  doubt  it  will  be  taken." 
Moreover,  when  Peter  announced  this  to  the  Count  in  the  morn- 
ing, the  Bishops  of  Orange  and  Barra  assembled  the  people,  and 
we  made  known  to  them  what  has  been  written.  The  faithful,  thus 
led  on  to  the  greatest  hope  of  taking  the  city,  offered  most  generous 
alms  and  prayers  to  Almighty  God  to  free  His  poor  people  for  His 
name  alone.  After  this,  ladders  were  swiftly  built,  and  a  wooden 
tower  erected,  and  hurdles  joined,  and  at  the  close  of  the  day  the 
fight  was  begun.  Those  who  were  inside  the  city  threw  stones 
with  hurling  engines,  javelins,  fire,  wood,  beehives  with  bees,  and 
slack  lime  upon  our  men  who  were  undermining  the  wall;  but  by 
the  valor  and  compassion  of  God,  these  things  hurt  none,  or  few, 
of  them.  However,  this  fight  lasted  from  sunrise  to  sunset  so 
marvelously  that  no  rest  was  ever  given,  and  yet  there  was  doubt 
of"  victory.  At  length,  all  cried  out  to  God  with  one  voice  to  be 
more  favorable  fo  His  people,  and  to  fulfil  the  promises  of  His 
apostles.  The  Lord  was  present  there  and  gave  us  the  city,  accord- 
ing to  the  words  of  the  apostles.  Godfrey  of  Lastours  was  the  first 
to  scale  (the  wall)  ;  more  followed  him  and  invaded  the  wall  and 
some  towers  of  the  city.  Then  night  came  down  which  cut  off  the 
battle.  The  Saracens  still  retained  some  towers  and  a  part  of  the 
city.  On  this  account  the  knights,  expecting  that  the  Saracens 
would  not  surrender  even  in  the  morning,  kept  guard  outside  the 
city,  lest  any  should  escape.  But  those  to  whom  life  was  not  very 
dear,  whom  long  fasting  had  led  to  contempt  of  self,  were  not 
afraid  to  attack  the  Saracens  amidst  the  shadows  of  the  night.  And 
thus  the  poor  gained  both  the  spoils  and  houses  of  the  city.  More- 
over, when  morning  came  the  knights  went  into  the  city  and  found 
few  things  which  they  might  take  for  themselves.  The  Saracens, 
indeed,  concealed  themselves  in  underground  caves,  and  none,  or 
few,  appeared.  When  our  men  had  carried  off  all  that  they  found 
above  ground,  thinking  that  everything  else  was  with  the  Saracens, 
they  searched  out  the  caves  with  fire  and  sulphur  smoke;  and  be- 
cause they  did  not  find  much  booty  there,  in  hopes  of  spoils  they 


212  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

tortured  to  death  the  Saracens  whom  they  could  find.  It  happened, 
however,  to  some  of  our  men  that  when  they  led  the  Saracens 
through  the  city  for  spoils,  the  Saracens  conducted  them  to  cisterns, 
and  suddenly  hurled  themselves  into  them,  choosing  death  rather 
than  to  be  willing  to  reveal  their  own  or  other's  property.  Where- 
fore, all  fell  down  dead ;  and  they  were  cast  forth  among  the  swamps 
of  the  city  and  outside  the  walls.  And  so  not  much  booty  was 
taken  in  the  city. 

Meanwhile,  a  quarrel  arose  between  Bohemund's  men  and  those 
of  the  Count  for  the  reason  that,  though  the  knights  of  Bohemund 
had  not  taken  much  part  in  the  siege,  they  obtained  the  largest 
number  of  towers,  houses,  and  captives.  The  Lord  performed  a 
miracle  in  the  capture  of  Marra.  Before  it  was  taken,  although 
we  expounded  to  the  people  the  commands  of  the  apostles  Peter 
and  Andrew,  just  as  was  written  above,  Bohemund  and  his  com- 
panions laughed  at  us.  Therefore,  neither  he  nor  those  with  him 
were  present  at  the  fight,  but  rather  were  absent.  And  since  they 
now  had  the  greatest  share  of  the  spoils,  some  of  the  Count's  fol- 
lowing bore  it  unworthily.  At  length,  a  disagreement  arose  be- 
tween the  leaders  themselves,  because  the  Count  wished  to  give  the 
city  to  the  Bishop  of  Barra,  and  Bohemund  was  unwilling  to  let 
go  the  towers  which  had  surrendered  to  him,  saying,  "Unless  the 
Count  gives  up  to  me  the  towers  at  Antioch,  I  will  not  agree  with 
him  in  anything." 

Meanwhile,  the  knights  and  people  began  to  ask*about  the  journey, 
when  it  would  please  the  princes  to  begin  it.  For  though  the  march 
had  started  long  time  ago,  yet  it  seemed  to  us  merely  to  begin  the 
journey,  since  it  was  not  yet  ended.  Bohemund  said  that  he  would 
put  it  off  to  Easter,  and  it  was  then  the  Christmas  time.  Many, 
likewise,  despaired  because  there  were  few  horses  in  the  army,  and 
the  Duke  was  absent,  and  many  of  the  knights  went  away  to  Bald- 
win of  Edessa.  Therefore  many  turned  back.  At  length  the  Bishop 
of  Albara  and  some  nobles  met  with  the  poor  people  and  summoned 
the  Count.  When  the  Bishop  had  finished  his  preaching,  the  knights 
and  all  the  people  knelt  before  the  Count.  With  many  tears  they 
prayed  him  to  whom  the  Lord  had  given  the  Lance  to  become  their 
leader  and  lord  of  this  same  army,  adding  that  he  had  especially 
merited  the  Lance  of  the  Lord  for  the  reason  that  if  the  other 
princes  failed,  he  himself,  indebted  for  so  great  a  blessing  of  the 
Lord,  would  not  fear  to  go  forward  in  security  with  the  people. 
Otherwise,  he  should  give  the  Lance  to  the  people,  and  the  people 
would  go  to  Jerusalem  with  the  Lord  Himself  as  leader.  However, 
the  Count  hesitated  because  of  the  absence  of  the  other  princes, 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  213 

fearing  that  if  he  alone  should  determine  the  day  of  the  journey, 
the  others  would  not  go  because  of  envy  of  him.  Why  say  much? 
The  Count,  overcome  by  the  tears  of  the  poor,  named  the  fifth  or 
sixth  day  to  be  announced  through  the  city  for  the  journey,  and 
after  this  he  returned  to  Antioch. 

The  Count  with  the  Bishop  sought  a  way  to  retain  the  city,  and 
who  and  how  many  men  they  could  leave  there  as  a  garrison  for 
it.  Meanwhile,  the  Count  sent  word  to  the  Duke  of  Lorraine  and 
to  the  others  who  were  not  present  at  Marra  to  assemble  in  one 
place  and  deal  with  the  matters  which  would  be  necessary  for  the 
march.  And  so  they  assembled  at  Rusa,  which  was  about  midway 
between  Antioch  and  Marra.  There  a  colloquy  was  held  and  all  the 
princes  behaved  worse  (than  usual).  For  the  princes  excused  them- 
selves from  the  journey,  and  many  others  because  of  them.  Never- 
theless, the  Count  wished  to  give  the  Duke  ten  thousand  solidi,  an 
equal  amount  to  Robert  of  Normandy,  six  thousand  to  the  Count 
of  Flanders,  and  five  thousand  to  Tancred,  and  to  the  other  princes 
accordingly. 

In  the  midst  of  this,  when  the  news  came  to  the  poor  who  had 
remained  at  Marra  that  the  Count  wanted  to  leave  many  knights 
and  foot-soldiers  of  the  army  in  the  city  of  Marra  as  a  garrison, 
they  said  to  one  another,  *'Oho!  quarrels  about  Antioch  and  quar- 
rels about  Marra!  In  every  place  which  God  shall  give  us  will 
there  be  contention  among  the  princes,  and  a  lessening  of  the  army 
of  God?  Surely  there  will  be  no  further  argument  about  this  city! 
Come,  and  let  us  destroy  its  walls,  and  peace  will  be  made  between 
the  princes  and  security  for  the  Count,  lest  he  lose  it." 

Thereupon,  the  weak  and  sick  arose  from  their  beds,  and,  armed 
with  clubs  they  went  to  the  walls.  After  those  stones  which  three 
or  four  yoke  of  oxen  cou^ld  scarcely  drag  had  been  rolled  back,  a 
serf  easily  pushed  them  far  out  from  the  walls.  But  the  Bishop  of 
Albara  and  other  intimates  of  the  Count  went  around  the  city  com- 
plaining and  forbidding  this  to  be  done  in  any  way.  When,  how- 
ever, those  guardians  had  passed,  those  who  had  hidden  themselves 
and  climbed  down  at  the  approach  of  the  Bishop  and  his  compan- 
ions, immediately  returned  to  the  work  begun.  And  those  who 
dared  not  destroy  by  day,  or  could  not,  being  otherwise  engaged, 
applied  themselves  (to  the  task)  at  night.  There  was  scarcely  any- 
one of  the  people  too  weak  or  ill  to  tear  down  the  wall. 

Meanwhile,  there  was  such  famine  in  the  army  that  the  people 
ate  most  greedily  the  already  fetid  bodies  of  the  Saracens  which 
they  had  cast  into  the  swamp  of  the  city  two  weeks  and  more  ago. 
These  events  frightened  many  of  our  people,  as  well  as  others.    On 


214  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

this  account  very  many  of  our  men  turned  back,  despairing  of  the 
journey  without  the  help  of  the  Frankish  people.  But  the  Saracens 
and  the  Turks  said  on  the  contrary:  "And  who  can  resist  these 
people,  who  are  so  obstinate  and  cruel  that  for  a  whole  year  they 
could  not  be  turned  from  the  siege  of  Antioch  by  famine,  sword, 
or  any  other  dangers,  and  who  now  live  on  human  flesh?"  These 
and  other  very  cruel  practices  the  pagans  said  existed  among  us. 
For  God  gave  fear  of  us  to  all  people,  but  we  did  not  know  it. 

The  Count,  meanwhile  having  returned  to  Marra  from  the  collo- 
quy, was  exceedingly  angry  at  the  people  about  the  destruction  of 
the  wall.  But  when  it  was  explained  to  him  that  neither  the  Bishop 
nor  other  princes  could  move  the  people,  either  by  threats  or  blows, 
from  the  destruction  of  the  walls,  he  learned  thereby  that  it  was 
divine  and  ordered  the  foundations  of  the  wall  to  be  destroyed. 
Meanwhile,  the  famine  grew  daily  more  severe.  And  now  when 
the  day  proposed  for  the  journey  was  at  hand,  we  commanded  the 
people  to  offer  to  God  alms  and  prayers  for  the  journey.  But 
when  the  Count  saw  that  none  of  the  leading  princes  came  to  him, 
and  he  perceived  almost  all  his  people  wasting  away,  he  commanded 
the  people  to  go  into  interior  Hispania  for  food,  and  (he  said  that) 
he  himself  with  his  knights  would  precede  them.  But  this  did  not 
please  some  of  his  intimates.  For  they  said,  "In  the  army  there 
are  scarcely  three  hundred  knights,  and  there  is  not  a  large  number 
of  other  armed  men,  and  yet  will  some  go  on  the  expedition  and 
others  stay  here  within  the  destroyed  city,  which  is  without  forti- 
fication?" And  they  enlarged  upon  the  very  great  fickleness  of 
the  Count. 

Nevertheless,  in  the  end  the  Count  set  forth  because  of  the  poor 
and  gained  many  castles  and  captives  and  great  spoil.  When  he 
was  returning  with  great  exultation  and  victory  after  very  many 
of  the  Saracens  had  been  killed,  six  or  seven  of  our  poor  were  cap- 
tured and  killed  by  the  pagans.  All  these  dead,  however,  had 
crosses  on  their  right  shoulders.  Moreover,  when  the  Count  and 
those  with  him  saw  this,  they  thanked  Almighty  God,  who  was  mind- 
ful of  His  poor,  as  much  as  possible,  and  for  this  reason  they  were 
greatly  comforted.  And  thus  that  they  might  satisfy  all  who  had 
remained  with  the  baggage  at  Marra,  they  brought  along  one  of  the 
killed  who  was  still  breathing.  Verily,  we  beheld  a  miracle  in  that 
man,  who,  though  he  scarcely  had  a  whole  place  where  his  soul 
could  hide,  lingered  for  seven  or  eight  days  without  food,  bearing 
witness  that  Jesus,  to  whose  judgment  he  was  to  go,  without  doubt, 
was  God  the  Author  of  this  cross.  Therefore,  comforted  by  the 
favorable  turn  of  events  and  by  the  (sign  of  the)  cross,  they  left 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  215 

their  spoils  in  a  certain  fortified  place  called  Cafardan,  a  journey 
four  leagues  distant  from  Marra,  and  those  who  had  companions 
at  Marra  returned  with  the  Count. 

3.  Raymond  finally  starts  for  Jerusalem.     Archas.     (January  13- 
March,  1099.) 

(Gesta.)  When  Raymond,  moreover,  saw  that  because  of  him 
none  of  the  leaders  would  go  upon  the  way  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre, 
he  went  out  with  bare  feet  from  Marra  on  the  thirteenth  day  of  in- 
coming January  and  came  up  to  Cafardan  and  remained  there  for 
three  days.  There  the  Count  of  Normandy  joined  Count  Raymond. 
Moreover,  the  King  of  Caesrea  had  very  often  sent  word  by  his 
messengers  to  the  Count  at  Marra  and  Cafardan  that  he  wished 
to  have  peace  with  him  and  would  give  him  a  tribute  from  his  own 
(possessions),  and  that  he  would  cherish  the  Christian  pilgrims. 
He  would  make  a  pledge  that  the  pilgrims  would  not  suffer  the 
least  offence,  as  far  as  his  sway  extended,  and  he  would  joyfully 
supply  a  market  of  horses  and  bodily  nourishment. 

Our  men,  moreover,  left  and  went  to  lodge  near  Caesarea,  above 
the  river  Orontes.  And  when  the  King  of  Caesarea  saw  the  camp 
of  the  Franks  lodged  so  near  his  city,  he  was  grieved  in  spirit  and 
ordered  the  market  to  be  denied  them,  unless  they  withdrew  from 
the  neighborhood  of  the  city.  But  on  the  next  day  he  sent  along 
with  them  two  Turks,  his  messengers,  to  show  them  the  ford  of 
the  river,  and  to  conduct  them  where  they  could  find  something  to 
take.  Finally  they  came  to  a  valley  below  a  certain  fortress,  and 
there  they  took  plunder  of  more  than  five  thousand  animals  and 
enough  grain  and  other  goods  with  which  the  whole  army  of  Christ 
was  greatly  refreshed.  At  length,  that  fortress  surrendered  to  the 
Count  and  gave  him  horses  and  the  purest  gold,  and  they  swore  by 
their  law  that  no  evil  would  henceforth  be  done  to  the  pilgrims. 
We  were  there  for  five  days. 

Departing  thence,  we  came  to  a  lodge  at  a  certain  Arab  fortress. 
Thereupon,  the  lord  of  the  place  came  out  and  made  an  agreement 
with  the  Count.  Going  on  from  this  place,  we  came  to  a  certain 
very  beautiful  city  located  in  a  valley  filled  with  goods  of  all  kinds 
— ^Raphania  by  name.  But  when  the  inhabitants  of  the  place  heard 
thatfhe'Franks  had  come,  they  abandoned  the  city,  gardens  filled 
with  olives,  and  houses  full  of  food,  and  fled.  On  the  third  day  we 
went  forth  from  the  city  and,  passing  over  a  high  and  immense 
mountain,  entered  the  valley  of  Desem,  in  which  there  was  the 
greatest  abundance  of  all  goods,  and  we  were  there  for  about  fifteen 
days. 


2i6  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

This  was  near  a  certain  fortified  place  in  which  there  was  gath- 
ered a  very  large  multitude  of  pagans.  Our  men  attacked  this 
place  and  would  have  conquered  it  bravely,  had  not  the  Saracens 
driven  out  immense  herds  of  animals.  Our  men  returned,  carrying 
goods  of  all  kinds  to  their  tents.  At  the  break  of  dawn,  however, 
we  folded  our  tents  and  went  to  besiege  their  fortified  place.  We 
expected  to  pitch  our  camp  there,  but  the  pagan  host  took  to  flight 
and  left  the  place  empty.  However,  when  our  men  entered  they 
found  there  every  abundance  of  wine,  butter,  oil,  and  everything 
that  they  needed.  There  we  very  devoutly  celebrated  the  festival 
of  the  Purification  of  the  Virgin  Mary.  Envoys  came  to  us  there 
from  the  city  of  Camela.  For  the  King  of  that  place  sent  horses 
and  gold  to  the  Count  and  made  an  agreement  with  him  that  he 
would  not  hurt  Christians  in  any  way,  but  would  cherish  and  honor 
them.  Moreover,  the  King  of  Tripoli  sent  word  to  the  Count  that 
he  would  faithfully  enter  into  an  agreement  with  him  and  keep 
friendship,  if  it  pleased  him,  and  he  sent  him  ten  horses,  four  mules, 
and  gold.  But  the  Count  said  that  he  would  in  no  wise  accept 
peace  with  him,  unless  he  became  a  Christian. 

After  leaving  this  very  fine  valley ,  we  came  to  a  certain 
fortified  town  called  Archas  on  Monday  noon,  the  second  day  of 
the  week  in  the  middle  of  February,  and  around  it  we  pitched  our 
tents.  This  town  was  filled  with  a  countless  host  of  pagans,  Turks, 
Saracens,  Arabs,  and  Piihlicani,  who  had  fortified  the  town  marvel- 
ously  and  were  defending  themselves  bravely.  At  that  time  four- 
teen of  our  knights  went  against  the  city  of  Tripoli,  which  was  near 
us.  Those  fourteen  found  about  sixty  Turks  and  certain  others, 
who  had  collected  in  front  of  them  some  men  and  more  than  five 
hundred  animals.  Strengthened  with  the  sign  of  the  cross,  they  at- 
tacked the  Turks  and,  with  the  help  of  God,  wonderfully  overcame 
them,  killed  six  of  them,  and  captured  six  horses.  Furthermore, 
Raymond  Piletus  and  Raymond,  Viscount  of  Turenne,  went  out 
from  the  army  of  Count  Raymond,  and,  coming  before  the  city  of 
Tortosa,  they  strongly  attacked  it,  fortified,  as  it  was,  by  a  very 
great  multitude  of  pagans.  But  since  night  had  already  come,  they 
withdrew  to  a  certain  retired  place  and  camped  there;  then  they 
built  countless  fires,  as  if  the  whole  host  was  there.  Indeed,  the 
pagans,  terrified  with  fear,  fled  secretly  by  night  and  left  the  city 
filled  with  goods  of  all  kinds.  It  also  contained  a  very  fine  port 
on  the  sea.  On  the  next  day  our  men  went  to  attack  it  on  all  sides 
and  found  it  empty.  They  entered  and  lived  in  it  as  long  as  the 
siege  before  Archas  lasted.  There  is  near  it  another  city  called 
Maraclea.  The  Emir  who  ruled  over  it  made  an  agreement  with 
our  men  and  let  our  men  and  our  standards  into  the  city. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  217 

(Raymond.)  On  the  day  fixed  they  burned  the  city  and  set 
forth.  But  the  count,  his  clerics,  and  the  Bishop  of  Albara 
went  unshod,  invoking  the  compassion  of  God  and  the  protection 
of  the  saints.  Tancred  followed  us  with  forty  knights  and  many 
foot-soldiers.  When  the  kings  of  that  land  heard  this,  they  sent 
Arab  nobles  with  many  entreaties  and  gifts  to  the  Counts,  (promis- 
ing) now  and  thereafter  to  be  their  tributaries,  and  to  bring  provis- 
ions free  and  for  sale.  After  receiving  security  from  them  on  oath, 
as  well  as  foods  for  the  journey,  we  continued  further.  Moreover,  we 
had  guides  from  the  King  of  Caesarea  who  led  us  badly  on  the  first 
day,  as  it  seemed  to  us,  for  in  that  camp  we  were  in  want  of  every 
thing  except  water.  Then  on  the  second  day  these  same  guides  im- 
prudently led  us  into  a  certain  valley  where  the  cattle  of  the  King 
and  the  whole  region  had  fled  for  fear  of  us.  At  that  time  the  King, 
having  known  long  before  that  we  would  come  there,  had  com- 
manded all  his  Saracens  to  flee  before  us;  but  if  he  had  commanded 
that  all  of  that  region  should  oppose  us,  it  would  not  have  turned 
out  so  well.  Raymond  of  Lille  and  his  companions  caught  a  Sara- 
cen this  day  with  letters  of  the  King,  which  he  was  bearing  to  all 
of  that  region,  (saying)  to  flee  before  us.  When  this  became  known 
to  the  King,  he  said,  'T  had  ordered  my  men  to  flee  before  the 
Franks  as  fast  as  they  could,  and  (instead)  they  came  to  them.  I 
see  that  God  has  chosen  this  people;  besides,  whatever  they  do,  I 
will  not  harm  them."  Then  the  King  himself  blessed  God,  who 
provides  sufficient  necessaries  for  those  who  fear  Him. 

However,  when  our  knights  saw  such  sudden  and  so  great  abun- 
dance, they  and  the  sturdier  people  took  up  all  their  money  and 
went  to  Caesarea  and  Camela  to  buy  fat  horses  there,  saying,  "Since 
God  has  taken  concern  about  our  food,  we  will  take  care  of  His 
poor  and  His  army."  Thus  it  came  about  that  we  had  about  a 
thousand  very  fine  chargers.  The  poor  daily  grew  better;  the 
knights  were  daily  comforted;  the  army  seemed  daily  to  be  multi- 
plied, and  the  farther  we  proceeded  the  greater  benefits  God  pro- 
vided for  us.  Although  everything  was  coming  to  us  in  sufficient 
quantities,  yet  some  bent  the  Count  to  this  plan,  that  he  should 
want  to  go  off  the  route  a  bit  for  the  sake  of  Gibellurn,  which  is  a 
city  on  the  sea-coast.  But  Tancred  and  many  oth"ei^'"5rave  men  and 
good  brought  it  about  that  this  did  not  happen  in  any  way,  saying : 
"God  has  visited  the  poor  and  ourselves,  and  ought  we  to  depart 
from  the  journey?  The  past  labors  at  Antioch,  the  misery  of  bat- 
tle, cold,  hunger,  and  every  kind  of  suffering  are  enough  for  us. 
Why  should  we  alone  besiege  the  whole  world,  and  kill  all  the  in- 
habitants of  the  world?     Behold  of  one  hundred  thousand  knights 


2i8  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

we  have  scarcely  one  thousand,  and  of  two  hundred  thousand  foot- 
soldiers  and  more,  there  are  not  five  thousand  now  in  our  army! 
Shall  we  wait  until  all  are  destroyed?  Why  will  they  come  from 
our  land  when  they  hear  that  Antioch  and  Gibellum  and  the  other 
cities  of  the  Saracens  have  been  captured?  But  let  us  go  to  Jeru- 
salem for  which  we  came,  and,  verily,  God  will  give  it  to  us.  And 
then  through  fear  alone  of  those  who  will  come  from  our  land  and 
other  lands,  these  cities,  Gibellum,  Tripoli,  Tyre,  and  Acre,  which 
are  on  our  march,  will  be  abandoned  by  the  inhabitants." 

While  we  were  thus  proceeding  forward,  some  Turks  and  Arabs 
were  following  the  army,  killing  and  despoiling  the  poor,  who, 
because  of  their  long  illness,  remained  behind  the  army.  And  when 
they  had  done  this  once  and  again,  the  Count  remained  in  hiding 
on  the  next  day  until  all  the  army  had  passed.  The  enemy,  in  hope 
of  plunder  and  without  fear,  followed  our  army  in  their  usual  man- 
ner. But  when  they  had  already  pased  the  ambush,  our  knights, 
coming  forth  from  their  hiding  place  with  the  Count,  attacked  the 
column  of  the  enemy,  routed  them,  and  threw  them  into  confusion. 
Then  they  killed  them  and  led  their  very  fine  horses  to  the  army 
with  great  exultation.  After  this,  no  enemy  followed  our  army,  be- 
cause the  Count  with  an  armed  multitude  of  knights  went  behind 
our  people.  Moreover,  other  armed  knights  with  the  Count  of 
Normandy,  Tancred,  and  the  Bishop  of  Albara  went  ahead  in  great 
numbers,  so  that  the  enemy  might  not  unexpectedly  disturb  us  from 
either  rear  or  front.  For  the  Count,  since  he  had  few  knights  with 
him  when  he  set  forth  from  Marra,  asked  the  Bishop,  after  he  had 
placed  a  guard  at  Barra,  to  come  with  him.  The  Bishop,  hearing 
of  a  certain  knight  of  his,  William,  son  of  Peter  of  Cumiliacum, 
by  name,  left  him  there  with  seven  knights  and  thirty  foot-soldiers. 
He  was  a  man  faithful  and  devoted  to  God  and  increased  the  prop- 
erty of  the  Bishop  by  the  help  of  God  ten-fold  in  a  short  time.  And 
he  soon  had  seventy  men,  instead  of  thirty,  and  sixty  knights  and 
more. 

It  was  decided  at  this  time  about  our  journey  that  we  should 
leave  the  road  which  led  by  Damascus  and  turn  to  the  sea-coast, 
because  if  our  ships  which  we  had  left  at  Antioch  should  come 
toward  us,  we  would  have  trade  with  the  people  of  the  Isle  of 
Cyprus  and  the  other  islands.  And  when  we  started  upon  the  route 
agreed  upon,  the  inhabitants  of  the  land  abandoned  cities,  fortified 
places,  and  villages  full  of  all  goods.  Thus,  after  encircling  great 
mountains,  we  came  into  a  certain  very  rich  valley,  where  some 
peasants,  arrogant  because  of  their  numbers  and  the  strength  of 
their  fortress,  were  willing  neither  to  send  to  us  for  peace  nor  to 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  219 

abandon  their  fortress,  and,  in  addition,  attacked  our  squires  and 
foot-soldiers,  who  were  unarmed  and  were  running  through  the 
villages  for  food.  After  having  killed  some,  they  took  the  spoils 
into  their  fortress.  Our  men,  therefore,  went  to  the  fortress  in 
anger.  The  peasants,  however,  hesitated  to  come  against  us  at  the 
foot  of  the  mountain  on  which  the  fortress  was  located.  Then  our 
men,  after  taking  counsel,  drew  up  ranks  of  foot-soldiers  and 
knights,  and,  climbing  to  the  top  of  the  mountain  from  three  sides, 
they  forced  the  body  of  peasants  to  flee.  There  were  about  thirty 
thousand  Saracens,  and  their  fortress  was  on  the  slope  of  a  certain 
very  high  mountain ;  besides,  when  they  wished,  they  sought  refuge 
in  the  castle,  and  some  higher  up  on  the  mountain.  So  they  resisted 
us  for  a  little  while.  At  length,  we  shouted  out  the  cry  usual  in 
our  straits,  *'God  help  us !  God  help  us !"  Our  enemy  were  so  dis- 
turbed that  at  the  entrance  of  their  castle  upwards  of  a  hundred 
fell  dead  without  wounds,  because  of  fear  and  the  rush  of  their 
companions.  There  was,  moreover,  very  great  plunder  of  cattle, 
horses,  and  sheep  outside  the  castle  where  our  people  were  engaged. 
And  while  the  Count  and  some  knights  were  intent  upon  the  battle, 
our  poor,  after  taking  plunder,  began  to  return,  one  after  the  other. 
Next  the  poor  foot-soldiers  took  the  way,  after  them  the  poor 
knights.  Moreover,  our  tents  were  some  distance  from  the  castle, 
about  ten  miles.  Meanwhile  the  Count  ordered  the  knights  and  the 
people  to  encamp.  Then,  when  the  Saracens  who  had  climbed  higher 
on  the  mountain  and  those  in  the  fortress  saw  that  the  greatest 
portion  of  our  men  had  left,  they  began  to  urge  one  another  in  turn 
to  join  forces.  But  the  Count  overlooked  this  and  found  himself 
almost  abandoned  by  his  knights.  For  the  hill  on  which  the  fortress 
stood  was  very  steep  and  stony,  and  the  path  was  a  difficult  one  in 
which  one  horse  could  scarcely  follow  another.  Thereupon,  when 
the  Count  was  caught  in  this  difficulty,  he  began  to  advance  with 
his  companions,  as  if  to  fight  against  those  who  were  coming  down 
from  higher  up  the  mountain.  The  Saracens  at  first  hesitated  at 
the  approach  of  the  Count;  then  our  men  changed  their  route  and 
descended  into  the  valley,  as  if  secure.  Upon  seeing  themselves 
frustrated,  and  that  our  men  descended  in  security,  the  Saracens 
from  both  the  fortress  and  the  mountain  together  attacked  our  forces. 
Therefore,  some  of  our  men  under  compulsion  dismounted  from 
their  horses,  and  others  went  headlong  over  the  steep  rocks.  So 
with  the  greatest  danger  some  escaped  death,  but  others  died  fight- 
ing bravely.  This  one  fact  we  learned  for  certain:  that  the  Count 
never  was  in  greater  danger  of  his  life.  Therefore,  angry  at  himself 
and  at  his  men,  he  called  a  council  upon  returning  to  the  army  and 


220  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

complained  much  that  the  knights  had  gone  away  without  permis- 
sion and  had  left  him  in  danger  of  death.  All  promised  that  they 
would  not  withdraw  from  the  siege  of  the  castle  until,  by  the  grace 
of  God,  the  foundation  had  been  overturned.  But  God,  who  was 
guiding  them  so  that  they  should  not  be  hindered  by  evils  of  any 
kind  whatsoever,  so  terrified  the  keepers  of  the  fortress  through 
the  night  that  they  not  even  gave  their  dead  burial,  so  headlong 
was  their  flight.  Moreover,  when  it  became  morning  we  went 
there  and  found  only  spoils  and  a  fortress  empty  of  men. 

This  time  there  were  with  us  envoys  from  the  Emir  of  Camela 
and  from  the  King  of  Tripoli.  When  these  beheld  the  boldness  and 
bravery  of  our  men,  they  begged  of  the  Count  permission  (to 
leave),  saying  that  they  would  return  as  quickly  as  possible.  Ac- 
cordingly, when  those  envoys  were  allowed  to  leave  with  our  envoys, 
they  returned  in  a  short  time  with  great  gifts  and  many  horses.  For 
the  siege  of  that  fortress  had  frightened  the  whole  region,  because 
it  could  never  before  be  taken  by  any  people.  Besides,  the  inhabi- 
tants of  that  region  sent  to  the  Count  with  many  entreaties  and 
gifts,  praying  that  when  he  had  caused  their  cities  and  fortress  to 
be  taken  over,  he  would  send  them  his  standards  and  his  seals.  For 
it  was  the  custom  in  the  army  that  if  the  standard  of  any  Frank 
was  found  on  a  city  or  fortress,  it  was  not  thereafter  besieged  by 
anyone.  Wherefore  the  King  of  Tripoli  placed  the  standards  of 
the  Count  on  his  castles. 

The  name  of  the  Count  was  at  this  time  so  great  that  it  seemed 
more  than  equal  to  that  of  any  former  leader.  And  when  our 
knights  who  had  been  sent  as  envoys  to  Tripoli  saw  the  regal  wealth, 
most  rich  kingdoms,  and  that  populous  city,  they  persuaded  the 
Count  to  besiege  Archas,  a  fortress  very  strongly  fortified  and  un- 
assailable by  human  might,  in  order  to  obtain  from  the  King  of 
Tripoli  after  the  fourth  or  fifth  day  as  much  gold  and  silver  as  he 
should  desire.  And  so  at  their  wish  we  besieged  the  fortress  where 
our  brave  men  endured  such  trials  as  they  never  had  before.  And 
besides,  most  bitter  to  tell,  we  lost  so  many  and  such  great  knights. 
There  was  killed  Pontius  of  Balazun  with  a  stone  from  a  petrary, 
at  whose  prayers  I  am  writing  for  all  the  orthodox,  especially  those 
across  the  Alps,  and  for  you,  revered  head  of  Viviers,  this  work 
which  I  have  undertaken  to  compose. 

Now,  however,  I  shall  strive  with  the  inspiration  of  God,  who 
did  all  this,  to  write  what  remains  with  the  same  charity  with  which 
I  began.  I  beg,  therefore,  and  beseech  everyone  to  believe  that 
these  things  which  they  are  to  hear  are  true.  And  if  I  have  ap- 
plied to  anyone,  through  zeal  or  hate  for  anyone,  anything  beyond 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  221 

belief  or  probability,  may  God  apply  to  me  all  the  tortures  of  hell, 
and  erase  me  from  the  book  of  life !  For  though  I  am  ignorant  of 
many  things,  this  one  I  know :  that  since  I  have  been  promoted  to 
the  priesthood  on  God's  expedition,  I  ought  to  obey  God  in  wit- 
nessing the  truth,  rather  than  to  weave  lies,  striving  for  reward  or 
money  from  anyone  else.  But*  since,  according  to  the  apostle, 
"charity  vaunteth  not  itself,"  I  want  to  proceed  with  the  same  char- 
ity.   May  God  give  me  aid! 

While  we  were  delaying  somewhat  in  pressing  this  siege,  our 
ships  came  to  us  from  Antioch  and  Laodicaea,  also  many  other  ships 
of  the  Venetians^*  and  Greeks  with  grain,  wine,  and  barley,  pork, 
and  other  things  for  sale.  But  since  this  castle  was  about  a  mile 
from  the  sea,  the  ships  could  not  remain  in  port,  and  the  sailors  re- 
turned to  the  port  of  Laodicaea  and  to  the  port  of  Tortosa.  This 
Tortosa,  a  very  strongly  fortified  place,  built  with  walls  and  fore- 
walls,  and  filled  with  many  good  things,  had  been  abandoned  by 
its  Saracen  inhabitants  for  fear  of  our  army  alone.  For  God  had 
established  such  great  dread  of  us  among  the  Arabs,  and  Saracens  of 
that  region  that  they  believed  we  could  accomplish  everything  and 
that  we  wanted  to  destroy  all  that  we  could.  But  this  was  before 
the  siege  of  Archas. 

However,  this  siege  which  we  had  set  chiefly  for  other  causes 
contrary  to  justice  than  for  God,  God  was  unwilling  to  promote, 
but  there  did  everything  against  us.  And  since  our  men  had  been 
prompt  and  ready  for  all  other  battles  and  assaults,  it  was  wonder- 
ful that  they  were  found  sluggish  and  useless  for  this.  If  any  fer- 
vent spirits  wanted  to  do  anything,  they  were  either  wounded  or 
what  they  had  begun  came  to  naught.  There  Anselm  of  Ribemont 
gloriously  departed.  When  he  arose  in  the  morning,  he  called  the 
priests  to  him,  and,  having  confessed  his  negligences  and  his  sins, 
he  begged  mercy  from  God  and  from  them,  announcing  to  them 
that  the  end  of  his  life  was  imminent.  They  were  amazed  at  this, 
since  they  beheld  him  well  and  unhurt,  and  he  said  to  them : 

"Do  not  wonder,  but  rather  listen.  This  night  I  saw  Lord  Engel- 
rand  of  St.  Paul,  who  was  killed  at  Marra.  I  was  not  asleep,  but 
awake,  and  I  said  to  him,  'What  is  this?  For  thou  hast  suffered 
death  and,  lo !  thou  art  now  alive !' 

"And  he  answered,  'Indeed  those  who  end  their  lives  in  the  ser- 
vice of  Christ  do  not  die.' 

"When  I  asked  him  again  about  his  beauty,  which  was  very  great, 
whence  it  had  happened  to  him,  he  answered  me,  *Thou  shouldst 
not  wonder  about  my  beauty,  when  I  dwell  in  so  splendid  a  home.' 

"And  straightway  he  showed  me  his  home  in  heaven,  so  beauti- 


222  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

ful  that  I  could  believe  nothing  more  beautiful.  Seeing  that  I  was 
stunned  at  the  splendor  of  his  home,  he  said  to  me,  'A  much  more 
beautiful  one  is  being  prepared  for  thee  to-morrow/  And  with 
these  words  he  disappeared." 

Moreover,  it  happened  on  the  ^ame  day  on  which  Anselm  had 
recounted  this  to  several  people  that  he  was  proceeding  to  battle 
against  the  Saracens.  They  had  gone  out  secretly  from  the  fortress 
and  wanted  to  come  up  to  our  tents  to  steal  something  there,  or  to 
hurt  someone.  But  when  this  fight  had  grown  great  on  both  sides 
and  Anselm  was  resisting  bravely,  he  was  struck  on  the  head  by  a 
stone  from  a  hurling  engine;  and  thus  he  departed  from  this  world 
to  the  place  prepared  for  him  by  God. 

Here  a  legate  came  to  us  from  the  King  of  Babylon,  who  along 
with  him  had  sent  back  to  us  our  legates  whom  he  had  held  captive 
for  a  year.  He  was  hesitating  whether  to  make  friendship  with 
us  or  with  the  Turks.  We  were  willing  to  agree  with  him  in  this 
way:  H  he  would  give  us  help  from  Jerusalem,  or  if  he  would 
give  us  Jerusalem  with  what  pertained  to  it,  we  would  give  him  all 
his  cities  which  the  Turks  had  taken  from  him,  when  we  should 
capture  them.  The  other  cities  of  the  Turks,  however,  which  were 
not  of  his  kingdom,  we  would  divide  between  us,  if  they  were  taken 
with  his  help.  But  the  Turks,  as  it  was  related  to  us,  were  will- 
ing to  do  this  for  him:  H  he  would  come  with  them  to  battle 
against  us,  they  would  worship  Ali,^°  who  is  the  race  of  Moham- 
med, whom  he  worshipped.  They  would  also  accept  his  coins  and 
would  pay  a  certain  tribute,  and  they  would  do  many  other  things 
for  him  which  we  did  not  fully  know.  He  learned  about  us  that 
we  were  few,  and  that  the  Emperor  Alexius  was  hostile  to  us  to 
death;  concerning  this,  we  found  letters  of  the  Emperor  Alexius 
written  about  us  in  the  tent  of  the  same  King,  after  the  battle  with 
the  King  of  the  Babylonians  had  been  fought  at  Ascalon.  For  these 
and  other  reasons,  therefore,  the  Emir  had  detained  our  envoys  as 
captives  for  a  year  in  Babylon.  But  now,  when  he  heard  that,  hav- 
ing entered  his  lands,  we  were  devastating  villages,  fields,  and  all, 
lie  sent  word  to  us  that  we  should  go  without  arms  in  groups  of 
two  hundred  or  three  hundred  to  Jerusalem,  and  that,  after  adoring 
the  Lord,  we  should  return.  But  we  laughed  at  this,  expecting 
God's  mercy,  and  announced  that  unless  he  freely  gave  us  Jerusa- 
lem we  would  sue  him  for  Babylon.  For  the  Emir  at  this  time  held 
Jerusalem.  When  he  heard  that  the  Turks  had  been  beaten  by  us 
at  Antioch,  he  went  to  besiege  Jerusalem,  knowing  that  the  Turks, 
so  often  scattered  and  put  to  flight  by  us,  would  not  face  him  in 
battle.     At  length,  after  giving  very  large  gifts  to  those  who  were 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  223 

defending  it,  he  received  the  city  of  Jerusalem  and  offered  candles 
and  incense  to  the  Sepulchre  of  the  Lord  on  Mt.  Calvary.  But  let 
us  now  return  to  the  siege. 

4.  Continued  quarrels  among  the  leaders.     The  trial  of  the  Lance. 
(March- April  20,  1099.) 

(Gesta.)  Duke  Godfrey,  Bohemund,  and  the  Count  of  Flanders 
went  up  to  the  city  of  Laodicaea.  Bohemund  separated  from  them 
and  returned  to  Antioch,  but  they  went  and  besieged  a  certain  city 
whose  name  is  Gibellum.  Thereupon,  when  Raymond,  Count  of 
St.  Gilles,  heard  that  an  innumerable  host  of  pagans  was  rushing 
upon  us  for  battle,  he  held  a  council  there  with  his  men,  in  order  to 
send  (word)  to  the  leaders  who  were  at  the  siege  of  Gibellum  to 
come  to  his  aid.  When  they  heard  this,  they  straightway  made  an 
agreement  with  the  Emir,  making  peace  with  him,  and  they  received 
horses  and  gold  and  left  the  city  and  came  to  our  aid.  But  the 
enemy  did  not  come  to  battle  against  us.  Thereupon,  the  aforesaid 
Counts  lodged  beyond  the  river  and  there  besieged  that  fortress. 
Not  long  after  this,  our  men  rode  against  Tripoli  and  found  out- 
side the  city  Turks,  Arabs,  and  Saracens,  whom  our  men  attacked 
and  put  to  flight  and  killed  the  greatest  part  of  the  nobles  of  the 
city.  So  great  was  the  slaughter  of  pagans  and  shedding  of  blood 
that  even  the  water  which  flowed  in  the  city  seemed  to  grow  red 
and  to  flow  into  their  cisterns,  whereat  the  rest  were  exceedingly 
sad  and  sorrowful.  Indeed,  they  were  now  so  terrified  with  fear 
that  none  of  them  dared  to  go  out  of  the  city  gate.  On  the  next 
day,  our  men  rode  beyond  Desem  and  found  cattle  and  sheep  and 
asses  and  many  other  animals,  and  they  carried  off,  also,  almost 
three  thousand  camels. 

We  besieged  the  aforesaid  town  for  three  months,  less  one  day, 
and  there  celebrated  Easter  on  the  fourth  day  before  the  Ides  of 
April.  While  we  were  engaged  in  that  siege,  our  ships,  forsooth, 
came  to  a  certain  port  near  us  bearing  the  greatest  market — grain, 
wine,  meat,  cheese,  barley,  and  oil,  whereof  there  was  now  the 
greatest  abundance  throughout  the  whole  army.  At  length,  several 
of  our  men  happily  received  martyrdom,  namely  Anselm  of  Ribe- 
mont,  William  the  Picard,  and  several  others  whose  names  I  do  not 
know.  The  King  of  Tripoli,  also,  often  sent  envoys  to  the  leaders 
with  word  to  leave  the  fortress  and  make  peace  with  him.  Ac- 
cordingly, when  our  leaders,  Godfrey,  and  Raymond,  Count  of  St. 
Gilles,  Robert  the  Norman,  and  the  Count  of  Flanders,  heard  this, 
and  when  they  saw  that  new  fruit  had  grown  (for  we  were  eating 
new  beans  in  the  middle  of  March,  and  even  grain  in  the  middle  of 


224  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

April),  they  held  a  council  and  said:  "It  is  very  good  to  carry  out 
the  march  to  Jerusalem  with  the  new  fruits." 

(Raymond.)  When,  as  we  said,  our  army  was  laboring  great- 
ly in  the  siege  of  Archas,  it  was  announced  to  us  that  the  Pope  of 
the  Turks  was  coming  to  battle  against  us ;  and  since  he  was  of  the 
race  of  Mohammed,  innumerable  people  followed  him.  Accord- 
ingly, the  army  was  commanded  that  all  should  prepare  themselves 
for  battle.  So  they  sent  the  Bishop  of  Albara  to  the  Duke  and  the 
Count  of  Flanders,  who  were  besieging  Gibellum.  This  is  a  fortress 
above  the  sea,  about  half  way  between  Antioch  and  the  fortress  of 
Archas,  two  days  distant  from  both.  When  they  had  received  the 
message,  they  gave  up  the  siege  and  came  quickly  to  us.  Meanwhile 
(the  report)  was  found  to  be  false.  The  Saracens  had  made  it  up 
so  that,  while  our  men  were  thereby  terrified,  the  besieged  might  be 
able  to  gain  a  little  rest. 

So  when  our  armies  had  been  joined,  the  men  of  the  Count's 
party  began  to  show  the  sleek  horses  and  the  riches  which 
God  had  given  them  in  the  regions  of  the  Saracens  because  they 
had  exposed  themselves  to  death  for  God ;  but  the  others  held  forth 
their  poverty.  At  this  time  it  was  preached  that  the  people  should 
give  a  tithe  of  all  they  had  taken,  because  there  were  many  poor  in 
the  army  and  many  sick.  It  was  commanded  that  they  should 
render  a  fourth  part  to  their  priests  whose  masses  they  attended, 
a  fourth  part  to  the  Bishop,  and  the  other  two  parts  to  Peter  the 
Hermit,  whom  they  had  placed  in  charge  of  the  poor  of  both 
clergy  and  people.  And  thus  he  received  two  parts ;  to  wit,  one  part 
for  those  who  were  of  the  clergy,  and  the  other  for  those  who  were 
of  the  people.  Therefore  God  so  multipHed  our  army  in  horses, 
mules,  camels,  and  the  other  necessities  of  life  that  it  became  a 
marvel  to  us  and  a  dream.  And  thus  from  the  wealth  of  possessions 
there  arose  a  dispute  and  arrogance  among  the  princes,  so  that 
those  who  loved  God  dearly  desired  much  more  that  want  and 
fearful  battles  should  threaten. 

The  King  of  Tripoli  wished  to  give  us  fifteen  thousand  gold 
coins  of  Saracen  minting,  besides  horses,  mules,  and  many  robes, 
and  then  tributes  each  year  much  greater  than  this.  One  gold  coin, 
forsooth,  was  at  this  time  worth  eight  or  nine  solidi  of  our  money. 
This  was  our  money:  Pictaviyii,  Cartenses,  Manses,  Luccenses, 
Valanzani,  Melgorienses,  and  Pogesi,  two  of  which  (were  offered) 
for  one  of  the  others.^^  But  that  lord  of  Gibellum,  afraid  that  he 
might  again  be  besieged,  sent  to  our  princes  five  thousand  gold 
coins,  horses,  mules,  and  much  wine ;  then  we  had  food  enough. 
And  not  only  did  these  send  us  gifts,  but  also  those  from  many 
f 


I 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  225 

cities  and  castles.  Some  of  the  Saracens,  too,  were  baptized  either 
out  of  zeal  or  from  fear  of  our  law,  renouncing  Mohammed  and 
all  his  offspring.  For  these  reasons,  therefore,  one  of  our  princes 
sent  envoys  to  the  cities  of  the  Saracens  with  letters  announcing 
that  he  was  lord  of  the  whole  army.  Thus  did  our  princes  conduct 
themselves  at  this  time!  And  Tancred,  especially,  stirred  up  the 
affair.  Although  he  had  received  five  thousand  solidi  and  two  very 
fine  horses  on  the  agreement  that  he  would  remain  in  the  Count's 
service  up  to  Jerusalem,  he  now  wanted  to  withdraw  and  be  with 
the  Duke  of  Lorraine.  On  this  account  many  quarrels  were  held. 
At  length,  ill  enough,  he  withdrew  from  the  Count. 

Many  revelations  were  made  known  to  us  at  this  time,  which 
were  sent  to  us  from  God.  The  following  is  one  of  these,  which  is 
written  under  the  n^me  of  him  who  saw  it. 

*Tn  the  year  of  the  Lord  1099,  in  the  seventh  Indiction,  twenty- 
sixth  Epact,  fifth  Concurrence,  on  the  night  of  the  Nones  of  April," 
when  I,  Peter  Bartholomew,  lay  in  the  chapel  of  the  Count  of  St. 
Gilles  at  the  siege  of  Archas,  I  began  to  meditate  on  the  priest  to 
whom  the  Lord  appeared  with  the  Cross  when  we  were  besieged  by 
the  Turks  in  Antioch.  And  when  I  marvelled  much  that  He  had 
never  appeared  to  me  with  the  Cross,  I  saw  the  Lord  entering  with 
His  apostles,  Peter  and  Andrew,  and  a  certain  other,  large  and 
heavy,  of  dark  complexion,  nearly  bald,  and  with  large  eyes. 

"And  the  Lord  said  to  me  'What  art  thou  doing?' 

*'I  replied,  'Lord,  I  am  standing  here.' 

''And  the  Lord  spoke  again,  'Thou  hast  barely  escaped  being 
submerged  (in  sin)  with  the  rest.  But  of  what  art  thou  now  think- 
ing?' 

"And  I  replied,  'Lord,  Father,  I  was  thinking  about  a  priest  to 
whom  Thou  didst  appear  with  the  Cross.' 

"The  Lord  answered,  'I  know  that.'  And  then:  'Believe  that  I 
am  the  Lord  for  whom  thou  hast  come  hither  and  who  suffered  for 
sinners  on  the  Cross  at  Jerusalem,  just  as  thou  wilt  now  behold.' 

"And  at  that  very  hour  I  saw  there  a  cross  made  of  two  black 
and  round  planks,  neither  polished  nor  fitted,  except  that  in  the 
middle  the  beams  were  notched  and  supported  each  other  in  turn. 

"The  Lord  said  to  me,  'Behold  the  Cross,  since  it  is  the  Cross 
which  thou  seekest.'  And  on  that  Cross  was  the  Lord  extended 
and  crucified  as  at  the  time  of  the  Passion.  Peter,  moreover,  sup- 
ported His  head  from  the  right;  Andrew  from  the  left  bore  it  on 
his  neck;  that  third  person  supported  it  from  the  rear  with  his 
hands. 

"And  the  Lord  said  to  me,  'Say  to  My  people  that  thou  hast  seen 


226  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Me  thus.  Dost  thou  see  these,  My  five  wounds  ?  Thus  do  you  con- 
sist  of  five  ranks.  The  first  rank  is  the  rank  of  those  who  do  not 
fear  javelins  and  swords,  or  any  kind  of  engine.  That  rank  is  like 
unto  Me;  for  I  went  to  Jerusalem  and  did  not  fear  swords  and 
lances,  cudgels  and  staves,  or,  in  addition,  the  Cross.  They  die  for 
Me ;  and  I  died  for  them ;  and  I  am  in  them,  and  they  in  Me.  When 
such  as  these  die,  they  are  placed  on  the  right  hand  of  God,  where 
after  the  resurrection  I  sat,  having  ascended  to  heaven.  The  sec- 
ond is  the  rank  of  those  who  are  a  help  to  the  first ;  but  they  guard 
them  from  the  rear,  and  to  them  the  former  also  come  for  refuge ; 
verily,  these  are  like  the  apostles  who  followed  Me  and  ate  with  Me. 
The  third  is  the  rank  of  those  who  bring  stones  and  javelins  to  the 
first;  they  are  like  those  who,  when  they  saw  Me  placed  on  the 
Cross,  bemoaning  my  Passion,  beat  their  breasts,  proclaiming  that 
wrong  had  been  done  Me.  The  fourth,  indeed,  is  the  rank  of  those 
who,  upon  seeing  the  battle  surge,  push  themselves  into  houses  and 
turn  to  their  own  affairs,  trusting  that  victory  rests  not  in  My  might, 
but  in  human  worth.  They  are  like  those  who  said  "He  is  worthy 
of  death;  let  Him  be  crucified;  since  He  makes  Himself  a  king  and 
says  that  He  is  the  Son  of  God."  The  fifth,  however,  is  the  rank 
of  those  who,  when  they  hear  the  shout  of  battle,  look  on  from 
afar,  asking  the  cause  of  the  outcry,  and  afford  examples  of  coward- 
ice, not  of  bravery,  and  are  unwilling  to  undergo  dangers  not  only 
for  Me,  but,  likewise,  for  their  brothers.  Under  the  form  of  avoid- 
ing (danger),  they  want  others  to  fight,  or  bring  arms  to  the  fighters, 
and  they  feast  at  looking  on;  they  are  like  Judas  the  Betrayer  and 
Pontius  Pilate,  the  judge.' 

"Moreover,  the  Lord  was  naked  upon  the  Cross,  encircled  only 
with  a  linen  cloth  from  knees  to  loins,  and  the  linen  cloth  was  of  a 
color  midway  between  red  and  black.  And  about  His  ears  He  had 
a  white,  red,  and  green  head-band.  Later,  when  the  Cross  had  been 
taken  away,  the  Lord  remained  in  the  garb  which  He  wore  before. 

"And  I  said  to  Him,  'Lord,  God,  if  I  say  this,  they  will  not  be- 
lieve me.' 

"The  Lord  replied  to  me,  'Dost  thou  want  to  recognize  those  who 
will  not  believe  this  ?' 

"And  I  said,  'Yea,  Lord.' 

"And  the  Lord  answered,  'Let  the  Count  assemble  the  princes 
and  people,  and  let  them  make  arrangements  about  the  battles,  or 
when  it  shall  be  time  for  the  siege  of  the  fortress.  Let  the  most 
renowned  herald  proclaim  "God  help  us !"  thrice,  and  let  him  strive 
to  carry  out  the  arrangements.  Then  as  I  have  told  thee,  thou  wilt 
see  these  ranks :  and  together  with  the  others  who  believe  this  thou 
wilt  distinguish  the  unbelievers.' 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  227 

"And  I  said,  *'What  are  we  to  do  about  the  incredulous  ?' 

"The  Lord,  answered,  'Spare  them  not,  kill  them;  for  they  are 
my  betrayers,  brothers  of  Judas  Iscariot.  But  give  their  possessions 
to  those  who  are  of  the  first  rank,  according  to  their  needs.  If  you 
do  this,  you  will  find  the  right  way,  which  you  have  thus  far  gone 
around.  And  just  as  the  other  things  which  thou  hast  prophesied 
happened  unchanged  in  the  future,  this  also  will  occur.  Dost  thou 
know  which  people  I  love  especially?' 

"And  I  replied.  The  race  of  the  Jews.' 

"The  Lord  said,  'These  people  I  hold  in  hate,  because  they  were 
unbelievers  and  I  have  placed  them  below  all  peoples.  See,  there- 
fore, that  you  are  not  unbelievers.  Otherwise  I  will  take  up  other 
peoples,  while  you  remain  with  the  Jews ;  and  through  them  I  will 
fulfil  what  I  promised  you.  Say  this  also  to  them  (the  army)  : 
"Why  do  you  fear  to  do  justice?  And  what  is  better  than  justice?" 
I  want  thern  to  keep  the  following  justice.  Let  them  place  judges 
by  families  and  relatives.  When,  moreover,  anyone  shall  offend 
another,  let  him  who  suffered  the  wrong  say:  "Brother,  dost  thou 
wish  it  to  be  done  thus  with  thee?"  After  this,  unless  the  offender 
shall  desist,  let  the  other  oppose  him  in  the  name  of  his  authority. 
Then  let  the  judge  freely  take  all  his  goods  from  the  malefactor, 
and  the  half  of  all  that  has  been  taken  let  him  give  to  the  one  who 
suffered  this  wrong,  the  remaining  part  to  the  authorities.  If,  how- 
ever, the  judge  should  defer  this  for  any  reason,  go  to  him  and  say 
that  if  he  does  not  correct  himself,  he  will  not  be  absolved  even  at 
the  last  day,  unless  thou  dost  release  him.  Dost  thou  know  how 
serious  a  matter  it  is  to  be  forbidden?  For  I  forbade  Adam  to 
touch  the  tree  of  good  and  evil  knowledge;  he  transgressed  my 
prohibition  and  both  he  and  his  posterity  were  in  wretched  captivity 
until  I  came  in  the  flesh  and  redeemed  them  by  dying  the  death  of 
the  Cross.  Verily,  some  have  done  well  about  the  tithe,  because 
they  gave  it  as  I  commanded.  Therefore,  I  will  multiply  them, 
and  I  will  make  them  known  among  the  others.' 

"Moreover,  when  the  Lord  had  said  this,  I  began  to  ask  Him  out 
of  His  kindness  to  give  back  the  knowledge  of  letters  which  He 
had  recently  taken  from  me. 

"And  the  Lord  said  to  me,  'Are  the  things  that  thou  knowest  not 
enough  to  tell  this?  And  yet  thou  desirest  to  know  as  much  as 
possible !' 

"And  forthwith  I  seemed  to  myself  so  wise  that  I  would  ask 
nothing  further. 

"Then  the  Lord  said,  Ts  what  thou  knowest  enough  for  thi§  ?' 

"I  replied,  It  is.' 


228  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

"The  Lord  again  said,  'What  have  I  said  to  thee?    Answer.' 

''And  I  knew  nothing.  When  He  pressed  me  to  answer  some 
of  the  things  which  He  had  said,  I  repHed,  'Lord,  I  know  nothing.' 

"And  the  Lord  said,  'Go  and  tell  what  thou  knowest,  and  what 
thou  knowest  will  be  sufficient  for  thee.' 

"When,  however,  I  would  have  made  this  known  to  the  brethren, 
some  began  to  say  that  they  would  never  believe  that  God  spoke  to 
such  a  man,  that  He  passed  our  princes  and  bishops  and  revealed 
Himself  to  a  peasant  man ;  whence  they  likewise  doubted  about  the 
Lance.  Wherefore  we  called  together  those  brethren  to  whom  the 
Lance  had  been  revealed  at  one  time  and  another,  and  after  this, 
Arnulf,  chaplain  of  the  Count  of  Normandy  who  was,  as  it  were, 
the  head  of  the  unbeHevers  ;^^  and  we  asked  him  why  he  doubted. 

When  he  said  that  the  Bishop  of  Puy  had  doubted  it,  a  certain 
priest  by  the  name  of  Peter  Desiderius  replied,  "I  saw  the  Bishop 
of  Puy  after  his  death  and  St.  Nicholas  with  him.  After  many 
other  things  the  Bishop  said  this  to  me,  'I  am  in  the  choir  with 
St.  Nicholas,  but  because  I,  who  should  have  believed  most,  doubted 
the  Lance  of  the  Lord,  I  was  led  into  hell  where  my  hair  from  the 
right  side  of  my  head  and  my  beard  were  burned;  and  though  I 
am  not  in  punishment,  yet  I  will  not  clearly  see  the  Lord  until  my 
hair  and  beard  grow  out  as  they  were  before.'  "  This  and  many 
other  things  that  priest  told  us,  which  afterwards  occurred;  but 
these  things  can  be  told  in  their  place. 

A  certain  other  priest,  Ebrard  by  name,  came  and  said :  "At  the 
time  when  the  Turks  were  besieging  our  army  in  Antioch,  I  was 
at  Tripoli.  For  before  Antioch  was  taken  I  had  come  there  for 
the  necessaries  of  life.  When  I  heard  that  Antioch  had  been 
taken,  and  that  our  men  in  the  city  were  held  in  such  a  stage  of 
siege  that  none  of  them  dared  to  go  in  or  out,  except  by  stealth,  and 
that  many  other  evils  threatened  the  besieged  (mostly  false  reports 
which  the  Saracens  and  Turks  added  to  the  true  evils),  I  was  doubt- 
ful of  my  secular  life,  and  fled  to  a  certain  church  where  I  knelt  be- 
fore the  majesty  of  the  Mother  of  God.  With  tears  and  prayers  I 
began  to  appeal  through  her  for  the  mercy  of  God ;  and  I  did  this  for 
some  days,  remaining  without  food  and  saying  to  her:  'O  dearest 
Lady,  these  are  pilgrims  who  have  left  all  their  little  ones,  their 
wives,  and  all  their  dear  ones  for  the  name  of  thy  Son  and  for 
thee.  They  have  come  hither  from  distant  regions  and  are  fighting 
for  thy  Son;  have  pity  on  them!  And,  O  Lady,  what  will  be  said 
of  thy  Son  and  of  thee  in  their  lands,  if  thou  givest  them  over  into 
the  hands  of  the  Turks?' 

"And  when  I  had  in  anger  and  lament  too  often  repeated  this 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  229 

and  other  statements  like  it,  a  certain  Syrian,  who  was  a  Christian, 
said  to  me  'Be  of  good  spirit,  and  see  that  you  weep  no  longer.  Re- 
cently I  was  before  the  doors  of  the  church  of  the  Blessed  Mary, 
Mother  of  the  Lord,  and  a  cleric,  clothed  in  white  garments,  ap- 
peared to  me.  When  I  asked  him  who  he  was,  or  whence  he  came, 
he  replied,  "I  am  Mark,  the  evangelist,  and  I  come  from  Alexandria ; 
and  I  turned  hither  because  of  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary." 
And  again  when  I  asked  him  where  he  was  going,  he  said,  "Our 
Lord  is  at  Antioch  and  has  sent  word  to  all  His  disciples  to  come 
there,  since  the  Franks  are  due  to  fight  with  the  Turks,  and  we 
will  be  their  protection." '  And  when  he  had  said  this,  he  went 
away! 

"But  since  I  would  place  little  faith  in  these  words,  nor  cease 
from  grief  or  tears,  the  same  Syrian  said  to  me,  'Know,  in  the 
Gospel  of  the  blessed  Peter  it  is  written  that  the  Christian  host  which 
shall  take  Jerusalem  shall  first  have  been  shut  up  in  Antioch.  Nor 
can  they  thence  go  forth  until  they  shall  have  found  the  Lance  of 
the  Lord.' " 

And  the  priest  added,  "If  you  doubt  any  of  this,  let  the  fire  be 
built;  and  in  the  name  of  God  and  with  the  witness  of  these  people, 
I  will  go  through  the  midst  of  it." 

Then  another  priest,  Stephen,  surnamed  Valentine,  a  man  of 
great  integrity  and  good  life,  came  forth  and  said,  "The  Lord  Jesus 
Himself  spoke  to  me  in  the  very  midst  of  the  suffering  which  was 
at  Antioch,  and  promised  in  the  presence  of  His  most  Blessed 
Mother,  the  Virgin  Mary,  that  on  the  fifth  day  to  come  He  would 
be  merciful  to  His  people  and  complete  their  different  undertakings, 
if  they  would  return  to  Him  with  their  whole  heart.  And  on  that 
day  the  Holy  Lance  was  found;  therefore  I  believe  that  the  prom- 
ises of  the  Lord  were  fulfilled.  If  you  doubt  any  of  this,  as  soon 
as  I  saw  this  vision  I  offered  the  Bishop  of  Puy  as  proof  of  it 
to  go  through  fire  in  the  presence  of  the  whole  multitude,  if  he 
wished,  or  to  throw  myself  from  the  highest  tower.  And  I  still 
make  this  very  offer  to  you." 

Moreover  the  Bishop  of  Agde,  came  forth  and  said,  "Whether  I 
saw  this  in  my  sleep  or  not,  I  know  not  for  certain;  God  knows. 
A  man,  dressed  in  white,  and  holding  the  Lance  of  the  Lord,  this 
Lance,  I  say,  in  his  hands,  came  and  stood  before  me  and  said  to 
me,  *Dost  thou  believe  this  to  be  the  Lance  of  the  Lord?' 

"And  I  replied:    T  do.  Lord.' 

"I  had  hesitated  somewhat  about  it,  but  after  he  had  sternly  ex- 
acted this  (answer)  from  rne  a  second  and  a  third  time,  I  said  to 
him:  T  believe,  Lord,  that  this  is  the  Lance  of  my  Lord  Jesus 
Christ.'    And  after  this  he  left  me." 


230  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

And  I  who  have  written  this,  in  the  presence  of  the  brethren  and 
the  Bishop  said  this  there:  'T  was  present  while  the  digging  took 
place;  and  before  all  of  the  Lance  appeared  above  the  ground,  I 
kissed  the  point.  And  there  are  several  in  the  army  who  were  with 
me."  And  I  added,  "There  is  a  certain  other  priest,  Bertrand  of 
Puy  by  name,  who  was  a  servant  of  the  Bishop  of  Puy  during  his 
life.  Moreover,  this  priest  was  sick  unto  death  in  Antioch;  and 
when  he  had  already  given  up  hope  of  his  life,  there  came  before 
him  the  Bishop  of  Puy  with  his  standard  bearer,  Heraclius,  who, 
in  the  greatest  fight  made  at  Antioch  was  wounded  in  the  face  by 
an  arrow  while  he  was  fearlessly  launching  forth  against  the  Hues 
of  the  Turks,  and  as  a  consequence  ended  his  life. 

"And  HeracHus  said,  *Lord,  he  is  ill.' 

"The  Bishop  replied,  'He  is  ill  because  of  his  unbelief.' 

"And  the  priest  thereupon  said:  *Lord,  do  I  not  believe  in  the 
Lance  of  the  Lord,  just  as  also  the  Passion  of  the  Lord?' 

"Then  the  Bishop  said  to  him,  *And  thou  must  yet  believe  many 
other  things.'  " 

And  though  this  does  not  pertain  to  this  matter,  nevertheless, 
since  it  is  worthy,  I  will  add  something  for  the  sake  of  good  men. 
When  the  priest  had  reseated  himself  before  the  Bishop  and  his 
lord  Heraclius,  for  he  was  sick  and  could  not  stand,  he  beheld  in 
the  face  of  his  lord  the  wound  from  which  he  had  ended  the  labors 
of  his  mortal  life.  And  the  priest  said  to  him,  "Sire,  we  believed 
that  thy  wound  had  already  healed.    Why  is  this?" 

Heraclius  answered,  "Well  hast  thou  asked  this  question.  When 
I  came  before  my  Lord,  I  begged  him  that  this  wound  might  never 
be  closed,  since  because  of  it  I  ended  my  life.  And  this  the  Lord 
granted  me."  This  and  much  else  the  Bishop  and  Heraclius  said  to 
the  priest,  which  are  not  now  necessary  (to  relate). 

When  he  had  listened  to  these  and  many  other  men,  Arnulf  be- 
lieved and  confessed;  and  he  promised  the  Bishop  of  Albara  thai 
he  would  do  penance  in  the  presence  of  all  the  people  for  his  un- 
belief. However,  on  the  appointed  day  when  Arnulf  had  come, 
summoned  to  council,  he  began  to  say  that  he  would  place  full  faith 
in  it  (the  Lance),  but  that  he  wished  to  speak  with  his  lord  before 
doing  penance.  But  when  Peter  Bartholomew  heard  this,  he  was 
exceedingly  angry,  and  like  a  plain  man,  and  one  who  has  well 
known  the  truth,  he  said,  "I  wish  and  beg  that  a  very  large  fire  be 
built;  and  I  will  pass  through  the  midst  of  it  with  the  Lance  of  the 
Lord.  If  it  is  the  Lance  of  the  Lord,  I  will  pass  through  the  fire 
unhurt,  but  if  it  is  not,  I  will  be  burned  in  the  fire.  For  I  see 
that  neither  signs  nor  witnesses  are  believed." 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  231 

All  this  pleased  us ;  and  having  commanded  him  to  fast,  we  said 
that  the  fire  would  be  built  on  the  day  on  which  the  Lord  was 
wounded  on  the  Cross  with  it  (the  Lance)  for  our  salvation.  And 
after  the  fourth  day,  then  was  the  day  of  preparation.  So  when 
the  appointed  day  shone,  the  fire  was  made  ready  after  midday. 
Princes  and  people  to  the  number  of  sixty  thousand  men  as- 
sembled there;  priests  were  there  in  bare  feet  and  dressed  in  their 
priestly  vestments.  The  fire  was  made  of  dry  olive  branches  and 
had  a  length  of  thirty  feet ;  and  there  were  four  feet  in  the  height 
of  the  piles.  After  the  fire  had  burned  violently,  I,  Raymond,  said 
before  the  whole  multitude,  'If  Almighty  God  spoke  face  to  face 
with  this  man,  and  St.  Andrew  showed  him  the  Lance  when  he  was 
on  watch,  let  him  pass  through  the  fire  unhurt.  If,  however,  it  is 
a  falsehood,  may  he  be  burned,  together  with  the  Lance  which  he 
will  carry  in  his  hand!''  And  all  upon  bended  knees  responded, 
"Amen!" 

The  fire  was  so  hot  that  it  filled  the  air  for  thirty  cubits.  Verily, 
no  one  could  go  near  it.  Then  Peter  Bartholomew,  dressed  only  in 
an  undergarment,  knelt  down  before  the  Bishop  of  Albara  and 
called  God  as  his  witness  that  he  had  seen  Him  face  to  face  upon 
the  Cross,  and  had  heard  from  Him  what  has  been  written  above, 
and  also  from  St.  Peter  and  Andrew;  and  that  he  had  not  made 
up  any  of  the  things  which  he  had  reported  in  the  name  of  St.  Peter, 
or  St.  Andrew,  or  of  the  Lord  Himself ;  and  that  if  he  had  told  any 
lie,  he  should  never  pass  through  the  present  fire.  (He  prayed) 
that  God  would  forgive  him  the  other  (sins)  which  he  had  commit- 
ted, both  against  God  and  his  neighbor,  and  that  the  Bishop  and 
all  the  other  priests  and  the  people  who  had  gathered  to  witness  the 
test  would  pray  for  him.  After  this,  when  the  Bishop  had  placed 
the  Lance  in  his  hand,  he  knelt  and,  after  invoking  the  sign  of  the 
cross  upon  himself,  went  forth  boldly  and  without  fear  into  the 
fire.  He  stopped  for  a  brief  moment  in  the  midst  of  the  fire,  and 
thus  by  the  grace  of  God  passed  through. 

There  are,  moreover,  to  this  day  some  who  saw  this  miracle  there, 
that,  before  he  had  escaped  destruction,  a  bird  flew  over  head  and, 
after  encircling  the  fire,  plunged  into  it.  Ebrard  the  priest,  he  of 
whom  we  made  mention  above,  and  who  later  remained  at  Jerusalem 
for  the  sake  of  the  Lord,  saw  this ;  and  William,  son  of  William  the 
Good,  an  excellent  knight,  of  good  reputation,  from  the  region  of 
Aries,  bears  witness  that  he  saw  this.  A  certain  other  honorable 
knight  of  the  people  of  Beziers,  William  Maluspuer  by  name,  saw 
a  man  dressed  in  priestly  garb,  except  that  he  had  a  robe  folded 
back  over  his  head,  advance  into  the  fire  before  Peter  went  into 


232  ^       THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

the  flames.  When  he  saw  that  (this  man)  did  not  come  forth, 
thinking  that  it  was  Peter  Bartholomew,  he  began  to  weep,  believ- 
ing that  he  had  been  destroyed  in  the  fire.  There  was  a  multitude 
of  men  there  and  they  could  not  see  everything.  And  many  other 
things  were  revealed  to  us  and  done  which  we  do  not  wish  to  write 
for  fear  of  tiring  the  readers — since  three  suitable  witnesses  are 
sufficient  for  any  question.  Let  us  not  pass  over  this  one  occur- 
rence. After  Peter  Bartholomew  had  passed  through  the  fire, 
though  much  fire  was  still  burning,  yet  the  people  so  eagerly  gath- 
ered brands  and  coals,  together  with  ashes,  that  in  a  short  space  of 
time  none  of  it  remained.  In  the  faith  of  those  people  the  Lord 
afterwards  worked  many  good  deeds  through  these  relics. 

But  as  Peter  came  forth  from  the  fire,  with  his  shirt  unburned 
and  with  no  sign  of  any  hurt  on  that  very  fine  cloth  with  which  the 
Lance  of  the  Lord  was  wound,  all  the  people  welcomed  him  when 
he  had  signalled  to  them,  holding  the  Lance  in  his  hand,  and  had 
shouted  at  the  top  of  his  voice,  "God  help  us !"  They  welcomed 
him,  I  say,  and  dragged  him  along  the  ground  and  almost  that  whole 
multitude  stepped  upon  him,  each  one  wishing  to  touch  him,  or  to. 
take  some  piece  of  his  garment,  and  each  one  believing  him  near 
someone  else.  And  thus  they  made  three  or  four  wounds  on  his 
legs,  cutting  off  the  flesh;  and  trampling  upon  his  back-bone,  they 
broke  it.  And  there  Peter  would  have  breathed  out  his  soul,  as  we 
believe,  had  not  Raymond  Piletus,  a  most  noble  and  brave  knight, 
supported  by  a  crowd  of  companions,  rushed  into  the  mass  of  the 
confused  mob  and  freed  him  by  fighting  even  to  death.  But  now 
from  concern  and  anguish  we  cannot  write  more  about  this. 

When  Raymond  Piletus  had  brought  Peter  to  our  house  and  his 
wounds  had  been  bound  up,  we  asked  him  why  he  had  stopped  in 
the  fire.  To  this  he  replied,  'The  Lord  met  me  in  the  midst  of  the 
flames  and,  taking  me  by  the  hand,  said  to  me,  'Since  thou  didst 
doubt  the  finding  of  the  Lance  when  St.  Andrew  showed  it  to  thee, 
thou  shalt  not  pass  through  unhurt,  but  thou  shalt  not  see  hell.'  And 
having  said  this.  He  left  me.  Look,  therefore,  if  you  wish,  at  my 
burns."  And  there  was  a  slight  burn  on  his  legs  but  not  much ;  the 
wounds,  however,  were  large. 

After  this  we  called  together  all  who  had  doubted  the  Lance  to 
come  and  see  his  face,  head,  hair,  and  other  members.  They  would 
find  out  that  what  he  said  of  the  Lance  and  other  matters  was  true, 
since  for  proof  of  these  things  he  had  not  feared  to  enter  such  a 
fire.  Therefore  many  looked,  and,  upon  seeing  his  face  and  whole 
body,  they  glorified  God,  saying,  ''Well  can  the  Lord,  who  delivered 
this  man  from  such  a  flaming  fire,  protect  us  amidst  the  swords  of 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  233 

our  enemies!  Indeed,  we  did  not  believe  that  any  arrow  could  pass 
unhurt  through  the  fire,  as  this  man  passed  through!" 

After  this  Peter  called  the  chaplain  of  the  Count,  Raymond,  by 
name,  to  him  and  said,  "Why  did  you  wish  me  to  pass  through  fire 
for  proof  of  the  Lance  of  the  Lord  and  other  things  that  I  reported 
as  from  God?  I  know  well  that  you  have  thought  this  way  and 
that."  ' 

And  he  told  me  what  he  had  thought.  But  when  Raymond  de- 
nied that  he  had  so  thought,  Peter  Bartholomew  replied,  "You  can 
not  deny  it  to  me,  since  I  know  it  for  certain,  because  the  other 
night  the  most  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  was  here  and  the  Bishop  of 
Puy,  through  whom  I  learned  the  things  which  you  deny.  Since 
you  did  not  doubt  the  words  of  the  Lord  and  His  apostles,  I  wonder, 
indeed,  why  you  should  wish,  at  my  risk,  to  hold  trial  about  these 
matters  alone." 

Then  Raymond,  seeing  his  thought  detected  and  himself  culp- 
able before  God,  broke  forth  most  bitterly  in  tears.  And  Peter 
thereupon  said :  "Do  not  despair  for  the  most  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
and  St.  Andrew  will  obtain  pardon  for  you  with  God.  But  you  must 
be  more  zealous  in  beseeching  them." 

Meanwhile,  so  many  and  such  great  disputes  arose  between  the 
leaders  of  our  army  that  almost  the  whole  army  was  divided.  But 
God,  who  was  our  Guide  and  Master,  forbade  such  (an  end)  to  be- 
fall His  good  work.  The  city  of  Tripoli  was  not  far  from  our  camp. 
Accordingly,  when  the  lord  of  this  city  learned  of  the  discord  be- 
tween our  princes,  he  replied  as  follows  to  our  men  who  called  upon 
him  about  paying  tribute:  "And  who  are  the  Franks?  And  what 
kind  of  knights  are  they?  And  how  great  is  their  power?  Behold 
it  is  now  the  third  month  since  the  army  of  the  Franks  besieged 
Archas,  and  I  have  seen  neither  an  assault  of  theirs  nor  any  armed 
man,  and  yet  they  are  only  four  leagues  away.  But  let  them  come 
hither,  and  let  us  see  them  and  prove  their  military  skill.  Why 
should  I  become  tributary  to  these  men  whose  faces  I  have  not  seen, 
and  whose  bravery  I  do  not  know?"  As  this  was  reported  to  our 
army,  some  said  to  one  another,  "Behold  what  we  have  gained  by 
our  quarrels  and  discord !  God  is  blasphemed  and  we  are  despised !" 
For  this  cause,  therefore,  our  princes  came  to  agreement  and  decided 
that  the  Bishop  of  Albara  should  guard  the  camp  with  a  part  of  the 
army;  and,  as  was  their  manner  of  fighting,  that  the  princes  with 
the  ranks  of  foot-soldiers  and  knights  should  attack  the  walls  of 
the  city. 

However,  on  the  appointed  day  when  our  men  thus  set  forth,  the 
people  of  Tripoli,  relying  on  the  multitude  of  their  number,  came 


234  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

forth  to  meet  our  men,  ready  to  fight  with  them.  There  is  a  very 
strong  and  high  wall  of  an  acqeduct  into  the  city,  between  which 
and  the  sea  there  is  not  much  space;  for  the  sea  encircles  Tripoli 
on  three  sides.  Accordingly,  the  Saracens  fortified  this  wall  of  the 
aqueduct,  which  we  have  mentioned,  so  that  if  any  misfortune  befell 
them  they  could  go  forth  and  return,  as  though  from  castle  to 
castle.  And  thus  when  our  men  saw  this  multitude,  relying  upon 
the  place  of  their  arms,  they  called  upon  God,  and  with  upraised 
spears  the  foot-soldiers  and  knights  went  up  to  them  in  a  body,  as 
if  in  a  procession,  so  that  if  you  had  seen  our  men  you  would  have 
believed  or  said  that  they  were  friends,  not  enemies.  The  land 
is  now  polluted  with  the  blood  of  the  Moors,  and  the  aqueduct 
filled  with  their  dead  bodies.  Such  fear  did  the  Lord  cast  down 
upon  the  enemy  that  scarcely  any  of  them  could  flee  after  the  first 
blows.  It  was  indeed  very  delightful  to  behold  the  stream  of  the 
aqueduct  bear  the  beheaded  corpses  of  nobles  and  people  swiftly 
into  the  city.  One  or  two  of  our  men  fell  there ;  but  of  the  enemy, 
we  heard  that  as  many  as  seven  hundred  had  fallen. 

And  thus,  upon  returning  with  a  great  victory  and  many  spoils, 
our  princes  said  to  the  people,  ''This  day  the  King  of  Tripoli  saw 
us,  and  we  saw  the  roads  to  the  city  and  have  considered  its  ap- 
proaches. And  now,  if  you  approve,  we  have  decided  that  tomor- 
row the  king  may  find  out  what  kind  of  knights  we  are."  When, 
therefore,  they  returned  on  the  next  day,  they  found  no  one  outside 
the  wall.  After  this  moreover  the  King  of  Trpioli  sent  word  to  our 
princes  that  if  they  would  desist  from  the  siege  of  Archas,  he  would 
give  them  fifteen  thousand  gold  coins,  horses,  mules,  raiment,  and 
food,  and  that  he  would  afford  a  market  of  all  goods  for  all  the 
people ;  in  addition  to  this,  that  he  would  return  all  our  people  whom 
he  held  captive. 

At  this  time  envoys  from  the  Emperor  Alexius  came  to  us  with 
very  great  complaints  against  Bohemund,  because  he  was  retaining 
the  city  of  Antioch  against  the  oaths  which  he  had  made  to  the 
Emperor.  Bohemund  was  holding  Antioch  at  this  time,  for  upon 
hearing  that  the  Count  had  set  forth  from  Marra  into  the  interior 
of  Syria,  he  violently  expelled  the  Count's  men  from  the  towers  of 
Antioch  which  they  were  guarding.  Alexius  further  sent  word  to 
our  princes  that  he  would  give  them  much  gold  and  silver  and 
would  come  with  them  to  Jerusalem,  and  that  they  should  wait  for 
him  until  the  Festival  of  St.  John.^^     Easter  was  then  at  hand. 

Many,  among  whom  was  the  Count,  for  this  reason  said:  ''Let 
us  wait  for  the  Emperor  and  we  will  gain  both  his  gifts  and  himself. 
He  will  cause  a  market  to  come  by  land  and  by  sea,  and  we  will  be 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  235 

in  accord  under  him  as  leader.  All  the  cities  will  surrender  to  him, 
and  he  will  invest  those  he  wishes,  and  destroy  those  he  wishes. 
Besides,  if  these  people  of  ours,  assailed  by  long  and  daily  trials, 
should  come  to  Jerusalem,  they  would  wish  to  go  home,  perchance, 
after  having  seen  it  from  the  outside.  Consider  carefully  the 
dangers  and  very  great  dangers  which  remain  for  those  who  desire 
to  finish  the  journey.  Besides  this,  moreover,  let  us  besiege  the 
fortress  of  Archas,  and  it  will  surrender  within  a  month,  or  be  cap- 
tured"^y"f6"rcer  When  people  at  a  distance  learn  of  this  siege,  if 
we  abandon  it  as  impossible,  our  army,  which  hitherto  has  under- 
taken nothing  that  it  has  not  finished,  will  be  much  despised." 

But  others  said  on  the  other  hand,  "The  Emperor  has  always 
done  us  hurt,  has  always  lied,  has  always  plotted  against  us.  And 
now  because  he  sees  that  he  can  do  nothing,  and  that  we  are  victo- 
rious through  the  grace  of  God,  he  zealously  strives  to  draw  us  off 
from  the  proposed  journey,  lest  those  who  will  hear  of  it  arrange 
to  follow  our  example.  But  now  let  those  whom  he  has  so  often 
hurt  by  word  and  deed  take  care  not  to  place  trust  in  him  in  vain. 
Putting  our  faith,  therefore,  in  Christ  our  Leader,  who  has  de- 
livered us  from  so  many  dangers  beyond  expectation,  and  who  has 
preserved  us  against  all  the  efforts  and  wiles  of  the  Emperor,  let  us 
proceed  on  the  journey  for  which  we  came ;  and  by  God's  promise 
we  will  easily  accomplish  what  we  wish.  When  the  Emperor  shall 
hear  that  Jerusalem  has  been  captured  and  the  road  is  free,  he  will 
fulfil  in  deed  what  he  has  feigned  in  words.  It  will  be  likewise 
with  the  gifts."  The  people  approved  this  opinion  most.  But  be- 
cause the  friends  of  the  Count  were  many,  the  Count  would  surely 
have  exposed  himself  with  his  people  to  death  without  the  other 
princes,  and  he  would  have  given  large  individual  gifts  to  many, 
had  not  the  counsel  of  the  princes  and  the  votes  of  the  people  pre- 
vented. 

At  this  time  we  preached  a  fast,  prayers,  and  alms  to  the  people, 
that  Almighty  God,  who  had  led  them  hither  from  so  many  regions, 
should  deign  to  breathe  into  them  which  of  these  (opinions)  was 
pleasing  in  His  sight.  And  thus  the  prayers  of  the  faithful  easily 
obtained  from  God  what  they  sought.  For  the  Bishop  of  Fuy  ap- 
peared to  Stephen  Valentine,  whom  we  mentioned  above,  the  one 
who  saw  the  Lord  with  the  Cross,  and,  beating  him  with  a  switch 
as  he  was  returning  to  his  home  by  night,  said  to  him,  "Stephen." 
He  replied,  "Sire,"  and  looking  back,  he  recognized  him. 

The  Bishop  said,  "Why  hast  thou  time  and  again  neglected  what 
I  said  to  thee  about  the  Cross  of  the  Lord  and  our  Mother,  Virgin 
Mary?     I  commanded  that  the  Cross  which  I  was  accustomed  to 


236  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

have  carried  before  me  be  brought  to  the  army.  And  what  sign 
is  better  than  the  Cross  ?  Or  has  that  Cross  not  been  stoned  enough 
for  you?  Or  has  it  not  led  you  truly  to  the  Lance  of  the  Lord? 
And  now  Our  Lady  and  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  says  that  unless  you 
keep  that  Cross,  you  will  not  be  able  to  obtain  counsel." 
(  And  the  priest  said  immediately,  ''O,  dearest  Lord,  where  is  the 
Blessed  Mary?"  And  straightway  the  Bishop  showed  her  to  him. 
About  nine  or  ten  cubits  distant  from  him  was  the  Blessed  Mary, 
exceedingly  wonderful  in  face  and  adornment;  and  by  her  was  St. 
Agatha  and  another  virgin,  bearing  two  wax  candles. 

Then  the  priest  said  to  the  Bishop  who  stood  by  her,  "Sire,  how 
many  things  are  said  of  thee  in  the  army,  that  thy  hair  and  beard 
were  burned  in  hell,  and  many  other  things  which  are  not  believed ! 
And  now  I  beg  thee  to  give  me  one  of  those  candles  to  take  to  the 
Count,  as  proof  of  these  things  which  thou  sayest." 

Then  said  the  Bishop  to  him,  ''Look  and  see  my  face.  Is  it  not 
burned?"  After  this,  the  Bishop  approached  the  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary  and,  upon  learning  her  will,  he  returned  to  the  priest  and  said 
to  him,  "That  which  thou  asketh  cannot  be  obtained  by  thee;  but 
this  ring  that  thou  hast  on  thy  finger  is  of  no  use  to  thee,  nor  is  it 
right  for  thee  to  wear  it.  Go  and  give  it  to  the  Count,  saying,  'Most 
Holy  Virgin  Mother  sends  this  ring  to  thee;  and  as  often  as  thou 
shalt  fail  in  any  matter,  remember  the  Lady  who  sent  it  to  thee, 
and  appeal  to  her  and  the  Lord  will  aid  thee.'  " 

Again,  when  the  priest  asked  him  what  he  wished  his  brother  to 
do,  the  Bishop  replied  to  him,  "Let  him  strongly  urge  the  Bishop- 
elect  to  celebrate  three  masses  to  the  Lord  for  the  souls  of  our 
relatives.  Our  Mother  commands  that  the  Lance  should  not  be 
shown  except  by  a  priest  clothed  in  sacred  vestments ;  and  that  the 
Cross  be  borne  before  it,  thus." 

And  the  Bishop  held  the  Cross  placed  upon  a  little  spear,  and  a 
person  dressed  in  priestly  garb  followed  him,  holding  the  Lance 
in  his  hands.  Then  the  bishop  began  this  response,  Gaude,  Maria 
Virgo,  cunctus  haereses  sola  interemisti.  Hundreds  of  thousands  of 
voices  without  number  took  it  up;  and  so  the  gathering  of  saints 
departed.  Moreover,  when  it  became  morning,  the  priest  went  first 
to  see  if  we  had  the  Lance ;  and  when  he  saw  it,  he  began  to  narrate 
with  many  tears  what  had  been  heard  and  seen,  as  we  have  told 
above.  Therefore  the  Count  sent  William  Hugo,  brother  of  the 
Bishop  of  Puy,  to  Laodicaea,  where  the  Cross  had  been  left  with 
the  hood  of  the  same  Bishop. 

Meanwhile,  Peter  Bartholomew,  distressed  with  illness  from  his 
beating  and  wounds,  summoned  the  Count  and  his  princes  and  said 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  237 

to  him,  "The  end  of  my  life  approaches;  and  I  know  well  enough 
that  I  will  be  judged  before  God  for  all  that  I  have  done,  of  said, 
or  thought  evilly.  In  your  presence  and  in  the  sight  of  God,  I 
this  day  call  Him  to  witness  that  I  made  up  nothing  of  what  I  an- 
nounced to  you  as  from  God  and  His  apostles,  and  I  say  this  to  you 
now.  And  as  you  have  seen  fulfilled  the  things  which  I  announced 
to  you,  so  without  doubt  will  you  see  these  things  which  I  tell  you 
now,  if  indeed  you  serve  God  faithfully."  After  this  Peter  de- 
parted in  safety  and  peace  in  the  Lord  at  the  hour  appointed  for 
him  by  God,  and  he  was  buried  in  that  place  where  he  had  passed 
through  the  fire  with  the  Lance. 

5.  Another  view  of  the  revelation  cmd  trial  of  the  Lance. 

(Raoul.) Permit  us  to  run  back  to  the  origin  of  this 

hatred,  that  we  may  wonder  the  less  when  we  reach  the  force  of  the 
raging  current  While  Antioch  was  still  resisting  the  princes  of  Gaul, 
by  whom  it  was  enclosed,  a  quarrel  arose  between  the  adherents  of 
Bohemund  and  Raymond.  Men  of  both  parties  were  sent  to  gather 
grain.  They  found  food  and  a  fight  at  one  and  the  same  time,  and 
the  grain  was  divided  by  the  sword.  Both  parties  were  wounded, 
as  well  as  frightened,  and  both  sides  returned  home  wounded.  The 
princes  Were  wrought  up  at  the  sight  of  the  blood  of  their  vassal' 
host,  and  they  inflamed  the  minds  of  the  wounded  men  to  revenge 
whenever  a  similar  affair  should  occur.  They  commanded  that 
the  fire  should  be  covered  in  camp;  outside  the  flame  should  be 
fanned  with  a  raging  wind.  Their  ready  ears  received  this  com- 
mand willingly — a  command  difficult  to- revoke.  Accordingly,  when 
thereafter  a  greater  band  of  one  party  met  a  smaller  one  of  the  other 
laden  with  provisions,  the  burdens  of  food  were  put  down  there, 
and  their  necks  were  loaded  with  a  shower  of  blows ;  and  thus  the 
one  that  was  stronger  enjoyed  the  spoils.  Then,  the  weaker  party, 
thus  despoiled,  grieved  that  they  had  exerted  themselves  for  others, 
and  not  for  themselves.  He  who  understood  the  tongue  of  either 
now  lashed  with  it;  meanwhile,  the  innocent  were  lashed  for  it. 
All  from  Narbonne,  Auvergne,  Gascony,  and  all  this  kind  of  people 
were  for  the  Provengals ;  the  remainder  of  Gaul,  especially  the  Nor- 
mans, conspired  with  the  Apulians.  The  Bretons,  Swabians, 'Huns, 
Ruthenians,2°  and  people  of  this  kind  were  protected  by  the  barbarity 
of  their  tongues.    All  this  was  going  on  outside  the  wall. 

In  the  city,  also,  the  quarrel  did  not  decrease,  but  rather  in- 
creased, for  when  the  besieged  people  were  in  the  throes  of  famine, 
as  mentioned  above,  there  arose  from  the  army  of  Raymond  a 
versatile  fabricator  of  lies,  Peter,  who  preached  that  the  salvation 


238  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

of  the  people  had  been  revealed  to  him  in  this  way :  "St.  Andrew, 
the  apostle,"  he  said,  "appeared  to  me,  when  I  was  half  asleep,  and 
spoke  this  command  in  my  ear.  'Arise  and  announce  to  the  people 
who  are  laboring  that  consolation  has  come  from  heaven,  which  the 
Lance  that  opened  the  side  of  the  Lord  will  confer  when  it  is  found. 
It  lies  hidden  beneath  the  soil  within  the  church  of  St.  Peter. 
Break  the  pavement  at  such  a  place  (and  he  pointed  out  the  place), 
and  by  digging  there  you  will  find  the  iron  mentioned.  When  the 
horror  of  battle  threatens,  turn  that  against  the  enemy,  and  you 
will  conquer  through  it.'  Terrified,  I  thought  that  I  had  been  de- 
ceived by  a  dream;  and  that  I  would  not  disclose  it,  but  would 
remain  silent  forever,  unless  I  was  warned  the  second  and  the  third 
time.  The  quiet  of  the  next  night  was  again  enfolding  me  when 
the  same  apostle  again  returned,  uttering  the  very  statement  which 
he  had  made  before,  but  like  one  scolding  and  in  wrath.  'Where- 
fore,' he  said,'  didst  thou  shun  me  and  remain  silent?  Thou  alone 
art  delaying  the  safety  of  many.  The  people  have  cried  out  to  the 
Lord  and  have  been  heard;  and  still  thy  negligence  leaves  them  as 
if  neglected.  Hasten,  therefore,  as  quickly  as  possible  to  correct 
this,  that  thou  mayest  continue  to  live.'  Frightened  at  these  words, 
when  I  had  emerged  from  the  sleep,  I  was  at  the  same  time  more 
certain  and  more  troubled ;  yet,  still  I  hesitated  whether  to  keep  the 
secret  or  disclose  it.  In  this  worry  I  passed  a  whole  day,  and  half 
the  night,  with  prayer  and  fasting,  begging  the  Lord  for  the  third 
visit,  if  the  first  two  had  really  been  from  him.  The  cock  had  twice 
acclaimed  the  morning,  when,  at  length,  just  before  the  third  crow, 
sleep  bound  my  tired  limbs ;  then  without  delay  he  who  had  come  a 
first  time,  who  had  come  a  second  time,  appeared  there  again,  ever 
more  terrible,  ever  more  commanding.  'Rise  up,  go,  lazy  brute, 
mute  dog,  delayer  of  safety  and  victory,  menace  to  your  fellows, 
solace  of  your  enemies.  Thou  hast  trembled  with  fear  where  there 
was  no  fear;  where  it  is  thou  hast  no  fear.'  Threats  and  curses 
still  continued,  when  my  spirit,  terrified  with  fear  at  the  threats, 
carried  me  away  from  sleep;  perspiration  and  trembling  coursed 
over  my  body  at  the  same  time,  and  if  fire  was  burning  one  side, 
the  other  was  stiff  with  ice.  By  these  steps  I  came  to  teach  what 
I  had  learned;  you,  however,  fathers  and  brothers,  do  not  stop  to 
test  the  truth  of  the  matter ;  it  remains  for  me  to  point  out  the  place 
for  you  to  dig." 

When  this  rumor  was  brought  to  the  ears  of  Raymond,  he  called 
a  council  and  had  Peter  summoned  to  the  church  of  St.  Peter. 
When  asked  about  the  place,  he  pointed  behind  the  altar,  true  to  his 
story,  and  advised  them  to  dig;  and  that  his  words  might  have 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  239 

weight,  he  likewise  composed  his  expression.  They  dug,  but  without 
avail;  the  upturned  earth  could  not  return  what  had  not  been  com- 
mitted to  it,  and  what  it  had  not  received.  However,  the  man  had 
secreted  about  him  an  Arabic  spear  point,  from  the  chance  finding 
of  which  he  had  contrived  material  for  his  deception.  Therefore, 
seizing  the  hardened,  worn,  and  aged  point,  which  was  in  form  and 
size  unlike  those  which  we  used,  he  was  encouraged  thereby  to 
believe  that  people  would  put  faith  in  his  new  creations.  Accord- 
ingly, when  the  time  for  the  deception  came,  he  took  a  spade,  jumped 
into  the  pit  and,  turning  to  a  corner,  said,  ''Here  we  must  dig. 
Here  lies  hidden  what  we  seek.  Here  it  will  come  forth."  Then, 
multiplying  blow  on  blow,  often  and  more  often,  he  pulled  forth 
from  the  dug  up  ground  the  spear  which  had  been  fraudulently 
dropped  by  him.  The  darkness  conspired  in  the  deception ;  likewise, 
the  throng  of  people  with  the  darkness,  and  the  narrowness  of  the 
pit  with  the  throng.  But  when  the  sound  of  metal  striking  upon 
metal  was  heard,  this  same  fabricator  of  lies  held  out  the  iron  and 
filled  the  excited  ears  of  the  simple  with  these  words:  "Lo,  behold! 
Heaven  promised  what  the  earth  preserved;  the  apostle  revealed 
what  the  prayer  of  the  people  obtained!"  Scarcely  had  he  said  this 
when  they  went  outside  and,  followmg  the  trophy  with  hymns  and 
chants,  showered  it  with  gifts  and  wrapped  it  up  in  cloth  of  gold. 

This  Raymond  and  those  who  supported  him  had  fittingly  ar- 
ranged, but  the  men  of  other  parties,  too,  in  their  rude  simplicity, 
paid  devotion  to  it  with  gifts.  Before  victory  earnestly,  after  it 
much  more  earnestly,  the  Provengals  said  that  the  glory  of  the 
triumph  should  be  ascribed  to  the  Lance,  which  was  borne  ahead  in 
battle,  as  if  it  were  a  trophy.  And  so,  the  treasury  of  Raymond 
was  enlarged,  his  spirit  exalted,  and  his  army  became  insolent. 
Some  of  the  princes  whom  he  had  joined  to  himself,  partly  by  flat- 
tery and  partly  by  deference,  sided  with  him. 

But  Bohemund,  since  he  was  no  fool,  scrutinized  the  matter  in 
detail.  For  who  was  that  dreamer?  In  what  vagaries  had  he 
involved  the  people  ?  What  place  had  he  pointed  out  to  the  diggers  ? 
In  the  fact  that  he  himself  had  leaped  into  it,  had  dug  and  found  it, 
Bohemund  immediately  detected  a  trick.  He  decided  that  the  find- 
ing was  invalid  and  proved  the  inventor  false  by  keen  conjectures: 
"Beautifully,"  said  he,  "was  it  contrived  that  St.  Andrew  should 
appear  to  a  man  who,  I  hear,  frequents  taverns,  roams  the  streets, 
is  a  friend  to  vanities  and  ingrained  with  folly!  The  holy  apostle 
chose  a  fine  person  to  whom  to  disclose  the  secret  of  heaven !  For 
to  whom  would  that  trick  not  be  evident?  If  a  Christian  had  hidden 
it,  why  did  he  pass  over  the  nearest  altar  for  a  hiding  place,  or  if  a 


240  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Gentile,  or  a  Jew,  why  was  it  hidden  within  the  walls  of  a  church? 
Why  near  an  altar?  If  it  is  ascribed  to  neither,  but  to  chance,  in 
what  historical  account  is  Pilate  found  to  have  come  to  Antioch? 
Surely  we  knew  that  it  was  the  lance  of  a  soldier,  and  a  soldier  of 
Pilate.  But  what  follows  is  delightful !  I  hear  that  the  finder  leaped 
in,  after  the  diggers  had  been  laboring  in  vain,  and  that  was  granted 
to  one  man  in  the  darkness  which  had  been  denied  many  in  the  open. 
Oh,  boorish  foolishness!  Oh,  boorish  credulity!  Oh,  credulity, 
easily  won!  So  be  it!  His  integrity  corroborates  the  man,  and 
nearness  to  the  crucifixion  the  place.  Is  this  most  recent  fraud  of 
that  man  not  evident  enough?  If  he  had  walked  purely,  simply, 
in  the  way  of  God;  if  he  had  trusted  in  the  apostle  who  appeared 
to  him,  he  himself  would  not  (alone)  bear  witness  to  this  discovery 
but  would  obtain  another's  testimony.  But  why  do  I  devote  so  much 
scorn  to  that  person?  Because  the  Provengals  ascribe  our  victory, 
which  is  from  above,  like  light  from  the  Father,  to  their  piece  of 
iron.  Let  that  grasping  Count  and  stupid  rabble  regard  it  as  their 
own !  We,  however,  have  won  and  shall  win  in  the  name  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ !"  This  said  Bohemund,  and  with  him  those  who 
looked  more  deeply  below  the  surface,  the  Counts  of  Normandy  and 
Flanders,  and  the  vice-prelate,  Arnulf,  and  Tancred. 

Accordingly,  Raymond,  wounded  by  the  sharp  points  of  Bohe- 
mund's  arguments,  sought  vengeance  by  a  thousand  arts,  or  a  thou- 
sand ways.  Then,  withdrawing,  without  a  mediator,  he  said, 
"Either  I  will  die  soon,  or  I  will  avenge  the  insults  of  the  son 
of  Guiscard.  If  the  meeting  does  not  occur  openly,  let  it  come 
secretly.  Let  the  dagger  prevail,  where  the  Lance  will  not !  Dolus, 
an  virtus,  quis  in  hoste  requiratP'^  Since  the  custody  of  the  city  is 
mine,  then  the  citadel  on  the  hill,  the  chief  palace,  the  market  place, 
the  bridge,  and  the  gates  belong  to  me;  also  the  Lance  and  most  of 
the  people  are  subject  to  me.  What  remains,  except  that,  with 
Bohemund  out  of  the  way,  I  shall  gain  the  principality?" 

While  he  was  turning  this  and  much  more  over  in  his  mind,  he 
decided  first  of  all  that  an  uprising  should  be  stirred  up  among  the 
people,  so  that  Bohemund  would  be  overwhelmed  from  head  to 
foot.  In  the  beginning,  oaths  would  be  hurled  back  and  forth  in 
the  market  place;  the  clamor  would  rise  to  disturb  the  people;  the 
leaders  from  both  sides  would  bring  aid  to  their  men ;  and  every 
arrow,  every  javelin,  would  be  aimed  at  Bohemund.  While  Ray- 
mond was  digesting  this  plot  in  his  heart,  like  a  lion,  God  willed  that 
this  injustice  should  not  be  concealed,  and  it  was  disclosed  to  Arnulf, 
and  through  him  to  Bohemund.  Thus  the  plot  was  thwarted  and 
the  soul  of  a  man,  whose  life  had  already  been  of  the  greatest  ad- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  241 

vantage  to  those  seeking  Jerusalem,  and  was  yet  to  be  of  great 
advantage,  was  saved  from  death. 

Thus  their  anger  had  its  beginning;  thus  began  the  kindling  of 
their  hate.  .  .  .  While  their  arms  were  idle  and  ease  shut  out  war- 
like cares,  the  question  of  the  finding  of  the  above  mentioned  spear 
point  was  to  be  put  to  test,  for  division  was  disturbing  the  people. 
These  favored  the  Lance,  those  condemned  it,  neither  party  at  all 
reasonable.  As  a  result,  the  chief  leaders  agreed  that  he  who  had 
been  the  beginning  of  the  difficulty  should  himself  end  it,  and  should 
prove  the  matter  in  question  by  the  ordeal  of  fire.  Accordingly, 
when  Peter  had  been  brought  in  to  the  council,  they  decided  that  he 
should  take  nine  steps  hither  and  thither  through  the  midst  of  burn- 
ing, flaming  branches,  that  by  this  test  the  finding  would  be  proved 
true,  if  he  were  unhurt,  or  false,  if  he  were  burnt.  A  period 
of  three  days  was  set  aside  for  a  fast,  and  proper  provision  was 
made  for  prayer  and  virgil.  So  they  separated.  But  soon,  on  the 
third  day,  they  met  again.  Branches  were  set  afire  in  a  double  row. 
Peter,  dressed  in  a  shirt  and  breeches,  otherwise  naked,  proceeded 
through  the  midst  of  it,  fell  burned  at  the  other  end,  and  died  on 
the  following  day.  The  people,  upon  seeing  what  was  done,  con- 
fessed that  they  had  been  deceived  by  his  wordy  guile,  were  sorry 
that  they  had  erred,  and  testified  that  Peter  was  a  disciple  of  Simon, 
the  magician.^^ 

But  Raymond  and  his  Provencal  accomplices  defended  the  accused 
with  obstinate  minds,^^  proclaimed  him  a  saint,  threatened  Arnulf, 
as  the  chief  discoverer  of  the  fraud  which  had  been  revealed  and, 
finally,  sent  an  armed  band  against  him  to  overwhelm  him  unex- 
pectedly at  his  house.  Had  he  not  previously  warned  the  Count 
of  Normandy,  in  whose  service  he  was,  he  would  have  come  to  an 
early  death.  The  Count  was  eating,  with  him  the  Count  of  Flanders, 
and  both  were  reclining.  When  they  heard  the  cause  of  the  com- 
motion, their  session  was  broken  off.  The  Counts  separated,  each 
to  his  own  forces,  and  both  sent  arms  to  oppose  the  armed  men. 
But  frightened  by  the  commotion  of  the  Normans  which  they  heard, 
they  tried  to  cover  up  the  matter,  making  believe  that  they  were 
looking  for  something  else  and  had  some  other  intent.  By  this 
artifice  they  saved  themselves;  otherwise  those  whom  flight  spared 
would  have  grieved,  not  that  they  had  taken  up  arms  in  vain,  but 
that  they  had  done  so  unfortunately. 


CHAPTER  VII 

The  Capture  of  Jerusalem 

(The  last  quarrel  between  the  leaders  at  Archas  apparently  cleared  the 
minds  of  all.  Their  attitude  thereafter  seemed  one  of  grim  determination  to 
fulfil  their  vow  as  quickly  as  possible.  The  description  of  the  siege  and  the 
capture  of  Jerusalem  offers  very  graphic  testimony  as  to  the  degree  of 
civilization  attained  by  eleventh  century  Europe.  With  Jerusalem  in  their 
possession,  the  Crusaders  were  still  threatened  by  the  vacillating  ruler  of 
Egypt,  or  Babylon,  as  they  called  it.  Jerusalem  had  been  surrendered  to 
the  Saracens  of  Egypt  by  its  Seljuk  rulers  when  the  Crusaders  were  at 
Antioch.  The  inability  of  the  Caliph  to  send  an  army  to  the  relief  of  the 
city  while  it  was  being  besieged  is  sufficient  evidence  of  his  weakness.  The 
ease  with  which  the  Crusaders  disposed  of  Al-Afdhal's  host,  while  it  con- 
firms this  weakness,  also  affords  eloquent  testimony  to  the  prestige  which 
Western  courage  and  skill  had  won  among  the  Mohammedans.) 

I.  March  to  Jerusalem.     (May  13 — June  7,  1099.) 

(Gesta.)  Accordingly,  we  left  the  fortified  town  and  came  to 
Tripoli  on  the  sixth  day  of  the  week  on  the  thirteenth  day  of 
incoming  May,  and  we  stayed  there  for  three  days.  At  length,  the 
King  of  Tripoli  made  an  agreement  with  the  leaders,  and  he  straight- 
way loosed  to  them  more  than  three  hundred  pilgrims  who  had  been 
captured  there  and  gave  fifteen  thousand  besants  and  fifteen 
horses  of  great  value;  he  likewise  gave  us  a  great  market  of  horses, 
asses,  and  all  goods,  whence  the  whole  army  of  Christ  was  greatly 
enriched.  But  he  made  an  agreement  with  them  that  if  they  could 
win  the  war  which  the  Emir  of  Babylon  was  getting  ready  against 
them  and  could  take  Jerusalem,  he  would  become  a  Christian  and 
would  recognize  his  land  as  (a  gift)  from  them.  In  such  manner 
it  was  settled. 

We  left  the  city  on  the  second  day  of  the  week  in  the  month 
of  May  and,  passing  along  a  narrow  and  difficult  road  all  day 
and  night,  we  came  to  a  fortress,  the  name  of  which  was 
Botroun.  Then  we  came  to  a  city  called  Gibilet  near  the  sea,  in 
which  we  suffered  very  great  thirst,  and,  thus  worn  out,  we  reached 
a  river  named  Ibrahim.  Then  on  the  eve  of  the  day  of  the  Ascen- 
sion of  the  Lord  we  crossed  a  mountain  in  which  the  way  was  ex- 
ceedingly narrow,  and  there  we  expected  to  find  the  enemy  lying 
in  ambush  for  us.     But  God  favoring  us,  none  of  them  dared  to 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  243 

appear  in  our  way.  Then  our  knights  went  ahead  of  us  and  cleared 
the  way  before  us,  and  we  arrived  at  a  city  by  the  sea  which  is 
called  Beirut,  and  thence  we  went  to  another  city  called  Sidon, 
thence  to  another  called  Tyre,  and  from  Tyre  to  the  city  of  Acre. 
But  from  Acre  we  came  to  a  fortified  place  the  name  of  which  was 
Cayphas,  and  then  we  came  near  Caesarea.  There  was  celebrated 
Pentecost  on  the  third  day  of  outgoing  May.  Then  we  came  to 
Ramlah,  which  through  fear  of  the  Franks  the  Saracens  had 
left  empty.  Near  it  was  the  famous  church  in  which  rested  the 
most  precious  body  of  St.  George,^  since  for  the  name  of  Christ  he 
there  happily  received  martyrdom  from  the  treacherous  pagans. 
There  our  leaders  held  a  council  to  choose  a  bishop  who  should 
have  charge  of  this  place  and  erect  a  church.  They  gave  tithes  to 
him  and  enriched  him  with  gold  and  silver,  and  with  horses  and 
other  animals,  that  he  might  live  the  more  devoutly  and  honorably 
with  those  who  were  with  him.^     He  remained  there  with  joy. 

(Raymond.)  Meanwhile  the  Count  and  the  other  princes  in- 
quired of  the  inhabitants  of  that  region  how  the  march  to  Jerusalem 
might  be  better  and  more  easily  made.  For  there  are  the  mountains 
of  Lebanon,  in  which  almost  sixty  thousand  Christian  men  dwell. 
The  Christians  who  are  near  the  city  of  Tyre  (now  commonly  called 
Sur,  whence  they  are  called  Surians)  have  possessed  that  land  and 
mountains  for  a  long  time.  But  when  the  Saracens  and  Turks 
arose  through  the  judgment  of  God,  those  Surians  were  in  such 
great  oppression  for  four  hundred  and  more  years  that  many  of 
them  were  forced  to  abandon  their  fatherland  and  the  Christian  law. 
If,  however,  any  of  them  through  the  grace  of  God  refused,  they 
were  compelled  to  give  up  their  beautiful  children  to  be  circumcised, 
or  converted  to  Mohammedanism;  or  they  were  snatched  from 
the  lap  of  their  mothers,  after  the  father  had  been  killed  and  the 
mother  mocked.  Forsooth,  that  race  of  men  were  inflamed  to 
such  malice  that  they  overturned  the  churches  of  God  and  His 
saints,  or  destroyed  the  images ;  and  they  tore  out  the  eyes  of  those 
images  which,  for  lack  of  time,  they  could  not  destroy,  and  shot 
them  with  arrows;  all  the  altars,  too,  they  undermined.  Moreover, 
they  made  mosques  of  the  great  churches.  But  if  any  of  those  dis- 
tressed Christians  wished  to  have  an  image  of  God  or  any  saint 
at  his  home,  he  either  redeemed  it  month  by  month,  or  year  by  year, 
or  it  was  thrown  down  into  the  dirt  and  broken  before  his  eyes. 
In  addition,  too  harsh  to  relate,  they  placed  youths  in  brothels,  and, 
to  do  yet  more  vilely,  exchanged  their  sisters  for  wine.  And  their 
mothers  dared  not  weep  openly  at  these  or  other  sorrows.    Why  do 


244  ^  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

we  say  much  about  them  ?  Surely  that  people  had  conspired  against 
the  Holy  of  Holies  and  His  inheritance!  Except  by  the  command 
and  direction  of  God,  the  people  of  the  Franks  would  have  en- 
countered these  ills,  had  not  God  straightway  armed  brute  animals' 
against  their  enemies,  as  He  did  once  in  our  presence.^  And  so 
much  for  this. 

When  those  Surians-  who,  as  we  said  above,  came  to  the  Count, 
were  asked  about  the  better  route,  they  replied :  "The  way  through 
Damascus  is  level  and  full  of  vituals;  but  you  will  not  find  water 
for  two  days.  The  other  way  through  the  mountains  of  Lebanon 
is  safe  enough  and  well  watered,  but  it  is  very  hard  for  the  pack 
animals  and  camels.  There  is  another  way  along  the  sea,  where 
there  are  so  many  and  such  narrow  passes  that  if  fifty  or  a  hundred 
Saracens  want  to  hold  them,  they  can  do  so  against  all  mankind. 
And  yet  it  is  contained  in  the  Gospel  of  St.  Peter,  which  we  have, 
that  if  you  are  the  people  who  are  to  take  Jerusalem,  you  will  pass 
along  the  sea-coast,  though  because  of  the  difficulty  it  seems  impos-' 
sible  to  us.  Moreover,  there  is  written  in  that  Gospel  among  us  not 
only  what  you  have  done,  but  also  what  you  ought  to  do  about  this 
march  and  many  other  things." 

While  some  were  urging  in  this  and  other  ways,  and  others  were 
contradicting,  William  Hugo  of  Monteil  returned  with  the  Cross 
of  which  we  spoke  above.*  Moreover,  when  the  friends  of  the 
Count  likewise  beheld  this  Cross,  they  became  so  eager  for  the  march 
that,  except  for  the  counsel  of  the  Count  and  the  other  princes, 
the  servants  of  the  Count  would  have  burned  their  huts  and  been 
the  first  to  leave  the  siege  of  Archas.  Thereupon,  the  Count  was 
disturbed  to  tears  and  even  to  hatred  of  himself  and  his  people. 
But  the  Duke  of  Lorraine  especially  wished  this  journey  and  ad- 
monished the  people  to  it.  Accordingly,  having  set  forth  from  that 
detestable  and  hateful  siege  of  Archas,  we  came  before  Tripoli. 
Even  then  Count  Raymond  with  prayers  and  gifts  urged  all  the 
nobles  to  besiege  the  city  of  Tripoli,  but  all  opposed  him. 

At  this  time,  St.  Andrew  appeared  to  Peter  Desiderius,  of  whom 
we  have  made  mention  above,  and  said  to  him,  "Go  and  speak  to 
the  Count,  saying:  'Do  not  molest  thyself  or  others,  for  unless 
Jerusalem  shall  first  have  been  taken,  thou  shalt  have  no  help.  Do 
not  trouble  thyself  about  the  unfinished  siege  of  Archas;  let  it  not 
weigh  upon  thee  that  this  city,  or  others  which  are  on  the  journey, 
are  not  taken  at  present,  because  a  fight  will  soon  come  upon  thee 
in  which  these  and  many  other  cities  shall  be  captured.  Further- 
more, do  not  trouble  thyself  or  thy  men,  but  distribute  freely  in 
His  name  whatever  God  shall  grant  to  thee,  and  be  a  companion 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  245 

and  loyal  friend  to  thy  vassals.  If  thou  shalt  do  this,  God  will  grant 
thee  Jerusalem  and  Alexandria  and  Babylon.  But  if  thou  dost  not 
do  this,  thou  shalt  neither  acquire  the  things  promised  by  God  nor 
have  a  message,  until  thou  art  placed  in  such  straits  that  thou 
knowest  not  how  to  escape !' "  So  the  Count  accepted  the  words 
of  the  priest;  he  accepted  them,  truly,  in  words,  but  he  refused 
them  in  deeds.  For  when  he  had  received  great  wealth  from  the 
King  of  Tripoli,  he  was  never  willing  to  give  anyone  any  of  it, 
but  he  even  daily  afflicted  his  people  with  blows  and  insults.  Not 
only  this,  however,  did  that  priest  tell  us,  but  also  many  other  things, 
some  of  which  we  have  added  to  this  work. 

For  once,  when  we  wanted  to  set  out  from  Antioch,  that  priest 
came  to  me,  Raymond,  and  said  to  me  that  a  certain  person  had 
appeared  to  him  in  a  vision  who  said  to  him,  "Go  into  the  church 
of  St.  Leontius,  and  thou  wilt  find  there  the  relics  of  four  saints; 
take  them  with  thee  and  carry  them  to  Jerusalem."  And  he  showed 
him  in  that  vision  the  relics  and  locations  of  the  relics,  and  he 
taught  him  the  names  of  the  saints.  When  that  priest  had  awakened, 
not  fully  believing  in  his  vision,  he  began  to  urge  God  with  prayers 
and  entreaties  to  make  known  to  him  a  second  time  if  this  vision 
was  from  Him.  Several  days  later  the  same  saint  stood  before  him 
in  a  vision  and  threatened  him  much  because  he  had  neglected 
the  command  of  God,  and  (said  that)  unless  he  had  taken  those 
relics  away  by  the  fifth  day  of  the  week,  it  would  be  a  great  hurt 
to  him  and  his  lord,  Cbunt  Ysoard.  Ysoard,  Count  of  Die,  was  a 
man  loyal  to  God  as  far  as  he  knew,  and  helpful  to  all  of  us  for  his 
wisdom  and  uprightness. 

When  the  priest  had  narrated  this  to  me,  Raymond,  I  told  it 
to  the  Bishop  of  Orange  and  to  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  and  to  some 
others.  We  took  candles  and  went  to  the  church  of  St.  Leontus, 
We  offered  the  candles  and  vows  to  God  and  to  the  saints  of  the 
same  church,  (praying)  that  Almighty  God,  who  had  sanctified 
them,  might  give  them  to  us  as  companions  and  helpers;  and  that 
those  saints  might  not  spurn  the  company  of  pilgrims  and  exiles 
for  God,  but,  rather,  out  of  charity  might  join  us  and  link  us  with 
God.  When  it  became  morning,  we  went  with  the  priest  to  the 
places  where  the  relics  were  kept,  and  we  found  everything  just 
as  it  had  been  foretold.  Moreover,  these  are  the  names  of  the  saints : 
Cyprian,  Omechios,  Leontius,  John  Chrysostom.^  And,  further- 
more, at  the  place  where  the  relics  were  kept  we  found  a  little  chest 
filled  with  relics.  When  he  asked  a  priest  about  these,  of  which  saint 
they  were  the  relics,  he  replied  that  he  did  not  know.  But  when 
we  inquired  of  the  inhabitants  if  they  knew  of  which  saint  these 


246  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

were  the  relics,  some  said  of  St.  Mercurius,  others,  however,  of 
other  saints.  But  the  priest  wished  to  take  them  up  and  put  them 
with  the  collection  of  other  relics.  To  him,  I,  Raymond,  said 
angrily  in  the  presence  of  all  who  were  there,  *Tf  this  saint  wishes 
to  come  with  us  to  Jerusalem,  let  him  make  known  his  name  and 
wish;  otherwise  let  him  remain  here.  Why  should  we  weight 
ourselves  with  unknown  bones  and  carry  them  along?"  Therefore 
on  that  day  those  relics  were  left  behind.  But  when  the  priest  had 
collected  the  other  relics  and  had  rolled  them  up  in  cloths  and  a 
covering,  on  the  night  which  followed,  as  he  lay  awake,  there  ap- 
peared to  him  a  youth  of  about  fifteen  years,  exceedingly  beautiful, 
who  said  to  him,  '*Why  didst  thou  this  day  not  take  any  relics  with 
the  rest?" 

The  priest  replied  to  this,  "Who  art  thou?" 

*'Dost  thou  not  know  who  is  the  standard  bearer  of  this  army?" 
he  replied. 

The  priest  answered,  "I  do  not.  Sire." 

When  the  priest  had  made  the  same  reply  to  the  same  question 
a  second  time,  the  youth  threatened  the  priest  terribly,  saying,  "Tell 
me  the  truth." 

And  then  the  priest  said,  "Sire,  it  is  said  of  St.  George  that  he 
is  the  standard-bearer  of  this  army." 

He  replied,  "Thou  hast  said  well.  I  am  he.  Take,  therefore,  my 
relics  and  put  them  with  the  others." 

When,  however,  the  priest  had  deferred  doing  this  for  several 
days,  the  same  George  came  to  him  and  commanded  the  priest 
sternly,  saying,  "Do  not  delay  longer  than  the  morning  to  take  up 
my  relics ;  and  near  by  in  a  little  ampule  thou  wilt  find  some  of  the 
blood  of  the  virgin  and  martyr  St.  Tecla,  which  likewise  take ;  and 
after  this  chant  mass."     And  the  priest  found  all  this,  and  did  it. 

But  before  we  go  on  to  the  remainder,  we  ought  not  to  pass  over 
these  men  who  did  not  hesitate,  for  love  of  the  most  holy  expedi- 
tion, to  sail  through  the  unknown  and  very  long  water  of  the 
.Mediterranean  and  the  Ocean.  For  when  the  Angles  heard  the 
name  of  the  Lord's  vengeance  against  those  who  unworthily  oc- 
cupied the  birthplace  of  Jesus  Christ  and  His  apostles,  they  em- 
barked upon  the  Anglican  Sea.  Rounding  Spain,  crossing  the  ocean, 
and  thus  ploughing  through  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  with  great  labor 
they  gained  the  port  of  Antioch  and  the  city  of  Laodicaea,  before 
our  army  came  thither  by  land.^  Their  ships,  as  well  as  those  of 
the  Genoese  were  of  advantage  to  us  at  this  time,  for  during  the 
siege  we  had  trade  with  the  island  of  Cyprus  and  the  remaining 
islands  because  of  these  ships  and  the  security  which  they  offered. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  247 

Forsooth,  these  ships  passed  daily  over  the  sea,  and  for  this  reason 
the  ships  of  the  Greeks  were  safe;,  since  the  Saracens  feared  to 
encounter  them.  But  when  the  Angles  saw  the  army  setting  forth 
for  Jerusalem,  and  that  the  strength  of  their  own  ships  was  im- 
paired by  the  long  wait  (for  though  they  had  thirty  ships  in  the 
beginning,  they  now  had  scarcely  nine  or  ten),  some  abandoned 
their  ships  and  exposed  them;  others,  however,  burned  theirs  and 
hastened  with  us  on  the  journey. 

When  our  princes  were  entangled  in  delay  before  Tripoli,  the 
Lord  sent  such  great  desire  of  going  to  Jerusalem  that  no  one  could 
there  restrain  himself,  or  another,  but,  setting  out  at  evening  against 
the  decrees  of  the  princes  and  the  custom  of  our  army,  we  walked 
along  all  that  night  and  came  on  the  following  day  to  Beirut.  After 
this,  when  the  narrow  passages  which  are  called  The  Twisted  Mouth 
had  been  suddenly  seized  in  advance,  we  came  in  a  few  days  and 
without  baggage  to  Acre.  The  King  of  Acre,  however,  afraid 
that  we  would  besiege  his  city,  and  hoping  that  we  would  with- 
draw, took  oath  to  the  Count  that  if  we  captured  Jerusalem,  or 
were  in  the  region  of  Judaea  for  twenty  days,  and  the  King  of 
Babylon  did  not  meet  us  in  battle,  or  if  we  were  able  to  overcome 
that  king,  he  would  surrender  himself  and  his  city  to  us;  but  that 
in  the  meanwhile  he  would  be  our  friend. 

Setting  forth  from  Acre  one  day  at  vespers,  we  pitched  camp 
by  the  swamps  which  are  near  Caesarea.  And  while,  according  to 
custom,  some  ran  here  and  there  below  the  camp,  as  need  de- 
manded, and  while  others  were  inquiring  from  acquaintances  where 
their  companions  were  lodged,  a  dove,  mortally  wounded  by  a 
hawk,  fell  down  in  the  midst  of  those  runnnig  about.  When  the 
Bishop  of  Agde  took  it  up,  he  found  a  letter  which  it  was  carrying. 
And  the  sense  of  the  letter  was  as  follows: 

"The  King  of  Acre  to  the  Duke  of  Caesarea:  A  canine  breed, 
a  foolish  and  troublesome  host  without  order,  passed  me.  As  you 
love  your  law,  try  by  yourselves  and  through  others  to  hurt  them; 
this  you  can  easily  do,  if  you  wish.  Send  this  likewise  to  other 
cities  and  fortresses." 

In  the  morning,  when  we  were  commanding  the  army  to  rest,  the 
letter  was  shown  to  the  princes  and  to  all  the  people,  and  (it  was 
manifest)  how  God  had  been  kind  to  us,  so  that  not  even  the  birds 
could  cross  through  the  air  to  harm  us,  and  that  He  likewise  dis- 
closed to  us  the  secrets  of  our  foes.  Wherefore,  we  rendered  praise 
and  thank  to  Almighty  God.  And  thence  setting  forth  securely  and 
willingly,  we  went  forward,  frequently  in  the  front  rank  of  the  army, 
and  also  at  the  end. 


248  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

But  when  the  Saracens  who  lived  in  Ramlah  heard  that  we  had 
crossed  the  river  near  by,  they  left  their  fortifications  and  arms, 
and  much  grain  in  the  fields,  and  crops,  which  we  gathered.  And 
when  we  came  to  it  on  the  next  day,  we  found  out  that  God  was 
truly  fighting  for  us.  So  we  offered  vows  to  St.  George  because 
he  had  confessed  himself  our  guide.  The  leaders  and  all  the 
people  agreed  that  we  should  there  choose  a  bishop,  since  that  was 
the  first  church  which  we  found  in  the  land  of  Israel,  and,  also, 
in  order  that  St.  George  might  entreat  God  in  our  behalf,  and  might 
lead  us  faithfully  through  the  land  in  which  He  was  not  wor- 
shipped. Moreover,  Ramlah  is  about  fifteen  miles  from  Jerusalem. 
Therefore,  we  there  held  a  conference. 

Some  said,  "Let  us  not  go  to  Jerusalem  at  present,  but  towards 
Egypt;  we  will  obtain  not  only  Jerusalem,  but  likewise  Alexandria 
and  Babylon  and  very  many  kingdoms.  If  we  go  to  Jerusalem  and, 
failing  of  sufficient  water,  give  up  the  siege,  we  will  accomplish 
neither  this  nor  the  other  afterwards." 

But  others  said  in  opposition,  "There  are  scarcely  fifteen  hundred 
knights  in  the  army,  and  the  number  of  armed  men  is  not  great; 
and  yet  it  is  now  suggested  that  we  go  to  very  distant  and  unknown 
regions,  where  we  will  be  able  neither  to  get  help  from  our  people 
nor  to  place  a  garrison  in  a  city,  if  we  capture  one ;  nor,  even  if  it 
should  be  necessary,  would  we  be  able  to  return  thence.  But  none 
of  this ;  let  us  hold  to  our  way,  and  let  God  provide  for  His  servants 
for  the  siege,  for  thirst,  for  hunger,  and  for  other  things !" 

Accordingly,  after  leaving  a  garrison  in  the  fortress  of  Ramlah 
with  the  new  Bishop,  we  loaded  our  camels  and  oxen,  and  then 
all  our  baggage  animals  and  horses,  and  turned  our  march  to  Jeru- 
salem. However,  the  word  which  Peter  Bartholomew  had  com- 
manded us — that  we  should  not  approach  Jerusalem  except  with  bared 
feet — we  forgot  and  held  in  low  regard,  each  one,  from  ambition  to 
occupy  castles  and  villas,  wishing  to  go  ahead  of  the  next.  For 
it  was  a  custom  among  us  that  if  any  one  came  to  a  castle  or  villa 
first  and  placed  his  standard  there  with  a  guard,  it  was  touched  by 
no  one  else  afterward.  Therefore,  because  of  this  ambition  they 
arose  at  midnight  and,  without  waiting  for  companions,  gained  all 
those  mountains  and  villas  which  are  in  the  meadows  of  the  Jordan. 
A  few,  however,  to  whom  the  command  of  God  was  more  precious, 
walked  with  naked  feet  and  sighed  heavily  for  the  contempt  of  the 
Divine  word;  and  yet  no  one  recalled  a  companion  or  friend  from 
that  ambitious  chase.  Moreover,  when  by  such  arrogant  procedure 
we  had  come  near  Jerusalem,  the  people  of  Jerusalem  came  forth 
to  meet  the  first  of  our  men  and  wounded  the  horses  severely.  Of 
those  men  three  or  four  fell  on  that  day,  and  many  were  wounded. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  249 

2.  The  Siege.     (June  7 — July  15,  1099.) 

(Gesta.)  Rejoicing  and  exulting,  we  reached  the  city  of  Jeru- 
salem on  Tuesday,  on  the  third  day  of  the  week,  the  eighth  day 
before  the  Ides  of  June,  and  began  to  besiege  the  city  in  a  marvelous 
manner.^  Robert  the  Norman  besieged  it  from  the  north  side,  near 
the  church  of  St.  Stephen,  which  was  built  on  the  very  spot  where 
that  first  martyr  won  eternal  happiness  by  being  stoned  in  Christ's 
name.  Next  to  the  Norman  Count  was  Robert,  Count  of  Flanders, 
while  Duke  Godfrey  and  Tancred  besieged  the  city  from  the  west. 
The  Count  of  St.  Gilles  located  himself  on  the  south,  on  Mount 
Zion,  near  the  church  of  St.  Mary,  the  mother  of  the  Lord,  where 
Christ  once  supped  with  His  disciples. 

On  the  third  day  some  of  our  men,  namely  Raymond  Piletus  and 
Raymond  of  Turenne,  went  out  on  a  foraging  expedition.  They 
encountered  a  force  of  two  hundred  Arabs,  and  the  soldiers  of 
Christ  fought  these  unbelievers.  With  the  Lord's  help,  they  fought 
so  valiantly  that  they  killed  many  of  the  enemy  and  captured  thirty 
horses.  On  the  second  day  of  the  following  week,  we  made  an 
attack  on  the  city,  and  so  bravely  did  we  fight  that,  if  scaling  ladders 
had  been  ready  for  our  use,  the  city  most  certainly  would  have 
fallen  into  our  hands.  As  it  was,  we  pulled  down  the  outer  wall  and 
placed  one  ladder  against  the  main  wall,  upon  which  some  of  our 
men  ascended  and  fought  hand  to  hand  with  swords  and  lances 
against  the  Saracen  defenders  of  the  city.  Many  of  our  men  were 
killed  in  this  attack,  but  more  of  the  enemy. 

For  a  period  of  ten  days  during  the  siege  we  were  not  able  to 
buy  bread  at  any  price,  until  a  messenger  came  announcing  the  ar- 
rival of  our  ships.  We  also  suffered  greatly  for  thirst.  In  fear  and 
terror  we  were  forced  to  water  our  horses  and  other  animals  at  a 
distance  of  six  miles  from  camp.  The  Pool  of  Siloam,  at  the  foot 
of  Mount  Zion,  sustained  us,  but,  nevertheless,  water  was  sold 
among  us  very  dearly. 

When  the  messenger  arrived  from  our  ships,  the  leaders  took 
counsel  and  decided  that  armed  men  should  be  sent  to  guard  the 
ships  and  sailors  at  the  port  of  Joppa.  So  one  hundred  men  from 
the  army  of  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  under  Raymond  Piletus, 
Achard  of  Montemerle,  and  William  of  Sabran,^  left  camp  in  the 
early  dawn  and  started  confidently  toward  Joppa.  Thirty  of  these 
knights  separated  themselves  from  the  rest  of  the  band  and  met 
seven  hundred  Arabs,  Turks,  and  Saracens  from  the  army  of  the 
Emir.  The  soldiers  of  Christ  boldly  attacked  the  enemy,  whose 
force  was  so  superior  to  ours  that  they  soon  surrounded  us.  Achard 
and  some  of  the  poor  footmen  were  killed.     While  this  band  was 


25®  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

completely  surrounded,  and  all  believed  that  they  would  be  killed, 
a  messenger  was  sent  to  Raymond  Piletus,  who  said,  "Why  do  you 
stand  here  with  these  knights?  Lo,  all  of  our  men  are  in  serious 
danger  from  the  Arabs,  Turks,  and  Saracens,  and  may  all  be  dead 
by  this  time.  Hasten  to  them  and  aid  them."  As  soon  as  they 
heard  this,  our  men  hastened  to  the  scene  of  battle.  When  the 
pagans  saw  the  rest  of  our  knights  approaching,  they  formed  them- 
selves into  two  lines.  Our  men  rushed  upon  the  unbelievers,  shout- 
ing the  name  of  Christ,  each  determined  to  bring  down  his  man. 
The  enemy  soon  realized  that  they  would  not  be  able  to  withstand 
the  bravery  of  the  Franks,  so  they  turned  their  backs  and  fled  in 
terror.  Our  men,  pursuing  them  a  distance  of  four  miles,  killed 
many  of  them,  but  kept  one  alive  to  give  them  information.  One 
hundred  and  three  horses  were  captured. 

During  this  siege  we  were  so  distressed  with  thirst  that  we 
sewed  up  skins  of  oxen  and  buffalos  and  in  these  carried  water  for 
a  distance  of  six  miles.  Between  fetid  water  and  barley  bread  we 
were  daily  in  great  want  and  suffering.  Moreover,  the  Saracens 
hid  in  ambush  at  the  watering  places  and  either  killed  and  wounded 
our  animals  or  drove  them  away  to  caverns  in  the  hills. 

(Raymond.)  Duke  Godfrey  and  the  Count  of  Flanders  and  the 
Count  of  Normandy  besieged  the  city  from  the  north  side,  that  is 
from  the  church  of  St.  Stephen,  located  in  the  center  of  the  city, 
southward  to  the  angular  tower  next  to  the  tower  of  David.  Count 
Raymond  and  his  army,  however,  settled  down  on  the  West  and 
besieged  Jerusalem  from  the  camp  of  the  Duke  to  the  foot  of  Mount 
Zion.  But  since  his  men  could  not  come  close  to  besiege  the  wall 
because  of  a  gully  which  intervened,  the  Count  wished  to  move  his 
camp  and  change  his  position.  One  day,  while  he  was  reconnoiter- 
ing,  he  came  to  Mount  Zion  and  saw  the  church  which  is  located  on 
the  Mount  When  he  heard  of  the  miracles  that  God  had  per- 
formed there,  he  said  to  his  leaders  and  companions,  *Tf  we  neglect 
to  take  this  sacred  offering,  which  the  Lord  has  so  graciously  offered 
us,  and  the  Saracens  there  occupy  this  place,  what  will  become 
of  us?  What  if  through  hatred  of  us  they  should  destroy  and 
pollute  these  sacred  things?  Who  knows  that  God  may  not  be 
giving  us  this  opportunity  to  test  our  regard  for  Him  ?  I  know  this 
one  thing  for  certain:  unless  we  carefully  protect  this  sacred  spot, 
the  Lord  will  not  give  us  the  others  within  the  city."  And  so  Count 
Raymond,  against  the  wishes  of  the  leaders  of  his  army,  ordered 
his  tents  to  be  moved  to  that  spot.  As  a  result,  he  incurred  such 
great  hatred  from  his  men  that  they  were  neither  willing  to  en- 
camp with  him  nor  to  do  guard  duty  during  the  night;  each  stayed 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  251 

where  he  had  first  pitched  his  tent,  with  the  exception  of  a  few 
who  accompanied  the  Count.  However,  by  great  rewards  the  Count 
daily  induced  knights  and  footmen  to  guard  his  camp.  There  are 
in  that  church  these  sacred  treasures — the  tombs  of  the  kings,  David 
and  Solomon,  as  well  as  that  of  the  first  martyr,  St.  Stephen.  There 
the  Blessed  Mary  departed  from  this  world;  the  Lord  supped 
there  and,  after  rising  from  the  dead,  appeared  there  to  His  dis- 
ciples and  to  Thomas.  On  this  spot,  also,  the  disciples  were  filled 
with  the  Holy  Spirit. 

Thereupon,  when  the  siege  had  been  set,  it  happened  one  day 
that  some  of  the  leaders  of  the  army  met  a  hermit  on  the  Mount  of 
Olives,  who  said  to  them,  "If  you  will  attack  the  city  tomorrow  till 
the  ninth  hour,  the  Lord  will  deliver  it  into  your  hands."  They 
repHed,  "But  we  do  not  have  the  necessary  machinery  for  storm- 
ing the  walls."  The  hermit  replied :  "God  is  all  powerful.  If  He 
wills.  He  will  storm  the  walls  even  with  one  ladder.  The  Lord  aids 
those  who  labor  for  the  Truth."  So,  with  such  machinery  as  could 
be  constructed  during  the  night,  an  attack  was  made  on  the  city 
in  the  early  morning,  and  it  lasted  till  the  third  hour.  The  Saracens 
were  compelled  to  retreat  behind  the  inner  walls,  for  the  outer 
wall  was  broken  down  by  our  men,  some  of  whom  even  climbed 
to  the  top  of  the  inner  walls.  Now  when  the  city  was  about  to  be 
captured,  in  the  confusion  of  desire  and  fear  the  attack  was  in- 
terrupted, and  we  then  lost  many  men.  On  the  next  day  no  attack 
was  attempted. 

After  this,  the  whole  army  scattered  throughout  the  surrounding 
country  to  collect  provisions,  and  nothing  was  even  said  of  the 
necessity  of  preparing  the  machines  that  were  needed  to  capture 
the  city.  Each  man  was  serving  his  mouth  and  stomach;  what 
was  worse,  they  did  not  even  ask  the  Lord  to  free  them  from  such 
great  and  manifold  evils,  and  they  were  afflicted  even  unto  death. 
Just  before  our  arrival,  the  Saracens  had  filled  up  the  springs, 
destroyed  the  cisterns,  and  dammed  up  the  brooks  from  the  springs. 
And  the  Lord  Himself  had  turned  rivers  into  wilderness  and  water- 
springs  into  thirsty  ground  for  the  wickedness  of  them  that  dwell 
therein.^  Therefore  water  was  obtained  with  great  difficulty. 
There  is  a  fountain  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Zion,  which  is  called  the 
Pool  of  Siloam.  Indeed,  it  is  a  large  spring,  but  the  water  flows 
forth  only  once  in  three  days,  and  the  natives  say  that  formerly  it 
emptied  itself  only  on  Saturdays;  the  rest  of  the  week  it  remained 
stagnant.  We  do  not  know  how  to  explain  this,  except  that  the 
Lord  willed  it  to  be  so.  But  when,  as  we  have  said,  the  water  did 
flow   forth  on  the  third  day,   it  was  consumed   with   such  great 


252  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

crowding  and  haste  that  the  men  pushed  one  another  into  it,  and 
many  baggage  animals  and  cattle  perished  in  it.  And  so  when 
the  pool  was  filled  with  the  crowd  and  with  the  bodies  of  dead 
animals,  the  stronger,  even  at  the  price  of  death,  forced  their  way 
to  the  very  opening  in  the  rocks  through  which  the  water  flowed, 
while  the  weak  got  only  the  water  which  had  already  been  con- 
taminated. Many  sick  people  fell  down  by  the  fountain,  with 
tongues  so  parched  that  they  were  unable  to  utter  a  word;  with 
open  mouths  they  stretched  forth  their  hands  toward  those  who 
had  water.  In  the  field  were  many  horses,  mules,  cattle,  and  sheep, 
most  of  the  animals  without  strength  enough  to  move.  And  when 
they  had  become  parched  and  died  because  of  extreme  thirst,  they 
rotted  where  they  had  long  stood,  and  there  was  a  most  sickening 
stench  throughout  the  camp.  Because  of  such  affliction  it  was  neces- 
sary to  fetch  water  a  distance  of  two  or  three  leagues,  also  to  drive 
the  cattle  to  distant  watering  places.  When  the  Saracens  noticed 
that  our  people  were  going  unarmed  to  the  watering  places  through 
the  dangerous  passes  in  the  hills,  they  lay  in  wait  for  them  in  am- 
bush. They  killed  many  of  them  and  drove  away  the  flocks  and 
herds.  The  situation  was  so  bad  that  when  any  one  brought  foul 
water  to  camp  in  vessels,  he  was  able  to  get  any  price  that  he  cared 
to  ask,  and  if  any  one  wished  to  get  clear  water,  for  five  or  six 
nummi^^  he  could  not  obtain  enough  to  satisfy  his  thirst  for  a  single 
day.  Wine,  moreover,  was  never,  or  very  rarely,  even  mentioned. 
In  addition,  the  heat,  the  dust,  and  the  wind  increased  their  thirst, 
as  though  this  was  not  bad  enough  in  itself.  But  why  say  so  much 
about  these  troubles?  None,  or  few,  were  mindful  of  the  Lord, 
or  of  such  work  as  was  needed  to  capture  the  city;  nor  did  they 
take  heed  to  beseech  the  Lord's  favor.  And  thus  we  did  not  recog- 
nize God  in  the  midst  of  our  affliction,  nor  did  He  show  favor  to 
the  ungrateful. 

Meanwhile,  messengers  came  to  camp,  announcing  that  our  ships 
had  arrived  at  Joppa  and  that  the  sailors  demanded  that  a  guard 
be  sent  to  hold  the  tower  of  Joppa  and  to  give  them  protection  at 
the  port;  for  the  town  of  Joppa  had  been  destroyed  except  the 
castle,  and  that  was  nearly  in  ruins,  with  the  exception  of  one  tower. 
However,  there  is  a  harbor  there,  and  it  is  the  one  nearest  to  Jeru- 
salem, being  about  one  day's  journey  distant.  All  of  our  people 
rejoiced  when  they  heard  the  news  of  the  ships,  and  they  sent  out 
Count  Galdemar,  surnamed  Carpinellus,  accompanied  by  twenty 
knights  and  about  fifty  footmen.  Later,  they  sent  Raymond  Piletus 
with  fifty  knights  and  William  of  Sabran  with  his  followers. 

As  Galdemar  and  his  contingent  approached  the  plains  that  are 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  253 

on  this  side  of  Ramlah,  they  encountered  a  force  of  four  hundred 
chosen  Arabs  and  about  two  hundred  Turks.  Galdemar,  because 
of  the  small  number  of  his  men,  arranged  his  knights  and  bowmen 
in  the  front  ranks  and,  trusting  in  the  Lord,  advanced  upon  the 
enemy  without  hesitation.  The  enemy,  however,  thought  that  they 
would  be  able  to  crush  this  band,  and,  rushing  upon  them  and  shoot- 
ing arrows,  they  encircled  them.  Three  or  four  of  Galdemar's 
knights  were  killed,  including  Achard  of  Montemerle,  a  noble  youth 
and  renowned  knight;  others  were  wounded,  and  all  our  bowmen 
fell.  However,  many  of  the  enemy  were  also  killed.  Nevertheless, 
the  attack  of  the  enemy  did  not  slacken  on  account  of  all  this,  nor 
did  the  courage  of  our  knights,  nay  God's  knights,  falter;  though 
oppressed  by  wounds  and  death  itself,  they  stood  up  to  their  enemies 
all  the  more  fiercely,  the  more  they  suffered  from  them.  But  when 
our  leaders,  rather  from  weariness  than  from  fear,  were  about  to 
withdraw,  a  cloud  of  dust  was  seen  approaching.  Raymond  Piletus 
was  rushing  headlong  into  the  fight  with  his  men.  Moreover,  his 
men  raised  so  much  dust  that  the  enemy  thought  there  were  very 
many  knights  with  him.  Thus,  by  the  grace  of  God,  our  men  were 
delivered.  The  enemy  scattered  and  fled,  about  two  hundred  of 
them  were  killed,  and  much  plunder  was  taken.  It  is  the  custom 
of  this  people,  when  they  flee  and  are  hard  pressed  by  the  enemy, 
first  to  throw  away  their  arms,  then  their  clothes,  and  lastly  their 
saddle  bags.  Thus  it  happened  in  this  fight  that  our  few  knights 
continued  killing  the  enemy  until  they  were  worn  out,  and  they 
kept  the  spoils  obtained  from  the  rest,  even  of  those  whom  they  did 
not  kill. 

After  the  pursuit  was  over  our  men  assembled,  divided  the  spoils, 
and  then  marched  to  Joppa.  The  sailors  received  them  with  great 
joy  and  felt  so  secure  after  their  arrival  that  they  forgot  their  ships 
and  neglected  to  place  watches  on  the  sea,  but  entertained  the 
crusaders  with  a  feast  of  bread,  wine,  and  fish  from  their  ships. 
The  sailors,  careless  of  their  security,  failed  to  post  lookouts  for 
the  night,  and  in  the  darkness  they  were  suddenly  surrounded  by 
enemies  from  the  sea.  When  dawn  came,  they  realized  that  the 
enemy  was  too  strong  to  be  resisted,  and  they  abandoned  their 
ships,  carrying  only  the  spoils.  Thus  our  knights  returned  to 
Jerusalem  after  winning  one  battle  and  losing  another.  How- 
ever, one  of  our  ships  which  had  gone  on  a  plundering  expedition 
was  not  captured.  It  was  returning  to  port  with  the  greatest  plunder 
when  it  saw  the  rest  of  our  ships  surrounded  by  so  great  a  fleet  of 
the  enemy.  By  the  use  of  oars  and  sail  it  made  its  escape  to  Laodi- 
caea  and  told  our  friends  and  companions  at  that  port  what  had 


254  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

been  happening  at  Jerusalem.  We  knew  that  we  had  deserved  this 
misfortune,  for  we  had  refused  to  place  faith  in  the  words  sent  to 
us  by  the  Lord.  Despairing  of  God's  mercy,  the  men  went  to  the 
plain  of  the  river  Jordan,  collected  palms,  and  were  baptized  in 
its  waters.  They  did  so  chiefly  with  the  intention  of  abandonng 
the  siege,  having  seen  Jerusalem,  and  of  going  to  Joppa,  thence  to 
return  home  by  whatever  means  they  could.  But  the  Lord  looked 
after  the  ships  for  His  unfaithful. 

About  this  time  a  public  assembly  was  held,  for  the  leaders  of  the 
army  were  quarreling  with  each  other.  There  was  dissatisfaction 
because  Tancred  had  occupied  Bethlehem  and  had  placed  his 
standard  over  the  church  of  the  Nativity,  as  though  it  was  an 
ordinary  house.  An  effort  was  also  made  to  elect  one  of  the 
princes  king  to  have  custody  of  the  city,  lest  what  had  been  achieved 
in  common  should  be  destroyed  in  common  for  want  of  anyone  to 
take  care  of  the  city,  if  God  should  give  it  to  us.  The  bishops  and 
clergy  replied  (to  this  suggestion),  *'You  ought  not  to  choose  a 
king  where  the  Lord  suffered  and  was  crowned.  For  if  a  David, 
degenerate  in  faith  and  virtue,  should  say  in  his  heart,  T  sit  upon 
the  throne  of  David  and  hold  his  kingdom,'  the  Lord  would  probably 
destroy  him  and  be  angry  with  place  and  people.  Besides,  the  pro- 
phet proclaims,  saying,  *When  the  Holy  of  Holies  shall  come, 
unction  shall  cease,  because  it  will  be  manifest  to  all  peoples  that  He 
has  come.'^^  But  there  should  be  an  advocate  to  guard  the  city  and 
divide  the  tributes  and  rents  of  the  region  among  the  guardians  of 
the  city."  For  this  and  many  other  reasons  the  election  was  stopped 
and  put  off  until  the  eighth  day  after  the  capture  of  Jerusalem. 
Not  in  this  matter  alone,  but  in  other  ways,  our  affairs  did  not 
prosper,  and  the  troubles  of  the  people  increased  every  day.  Never- 
theless, the  merciful  and  propitious  Lord,  both  for  His  name's  sake 
and  lest  our  enemies  should  insult  His  law  and  say,  *'Where  is  their 
God?"  sent  word  to  us  through  the  Bishop  of  Puy,  Lord  Adhemar,^- 
how  we  could  placate  His  anger  and  obtain  His  mercy.  We,  how- 
ever, preached  that  this  be  done  without  mentioning  the  command 
of  God,  lest  if  the  people  transgressed  this  command  of  the  Lord, 
they  should  be  especially  afflicted,  as  they  would  then  be  the  more 
culpable.  For  the  Lord  was  so  kind  to  us  that  He  had  sent  His 
messengers  to  us  often,  but  because  they  were  our  brothers  we 
had  not  heeded  them. 

The  Bishop  (Adhemar)  appeared  before  Peter  Desiderius,  say- 
ing; "Speak  to  the  princes  and  all  the  people,  and  say  to  them: 
'You  who  have  come  from  distant  lands  to  worship  God  and  the 
Lord   of  hosts,   purge   yourselves   of  your  uncleanliness,   and   let 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  255 

each  one  turn  from  his  evil  ways.  Then  with  bare  feet  march 
around  Jerusalem  invoking  God,  and  you  must  also  fast.  If  you 
do  this  and  then  make  a  great  attack  on  the  city  on  the  ninth  day, 
it  will  be  captured.  If  you  do  not,  all  the  evils  that  you  have 
suffered  will  be  multiplied  by  the  Lord  ?'  " 

When  the  priest  had  said  this  to  William  Hugo,  the  brother 
of  the  Bishop,  to  his  lord.  Count  Ysoard,  and  to  certain  of  the  clergy, 
they  assembled  the  princes  and  the  people  and  addressed  them. 
"Brothers,  you  know  why  we  undertook  this  expedition,  and  what 
we  have  suffered,  and  that  we  are  acting  negligently  in  that  we  are 
not  constructing  the  machines  that  are  needed  to  capture  the  city. 
Likewise,  we  are  not  careful  to  reconcile  the  Lord  to  us,  for  we 
offend  Him  in  many  ways  and  through  our  evil  deeds  have  driven 
Him  from  us.  Now,  if  it  seems  right  to  you,  let  each  one  become 
reconciled  to  his  brother  whom  he  has  offended,  and  let  brother 
graciously  forgive  brother.  After  this,  let  us  humble  ourselves  be- 
fore God ;  let  us  march  around  Jerusalem  in  bare  feet  and,  through 
the  patronage  of  the  saints,  invoke  the  mercy  of  the  Lord,  so  that 
Almighty  God,  who  for  us.  His  servants,  laid  aside  the  form  of  His 
Godhead,  assumed  the  flesh,  and  humbly  rode  into  the  city  on  an 
ass  to  suffer  death  on  the  Cross  for  our  sins,  may  come  to  our  aid. 
If  we  make  this  procession  around  the  walls,  for  the  honor  and 
glory  of  His  name.  He  will  open  the  city  to  us  and  give  us  judgment 
upon  His  enemies  and  ours,  who  now  with  unjust  possession  con- 
taminate the  place  of  His  suffering  and  burial,  the  enemy  who  seek 
to  deny  us  the  great  blessing  of  the  place  of  God's  humiliation  and 
our  redemption." 

These  words  were  pleasing  to  both  princes  and  people,  and  it 
was  publicly  commanded  that  on  the  next  Friday  the  clergy  should 
lead  the  procession  with  crosses  and  relics  of  the  saints,  while  the 
knights  and  all  able-bodied  men,  with  trumpets,  standards,  and  arms, 
should  follow  them,  barefooted.  All  this  we  did  according  to  the 
commands  of  God  and  the  princes.  When  we  reached  the  spot  on 
the  Mount  of  Olives  whence  the  Lord  had  ascended  into  heaven 
after  the  resurrection,  the  following  exhortation  was  made  to  the 
people:  "Now  that  we  are  on  the  very  spot  from  which  the  Lord 
rriade  His  ascension  and  we  can  do  nothing  more  to  purify  ourselves, 
let  each  one  of  us  forgive  his  brother  whom  he  has  injured,  that 
the  Lord  may  forgive  us."  What  more?  All  were  reconciled  to 
each  other,  and  with  generous  offerings  we  besought  the  mercy  of 
God,  that  He  should  not  now  desert  His  people,  whom  He  had  led 
so  gloriously  and  miraculously  to  this  goal.  Thus  the  mercy  of 
God  was  obtained,  since  every  thing  that  had  been  against  us  was 
now  favorable. 


256  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

Although  we  have  passed  over  many  matters,  this  one  we  ought 
to  record.  While  we  marched  around  the  city  in  procession,  the 
Saracens  and  Turks  made  the  circuit  on  the  walls,  ridiculing  us  in 
many  ways.  They  placed  many  crosses  on  the  walls  in  yokes  and 
mocked  them  with  blows  and  insulting  deeds.  We,  in  turn,  hoping 
to  obtain  the  aid  of  God  in  storming  the  city  by  means  of  these 
signs,  pressed  the  work  of  the  siege  day  and  night. 

3.  Final  assault  and  capture.     (July  15,  1099.) 

(Gesta.)  At  length,  our  leaders  decided  to  beleaguer  the  city 
with  siege  machines,  so  that  we  might  enter  and  worship  the  Saviour 
at  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  They  constructed  wooden  towers  and  many 
other  siege  machines.  Duke  Godfrey  made  a  wooden  tower  and 
other  siege  devices,  and  Count  Raymond  did  the  same,  although 
it  was  necessary  to  bring  wood  from  a  considerable  distance.  How- 
ever, when  the  Saracens  saw  our  men  engaged  in  this  work,  they 
greatly  strengthened  the  fortifications  of  the  city  and  increased  the 
height  of  the  turrets  at  night.  On  a  certain  Sabbath  night,  the  lead- 
ers, after  having  decided  which  parts  of  the  wall  were  weakest, 
dragged  the  tower  and  the  machines  to  the  eastern  side  of  the  city. 
Moreover,  we  set  up  the  tower  at  earliest  dawn  and  equipped  and 
covered  it  on  the  first,  second,  and  third  days  of  the  week.  The 
Count  of  St.  Gilles  erected  his  tower  on  the  plain  to  the  south  of 
the  city. 

While  all  this  was  going  on,  our  water  supply  was  so  limited 
that  no  one  could  buy  enough  water  for  one  denarius  to  satisfy  y! 
or  quench  his  thirst.  Both  day  and  night,  on  the  fourth  and  fifth 
days  of  the  week,  we  made  a  determined  attack  on  the  city  from 
all  sides.  However,  before  we  made  this  assault  on  the  city,  the 
bishops  and  priests  persuaded  all,  by  exhorting  and  preaching,  to 
honor  the  Lord  by  marching  around  Jerusalem  in  a  great  proces- 
sion, and  to  prepare  for  battle  by  prayer,  fasting,  and  almsgiving. 
Early  on  the  sixth  day  of  the  week  we  again  attacked  the  city 
on  all  sides,  but  as  the  assault  was  unsuccessful,  we  were  all 
astounded  and  fearful.  However,  when  the  hour  approached  on 
which  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  deigned  to  suffer  on  the  Cross  for 
us,  our  knights  began  to  fight  bravely  in  one  of  the  towers — namely, 
the  party  with  Duke  Godfrey  and  his  brother.  Count  Eustace.^^ 
One  of  our  knights,  named  Lethold,  clambered  up  the  wall  of  the 
city,  and  no  sooner  had  he  ascended  than  the  defenders  fled  from 
the  walls  and  through  the  city.  Our  men  followed,  killing  and  slay- 
ing even  to  the  Temple  of  Solomon,  where  the  slaughter  was  so 
great  that  our  m.en  waded  in  blood  up  to  their  ankles. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  '    257 

Count  Raymond  brought  his  army  and  his  tower  up  near  the 
wall  from  the  south,  but  between  the  tower  and  the  wall  there 
was  a  very  deep  ditch.  Then  our  men  took  counsel  how  they  might 
fill  it,  and  had  it  proclaimed  by  heralds  that  anyone  who  carried 
three  stones  to  the  ditch  would  receive  one  denarius.  The  work  of 
filling  it  required  three  days  and  three  nights,  and  when  at 
length  the  ditch  was  filled,  they  moved  the  tower  up  to  the 
wall,  but  the  men  defending  this  portion  of  the  wall  fought 
desperately  with  stones  and  fire.  When  the  Count  heard  that  the 
Franks  were  already  in  the  city,  he  said  to  his  men,  "Why  do  you 
loiter?  Lo,  the  Franks  are  even  now  within  the  city."  The  Emir 
who  commanded  the  Tower  of  St.  David  surrendered  to  the  Count 
and  opened  that  gate  at  which  the  pilgrims  had  always  been  accus- 
tomed to  pay  tribute.  But  this  time  the  pilgrims  entered  the  city, 
pursuing  and  killing  the  Saracens  up  to  the  Temple  of  Solomon, 
where  the  enemy  gathered  in  force.  The  battle  raged  throughout 
the  day,  so  that  the  Temple  was  covered  with  their  blood.  When 
the  pagans  had  been  overcome,  our  men  seized  great  numbers,  both 
men  and  women,  either  killing  them  or  keeping  them  captive,  as 
they  wished.  On  the  roof  of  the  Temple  a  great  number  of  pagans 
of  both  sexes  had  assembled,  and  these  were  taken  under  the  pro- 
tection of  Tancred  and  Gaston  of  Beert.  Afterward,  the  army 
scattered  throughout  the  city  and  took  possession  of  the  gold  and 
silver,  the  horses  and  mules,  and  the  houses  filled  with  goods  of 
all  kinds. 

Later,  all  of  our  people  went  to  the  Sepulchre  of  our  Lord, 
rejoicing  and  weeping  for  joy,  and  they  rendered  up  the  offering 
that  they  owed.  In  the  morning,  some  of  our  men  cautiously 
ascended  to  the  roof  of  the  Temple  and  attacked  the  Saracens,  both 
men  and  women,  beheading  them  with  naked  swords ;  the  remainder 
sought  death  by  jumping  down  into  the  temple.  When  Tancred 
heard  of  this,  he  was  filled  with  anger. 

{Raymond.)  The  Duke  and  the  Counts  of  Normandy  and 
Flanders  placed  Gaston  of  Beert  in  charge  of  the  workmen  who 
constructed  machines.  They  built  mantlets  and  towers  with  which 
to  attack  the  wall.  The  direction  of  this  work  was  assigned  to 
Gaston  by  the  princes  because  he  was  a  most  noble  lord,  respected 
by  all  for  his  skill  and  reputation.  He  very  cleverly  hastened  matters 
by  dividing  the  work.  The  princes  busied  themselves  with  obtaining 
and  bringing  the  material,  while  Gaston  supervised  the  work  of  con- 
struction. Likewise,  Count  Raymond  made  William  Ricau  superin- 
tendent of  the  work  on  Mount  Zion  and  placed  the  Bishop  of  Albara 
in  charge  of  the  Saracens  and  others  who  brought  in  the  timber. 


258  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

The  Count's  men  had  taken  many  Saracen  castles  and  villages  and 
forced  the  Saracens  to  work,  as  though  they  were  their  serfs.  Thus 
for  the  construction  of  machines  at  Jerusalem  fifty  or  sixty  men 
carried  on  their  shoulders  a  great  beam  that  could  not  have  been 
dragged  by  four  pair  of  oxen.  What  more  shall  I  say?  All  worked 
with  a  singleness  of  purpose,  no  one  was  slothful,  and  no  .hands 
were  idle.  All  worked  without  wages,  except  the  artisans,  who 
were  paid  from  a  collection  taken  from  the  people.  However, 
Count  Raymond  paid  his  workmen  from  his  own  treasury.  Surely 
the  hand  of  the  Lord  was  with  us  and  aided  those  who  were 
working ! 

When  our  efforts  were  ended  and  the  machines  completed,  the 
princes  held  a  council  and  announced :  "Let  all  prepare  themselves 
for  a  battle  on  Thursday;  in  the  meantime,  let  us  pray,  fast,  and 
give  alms.  Hand  over  your  animals  and  your  boys  to  the  artisans 
and  carpenters,  that  they  may  bring  in  beams,  poles,  stakes,  and 
branches  to  make  mantlets.  Two  knights  should  make  one  mantlet 
and  one  scaling  ladder.  Do  not  hesitate  to  work  for  the  Lord,  for 
your  labors  will  soon  be  ended."  This  was  willingly  done  by  all. 
Then  it  was  decided  what  part  of  the  city  each  leader  should  attack 
and  where  his  machines  should  be  located. 

Meanwhile,  the  Saracens  in  the  city,  noting  the  great  number  of 
machines  that  we  had  constructed,  strengthened  the  weaker  parts  of 
the  wall,  so  that  it  seemed  that  they  could  be  taken  only  by  the  most 
desperate  efforts.  Because  the  Saracens  had  made  so  many  and 
such  strong  fortifications  to  oppose  our  machines,  the  Duke,  the 
Count  of  Flanders,  and  the  Count  of  Normandy  spent  the  night 
before  the  day  set  for  the  attack  moving  their  machines,  mantlets, 
and  platforms  to  that  side  of  the  city  which  is  between  the  church 
of  St.  Stephen  and  the  valley  of  Josaphat.  You  who  read  this  must 
not  think  that  this  was  a  light  undertaking,  for  the  machines  were 
carried  in  parts  almost  a  mile  to  the  place  where  they  were  to  be  set 
up.  When  morning  came  and  the  Saracens  saw  that  all  the  machin- 
ery and  tents  had  been  moved  during  the  night,  they  were  amazed. 
Not  only  the  Saracens  were  astonished,  but  our  people  as  well,  for 
they  recognized  that  the  hand  of  the  Lord  was  with  us.  The  change 
was  made  because  the  new  point  chosen  for  attack  was  more  level, 
and  thus  suitable  for  moving  the  machines  up  to  the  walls,  which 
cannot  be  done  unless  the  ground  is  level ;  and  also  because  that  part 
of  the  city  seemed  to  be  weaker,  having  remained  unfortified,  as  it 
was  some  distance  from  our  camp.  This  part  of  the  city  is  on  the 
north. 

Count  Raymond  and  his  men  worked  equally  hard  on   Mount 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  259 

Zion,  but  they  had  much  assistance  from  WilHam  Embriaco  and 
the  Genoese  sailors,  who,  although  they  had  lost  their  ships  at 
Joppa,  as  we  have  already  related,  had  been  able,  nevertheless,  to 
save  ropes,  mallets,  spikes,  axes,  and  hatchets,  which  were  very 
necessary  to  us.  But  why  delay  the  story?  The  appointed  day 
arrived  and  the  attack  began.  However,  I  want  to  say  this  first, 
that,  according  to  our  estimate  and  that  of  many  others,  there  were 
sixty  thousand  fighting  men  within  the  city,  not  counting  the  women 
and  those  unable  to  bear  arms,  and  there  were  not  many  of  these. 
At  the  most  we  did  not  have  more  than  twelve  thousand  able  to  bear 
arms,  for  there  were  many  poor  people  and  many  sick.  There 
were  twelve  or  thirteen  hundred  knights  in  our  army,  as  I  reckon 
it,  not  more.  I  say  this  that  you  may  realize  that  nothing,  whether 
great  or  small,  which  is  undertaken  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  can 
fail,  as  the  following  pages  show. 

Our  men  began  to  undermine  the  towers  and  walls.  From 
every  side  stones  were  hurled  from  the  tormenti  and  the  petrariae, 
and  so  many  arrows  that  they  fell  Hke  hail.  The  servants  of  God 
bore  this  patiently,  sustained  by  the  premises  of  their  faith,  whether 
they  should  be  killed  or  should  presently  prevail  over  their  enemies. 
The  battle  showed  no  indication  of  victory,  but  when  the  machines 
were  drawn  nearer  to  the  walls,  they  hurled  not  only  stones  and 
arrows,  but  also  burning  wood  and  straw.  The  wood  was  dipped 
in  pitch,  wax,  and  sulphur;  then  straw  and  tow  were  fastened  on 
by  an  iron  band,  and,  when  lighted,  these  firebrands  were  shot  from 
the  machines.  (They  were)  all  bound  together  by  an  iron  band, 
I  say,  so  that  wherever  they  fell,  the  whole  mass  held  together  and 
continued  to  burn.  Such  missiles,  burning  as  they  shot  upward, 
could  not  be  resisted  by  swords  or  by  high  walls;  it  was  not  even 
possible  for  the  defenders  to  find  safety  down  behind  the  walls. 
Thus  the  fight  continued  from  the  rising  to  the  setting  sun  in  such 
splendid  fashion  that  it  is  difficult  to  believe  anything  more  glorious 
was  ever  done.  Then  we  called  on  Almighty  God,  our  Leader  and 
Guide,  confident  in  His  mercy.  Night  brought  fear  to  both  sides. 
The  Saracens  feared  that  we  would  take  the  city  during  the  night 
or  on  the  next  day,  for  the  outer  works  were  broken  through  and 
the  ditch  was  filled,  so  that  it  was  possible  to  make  an  entrance 
through  the  wall  very  quickly.  On  our  part,  we  feared  only  that 
the  Saracens  would  set  fire  to  the  machines  that  were  moved  close 
to  the  walls,  and  thus  improve  their  situation.  So  on  both  sides  it 
was  a  night  of  watchfulness,  labor,  and  sleepless  caution:  on  one 
side,  most  certain  hope,  on  the  other  doubtful  fear.  We  gladly 
labored  to  capture  the  city  for  the  glory  of  God,  they  less  willingly 


26o  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

strove  to  resist  our  efforts  for  the  sake  of  the  laws  of  Mohammed. 
It  is  hard  to  believe  how  great  were  the  efforts  made  on  both  sides 
during  the  night. 

When  the  morning  came,  our  men  eagerly  rushed  to  the  walls 
and  dragged  the  machines  forward,  but  the  Saracens  had  constructed 
so  many  machines  that  for  each  one  of  ours  they  now  had  nine 
or  ten.  Thus  they  greatly  interfered  with  our  efforts.  This  was 
the  ninth  day,  on  which  the  priest  had  said  that  we  would  capture 
the  city.  But  why  do  I  -delay  so  long?  Our  machines  were  now 
shaken  apart  by  the  blows  of  many  stones,  and  our  men  lagged 
because  they  were  very  weary.  However,  there  remained  the  mercy 
of  the  Lord  which  is  never  overcome  nor  conquered,  but  is  always 
a  source  of  support  in  times  of  adversity.  One  incident  must  not  be 
omitted.  Two  women  tried  to  bewitch  one  of  the  hurling  machines, 
but  a  stone  struck  and  crushed  them,  as  well  as  three  slaves,  so  that 
their  lives  were  extinguished  and  the  evil  incantations  averted. 

By  noon  our  men  were  greatly  discouraged.  They  were  weary 
and  at  the  end  of  their  resources.  There  were  still  many  of  the 
enemy  opposing  each  one  of  our  men;  the  walls  were  very  high 
and  strong,  and  the  great  resources  and  skill  that  the  enemy  ex- 
hibited in  repairing  their  defenses  seemed  too  great  for  us  to  over- 
come. But,  while  we  hesitated,  irresolute,  and  the  enemy  exulted 
in  our  discomfiture,  the  healing  mercy  of  God  inspired  us  and 
turned  our  sorrow  into  joy,  for  the  Lord  did  not  forsake  us.  While 
a  council  was  being  held  to 'decide  whether  or  not  our  machines 
should  be  withdrawn,  for  some  were  burned  and  the  rest  badly 
shaken  to  pieces,  a  knight  on  the  Mount  of  Olives  began  to  wave 
his  shield  to  those  who  were  with  the  Count  and  others,  signalling 
them  to  advance.  Who  this  knight  was  we  have  been  unable  to 
find  out.  At  this  signal  our  men  began  to  take  heart,  and  some 
began  to  batter  down  the  wall,  while  others  began  to  ascend  by 
means  of  scaling  ladders  and  ropes.  Our  archers  shot  burning  fire- 
brands, and  in  this  way  checked  the  attack  that  the  Saracens  were 
making  upon  the  wooden  towers  of  the  Duke  and  the  two  Counts. 
These  firebrands,  moreover,  were  wrapped  in  cotton.  This  shower 
of  fire  drove  the  defenders  from  the  walls.  Then  the  Count  quickly 
released  the  long  drawbridge  which  had  protected  the  side  of  the 
wooden  tower  next  to  the  wall,  and  it  swung  down  from  the  top, 
being  fastened  to  the  middle  of  the  tower,  making  a  bridge  over 
which  the  men  began  to  enter  Jerusalem  bravely  and  fearlessly. 
Among  those  who  entered  first  were  Tancred  and  the  Duke  of 
Lorraine,  and  the  amount  of  blood  that  they  shed  on  that  day  is  in- 
credible. All  ascended  after  them,  and  the  Saracens  now  began 
to  suffer. 


I 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  261 

Strange  to  relate,  however,  at  this  very  time  when  the  city  was 
practically  captured  by  the  Franks,  the  Saracens  were  still  fighting 
on  the  other  side,  where  the  Count  was  attacking  the  wall  as  though 
the  city  should  never  be  captured.  But  now  that  our  men  had  pos- 
session of  the  walls  and  towers,  wonderful  sights  were  to  be  seen. 
Some  of  our  men  (and  this  was  more  merciful)  cut  off  the  heads 
of  their  enemies;  others  shot  them  with  arrows,  so  that  they  felL 
from  the  towers ;  others  tortured  them  longer  by  casting  them  into 
the  flames.  Piles  of  heads,  hands,  and  feet  were  to  be  seen  in  the 
streets  of  the  city.  It  was  necessary  to  pick  one's  way  over  the 
bodies  of  men  and  horses.  But  these  were  small  matters  compared 
to  what  happened  at  the  Temple  of  Solomon,  a  place  where  religious 
services  are  ordinarily  chanted.  What  happened  there  ?  If  I  tell  the 
truth,  it  will  exceed  your  powers  of  belief.  So  let  it  suffice  to  say  this 
much,  at  least,  that  in  the  Temple  and  porch  of  Solomon,  men 
rode  in  blood  up  to  their  knees  and  bridle  reins.  Indeed,  it  was  a 
just  and  splendid  judgment  of  God  that  this  place  should  be  filled 
with  the  blood  of  the  unbelievers,  since  it  had  suffered  so  long 
from  their  blasphemies.  The  city  was  filled  with  corpses  and  blood. 
Some  of  the  enemy  took  refuge  in  the  Tower  of  David,  and,  petition- 
ing Count  Raymond  for  protection,  surrendered  the  Tower  into 
his  hands. 

^Now  that  the  city  was  taken,  it  was  well  worth  all  our  previous 
labors  and  hardships  to  see  the  devotion  of  the  pilgrims  at  the  Holy 
Sepulchre.  How  they  rejoiced  and  exulted  and  sang  a  new  song 
to  the  Lord!  For  their  hearts  offered  prayers  of  praise  to  God, 
victorious  and  triumphant,  which  cannot  be  told  in  words.  A  new 
day,  new  joy,  new  and  perpetual  gladness,  the  consummation  of  our 
labor  and  devotion,  drew  forth  from  all  new  words  and  new  songs. 
This  day,  I  say,  will  be  famous  in  all  future  ages,  for  it  turned  our 
labors  and  sorrows  into  joy  and  exultation;  this  day,  I  say,  marks 
the  justification  of  all  Christianity,  the  humiliation  of  paganism,  and 
the  renewal  of  our  faith.  "This  is  the  day  which  the  Lord  hath 
made,  let  us  rejoice  and  be  glad  in  it,"  for  on  this  day  the  Lord  re- 
vevealed  Himself  to  His  people  and  blessed  them. 

On  this  day,  the  Ides  of  July,  Lord  Adhemar,  Bishop  of  Puy, 
was  seen  in  the  city  by  many  people.  Many  also  testified  that  he 
was  the  first  to  scale  the  wall,  and  that  he  summoned  the  knights 
and  people  to  follow  him.  On  this  day,  moreover,  the  apostles  were 
cast  forth  from  Jerusalem  and  scattered  over  the  whole  world.^* 
On  this  same  day,  the  children  of  the  apostles  regained  the  city  and 
fatherland  for  God  and  the  fathers.  This  day,  the  Ides  of  July, 
shall  be  celebrated  to  the  praise  and  ^lory  of  the  name  of  God, 


262  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

who,  answering  the  prayers  of  His  Church,  gave  in  trust  and  bene- 
diction to  His  children  the  city  and  fatherland  which  He  had 
promised  to  the  fathers.  On  this  day  we  chanted  the  Office  of  the 
Resurrection,  since  on  that  day  He,  who  by  His  virtue  arose  from 
the  dead,  revived  us  through  His  grace.  So  much  is  to  be  said 
of  this. 

4.  Arrangements    for    holding  Jerusalem.      (July   22 — August    7, 
1099.) 

(Gesta.)  Then  our  leaders  in  council  decided  that  each  one 
should  ofifer  alms  with  prayers,  that  the  Lord  might  choose  for  Him- 
self whom  He  wanted  to  reign  over  the  others  and  rule  the  city. 
They  also  ordered  all  the  Saracen  dead  to  be  cast  outside  because 
of  the  great  stench,  since  the  whole  city  was  filled  with  their  corpses ; 
and  so  the  living  Saracens  dragged  the  dead  before  the  exits  of  the 
gates  and  aranged  them  in  heaps,  as  if  they  were  houses.  No  one 
ever  saw  or  heard  of  such  slaughter  of  pagan  people,  for  funeral 
pyres  were  formed  from  them  like  pyramids,  and  no  one  knows 
their  number  except  God  alone.  But  Raymond  caused  the  Emir 
and  the  others  who  were  with  him  to  be  conducted  to  Ascalon,  whole 
and  unhurt.  However,  on  the  eighth  day  after  the  city  was  cap- 
tured, they  chose  Godfrey  as  head  of  the  city  to  fight  the  pagans 
and  guard  the  Christians.  On  the  day  of  St.  Peter  ad  Vincula  they 
likewise  chose  as  Patriarch  a  certain  very  wise  and  honorable  man, 
Arnulf  by  name.  This  city  was  captured  by  God's  Christians  on 
the  fifteenth  day  of  July,  the  sixth  day  of  the  week. 

(Raymond).  Accordingly,  after  six  or  seven  days  the  princes 
solemnly  began  to  consider  the  matter  of  choosing  a  ruler,  who, 
assuming  charge  of  all  matters,  should  collect  the  tributes  of  the 
region,  to  whom  the  peasants  of  the  land  could  turn,  and  who 
would  see  to  it  that  the  land  was  not  further  devastated.  While 
this  was  taking  place,  some  of  the  clergy  assembled  and  said  to  the 
princes,  ''We  approve  your  election,  but  if  you  proceed  rightly  and 
properly,  you  will  first  choose  a  spiritual  vicar,  as  eternal  matters 
come  before  temporal ;  after  this,  a  ruler  to  preside  over  secular 
matters.  Otherwise,  we  shall  hold  invalid  whatever  you  do."  The 
princes  were  exceedingly  angered  when  they  heard  this  and  pro- 
ceeded the  more  quickly  with  the  election.  The  clergy  had  been 
weakened  by  the  departure  of  Lord  Adhemar,  Pontiff  of  Puy,  who, 
in  his  life  had  held  our  army  together  with  holy  deeds  and  words, 
like  a  second  Moses.  After  him,  however,  William,  Bishop  of 
Orange,  a  man  of  good  repute,  wished  to  minister  to  our  strength, 
but  he  rested  in  peace  at  Marra  within  a  short  time.     Accordingly, 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  263 

therefore,  the  good  men  having  been  taken  off,  the  clergy  conducted 
themselves  humbly,  all  except  the  Bishop  of  Albara  and  some  others. 
However,  the  Bishop  of  Martirano,^^  advancing  by  other  than  the 
right  road,  since  he  had  obtained  the  church  of  Bethlehem  by  fraud, 
was  captured  by  the  Saracens  on  the  third  or  fourth  day  and  never 
again  appeared  among  us.  The  princes,  disregarding  admonition 
and  opposition,  urged  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  to  accept  the  kingdom.. 
But  he  said  that  he  abhorred  the  name  of  king  in  that  city,  though 
he  would  consent  to  have  others  accept  it.  For  this  reason  they 
together  chose  the  Duke  and  placed  him  in  charge  of  the  Sepulchre 
of  the  Lord. 

After  this,  however,  the  Duke  required  the  Tower  of  David 
from  the  Count.  But  the  latter  refused,  saying  that  he  wished  to 
stay  in  that  region  until  Easter,  and  meanwhile  he  wanted  to  keep 
himself  and  his  men  in  honorable  state.  But  the  Duke  said  that 
lie  would  give  up  other  places  rather  than  the  Tower.  And  so  the 
disputes  were  multiplied.  The  Counts  of  Flanders  and  Normandy 
favored  the  Duke.  Almost  all  from  the  land  of  Count  Raymond 
did  likewise  in  the  belief  that  if  the  Tower  were  surrendered  he 
would  thereupon  return  home.  Not  alone  did  the  Provencals  oppose 
their  lord,  the  Count,  in  this  matter,  but  they  also  made  up  many  vile 
statements  about  him  so  that  he  would  not  be  chosen  King.  And 
so  the  Count,  without  the  help  of  companions  or  friends,  handed 
over  the  Tower  to  the  Bishop  of  Albara  for  the  sake  of  avoiding 
judgment.  But  the  latter,  without  waiting  for  judgment,  handed 
it  over  to  the  Duke,  and  when  he  was  called  traitor  for  having  done 
this,  he  said  that  he  had  been  compelled  (to  do  so)  and  had  suffered 
violence.  I  found  this  out,  in  truth,  that  very  many  arms  were 
brought  into  the  house  of  the  Patriarch  where  the  Bishop  was  stay- 
ing near  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  But  he  spoke,  also,  of  violence  done 
himself  and  often  secretly  charged  the  friends  of  the  Count  with 
this  affair. 

/  So  when  the  Tower  had  been  surrendered,  the  Count  blazed  forth 
into  great  anger  against  his  people,  saying  that  he  could  not  remain 
disgraced  in  that  country.  Accordingly,  we  set  out  from  Jerusalem 
to  Jericho,  took  palms  and  went  to  the  Jordan.^^  There,  as  Peter 
Bartholomew  had  commanded,  a  raft  was  constructed  from  twigs, 
and  with  the  Count  on  it  we  pulled  it  across  the  river ;  since,  forsooth, 
we  had  no  ship,  this  plan  seemed  better  to  us.  When  after  this  the 
multitude  had  been  called  together,  we  commanded  that  they  pray 
God  for  the  life  of  the  Count  and  the  other  princes.  Therefore 
we  proceeded  to  dress  only  in  a  shirt  and  new  breeches,  as  we  had 
been  commanded  about  baptism;  but  why  the  man  of  God  so  com- 


264  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

manded,  we  still  do  not  know.  When  these  matters  had  been  accom- 
plished, we  returned  to  Jerusalem. 

At  this  time,  Arnulf,  chaplain  of  the  Count  of  Normandy,  was 
chosen  Patriarch  by  some,  the  good  (clergy)  opposing  it  not  only 
because  he  was  not  a  subdeacon,  but  especially  because  he  was  of 
priestly  birth  and  was  accused  of  incontinence  on  our  expedition, 
so  much  so  that  they  shamelessly  composed  vulgar  songs  about  him. 
But,  led  on  by  such  ambition,  and  disregarding  the  decrees  of  the 
canons  and  the  infamy  of  his  birth  and  conscience,  he  stirred  up 
the  people  against  the  good  (clergy)  and  had  himself  raised  upon 
the  patriarchal  seat  with  hymns  and  chants  and  the  great  applause 
of  the  people.  The  divine  vengeance  exacted  from  the  Bishop  of 
Martirano,  who  had  been  the  instigator  and  executor  of  this  affair, 
not  only  did  not  terrify  Arnulf,  but,  furthermore,  did  not  prevent 
him  from  depriving  of  their  benefices  the  clergy  who  had  altars  in 
the  church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  or  those  in  whose  custody  in- 
dulgence  funds  had  been  established.^^ 

And  thus  Arnulf,  increasing  his  power,  began  to  inquire  from 
the  inhabitants  of  the  city  where  the  Cross  was  which  pilgrims  had 
been  accustomed  to  adore  before  Jerusalem  was  taken.  Although 
they  denied  (this  knowledge),  and  by  oath  and  other  signs  were 
willing  to  show  that  they  did  not  know,  they  were  at  length  com- 
pelled (to  yield)  and  said  this:  "It  is  manifest  that  God  has  chosen 
you,  has  delivered  you  from  all  tribulation,  and  has  given  you  this 
and  many  other  cities,  not  by  the  strength  of  your  valor,  but  by 
blinding  the  impious  in  His  wrath.  Your  Lord  and  Guide  has 
opened  to  you  the  most  strongly  fortified  cities  and  has  won  fear- 
ful battles  for  you.  Therefore,  why  should  we  stubbornly  conceal 
from  you  His  good  gifts,  since  we  see  that  God  is  with  you?" 
After  this,  they  led  them  to  a  certain  hall  in  the  church,  and,  un- 
earthing the  Cross,  they  gave  it  up.  Thereupon,  all  our  men  re- 
joiced, and  we  returned  praise  and  thanks  to  Almighty  God,  who 
not  only  gave  us  the  city  in  which  He  had  suffered,  but  likewise  the 
symbols  of  His  Passion  and  victory,  that  we  might  the  more  closely 
embrace  Him  with  the  arms  of  faith,  the  more  certain  the  signs 
of  our  salvation  that  we  beheld. 

(Manasses.)  Manasses,  by  grace  of  God  Archbishop  of  Rheims, 
to  Lambert,  his  brother,  Bishop  of  Arras ;  greeting  in  Jesus  Christ. 

Be  it  known  to  you,  dearest  brother,  that  a  true  and  joyful  rumor 
has  recently  come  to  our  ears,  which  we  believe  to  have  come  down 
not  from  human  knowledge,  but  from  the  Divine  Majesty — to  wit: 
Jerusalem  stands  on  high  with  joy  and  gladness  which  it  has  so 
gloriously  received  from  God  in  our  times.     Jerusalem,  the  city  of 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  265 

our  redemption  and  glory,  delights  with  inconceivable  joy,  because 
through  the  effort  and  incomparable  might  of  the  sons  of  God  it 
has  been  liberated  from  most  cruel  pagan  servitude.  And  let  us 
also  be  joyful,  whose  Christian  faith  in  such  times  as  these  has  been 
placed  in  a  mirror  of  eternal  clarity. 

We,  therefore,  admonished,  summoned,  and  compelled,  not  only 
through  the  letters  of  Lord  Pope  Paschal,  but,  also,  through  the 
most  humble  prayers  of  Duke  Godfrey,  whom  the  army  of  Christ 
by  divine  direction  elevated  as  King,  as  well  as  through  the  mel-, 
lifluous  entreaties  of  Lord  Arnulf,  whom  they  have  unanimously 
chosen  as  Patriarch  of  the  see  of  Jerusalem — we  command  with 
equal  affection  that  you  have  every  one  of  your  parish  churches, 
without  fail,  pray  with  fasts  and  almsgiving  that  the  King  of  Kings 
and  the  Lord  of  Lords  crown  the  King  of  the  Christians  with  victory 
against  the  enemy,  and  the  Patriarch  with  religion  and  wisdom 
against  the  sects  and  deceptions  of  heretics.  We  command,  like- 
wise, and  admonish,  through  your  obedience,  that  you  constrain  by 
threat  all  who  vowed  to  go  on  the  expedition  and  took  the  sign  of 
the  cross  upon  themselves  to  set  out  for  Jerusalem,  if  they  are 
vigorous  of  body  and  have  the  means  to  a'ccomplish  the  journey. 
As  for  the  others,  however,  do  not  cease  skilfully  and  most  de- 
voutly to  admonish  them  not  to  neglect  aiding  the  people  of  God, 
so  that  not  only  the  first,  but  likewise  the  last,  may  receive  the 
shilling  which  is  promised  to  those  laboring  in  the  vineyard.^* 
Farewell. 

Pray  for  the  Bishop  of  Puy,  for  the  Bishop  of  Orange,  for 
Anselm  of  Ribemont,  and  for  all  the  others  who  lie  at  rest,  crowned 
with  so  glorious  a  martyrdom. 

5.  Battle  of  Ascalon.     (August  7 — August  15,  1099.) 

(Gesta.)  Meanwhile,  a  messenger  came  to  Tancred  and  Count 
Eustace,  bidding  them  make  themselves  ready  to  go  to  take  the  city 
of  Neapolis.  They  went  forth,  taking  along  many  knights  and  foot- 
soldiers  and  came  to  the  city,  but  its  inhabitants  surrendered  there. 
A  short  while  after  this,  the  Duke  sent  word  to  them  to  come  quickly 
to  battle,  because  the  Emir  of  Babylon  was  ready  at  the  city  of 
Ascalon.  Then  they  entered  the  mountainous  region  in  haste, 
seeking  fight  with  the  Saracens,  and  came  to  Caesarea.  And  then, 
when  they  had  come  near  the  sea  to  the  city  of  Ramlah,  they  found 
there  many  Arabs  who  were  the  forerunners  of  the  battle.  Our 
men  pursued  these  and  captured  several  of  them,  who  told  all  the 
news  of  the  battle,  where  and  how  many  the  enemy  were,  and 
where  they  were  planning  to  fight  the  Christians. 


266  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

When  Tancred  heard  this,  he  straightway  sent  a  messenger  to 
Jerusalem  to  Duke  Godfrey,  the  Patriarch,  and  all  the  princes, 
saying:  "Know  that  battle  is  being  prepared  for  us  at  Ascalon. 
Go  there  quickly  with  all  the  forces  that  you  can  obtain."  Then  the 
Duke  ordered  that  all  be  warned  to  go  to  Ascalon  faithfully  pre- 
pared against  our  enemy.  He  himself,  with  the  Patriarch  and 
Robert,  Count  of  Flanders,  went  out  of  the  city  on  the  third  day 
of  the  week,  and  the  Bishop  of  Martirano  with  them.  But  the  Count 
of  St.  Gilles  and  Robert  the  Norman  said  that  they  would  not  go 
forth  unless  they  knew  that  battle  was  certain.  Accordingly,  they 
ordered  their  knights  to  go  and  see  whether  there  was  really  a 
battle,  and  to  return  quickly,  because  they  were  ready  to  go  straight- 
way. They  went  and  saw  the  battle  and  returned  quickly  with  the 
news  that  they  had  seen  it  with  their  own  eyes.  Forthwith  the  Duke 
sent  word  to  Jerusalem  by  the  Bishop  of  Martirano,  who  had  been 
taken  along,  for  the  knights  who  were  there  to  prepare  themselves 
and  come  to  battle.  On  the  fourth  day  of  the  week  those  princes 
went  out  and  rode  to  battle.  The  Bishop  of  Martirano  went  back, 
bearing  messages  for  the  Patriarch  and  the  Duke,  and  the  Saracens, 
coming  upon  him,  carried  him  off  captive  with  them.  But  Peter 
the  Hermit  remained  at  Jerusalem,  ordering  and  commanding  both 
Greek  and  Latin  clergy  faithfully  to  hold  a  procession  to  God,  and 
to  offer  prayers  and  alms  that  God  might  give  victory  to  His  people. 
Thus  the  clerics  and  the  priests,  dressed  in  sacred  vestments,  con- 
ducted a  procession  to  the  Temple  of  the  Lord,  chanting  masses  and 
prayers  that  He  might  defend  His  people. 

At  length  the  Patriarch,  bishops,  and  the  other  leaders  were  as- 
sembled at  the  river  which  is  in  the  region  of  Ascalon.  There  they 
took  plunder  of  many  cattle,  camels,  sheep,  and  goods  of  all  kinds. 
However,  almost  three  hundred  Arabs  came  up  and  our  men  rushed 
upon  them  and  took  two  of  them,  pursuing  the  rest  up  to  their  army. 
When  evening  came,  the  Patriarch  had  it  heralded  through  the 
whole  host  that  at  earliest  morning  all  should  be  ready  for  battle, 
forbidding  any  man  to  pay  attention  to  any  spoils  until  the  battle 
was  finished,  but  saying  that  when  this  was  done  they  might  return 
with  joy  of  good  fortune  to  take  all  that  was  predestined  to  them 
by  the  Lord. 

At  early  dawn  on  the  sixth  day  of  the  week,  they  entered  a  very 
beautiful  valley  near  the  sea-coast,  where  they  arranged  their  lines. 
The  Duke  drew  up  his  Hne,  the  Count  of  Normandy  his,  the  Count 
of  St.  Gilles  his,  the  Count  of  Flanders  his,  Tancred  and  Gaston^®* 
theirs.  They  also  arranged  foot-soldiers  and  bowmen  to  precede 
the  knights ;  and  so  they  ordered  everything  and  began  to  fight  im- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  267 

mediately  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  On  the  left  side 
was  Duke  Godfrey  with  his  line,  and  the  Count  of  St.  Gilles  rode 
near  the  sea  on  the  right  side.  The  Count  of  Normandy,  the  Count 
of  Flanders,  Tancred,  and  all  the  rest  rode  in  the  middle.  Then 
our  men  began  to  move  about  a  little,  but  the  enemy  stood  ready 
for  battle.  Each  one  had  his  water-bag  hanging  from  his  neck,  out 
of  which  they  could  drink  as  they  pursued  us,  but  by  the  grace  of 
God  they  were  not  accorded  this  (privilege).  Moreover,  the  Count 
of  Normandy,  perceiving  that  the  standard  of  the  Emir  had  a  kind 
of  golden  apple  on  the  top  of  a  spear  which  was  worked  with  silver, 
rushed  violently  upon  him  and  wounded  him  even  to  death.  On 
another  side,  the  Count  of  Flanders  very  fiercely  rushed  upon  the 
enemy.  Tancred,  thereupon,  made  a  charge  through  the  middle  of 
their  tents,  and  when  the  pagans  saw  this,  they  straightway  took  to 
flight.  The  multitude  of  the  pagans  was  innumerable,  and  no 
one  knows  their  number  except  God  alone.  The  battle  was  huge, 
but  accompanying  us  was  the  Divine  might,  so  great,  so  strong,  that 
we  overcame  them  immediately.  Moreover,  our  enemy  stood 
blinded  and  stupefied,  and,  though  looking  at  the  knights  of  Christ 
with  open  eyes,  they  saw  nothing ;  thus  terrified  at  the  valor  of  God, 
they  dared  not  rise  up  against  the  Christians.  In  the  excess  of 
their  fear  they  climbed  trees,  in  which  they  thought  to  hide  them- 
selves, but  our  men  brought  them  to  earth  by  shooting  and  killing 
them  with  lances  and  spears.  Others  threw  themselves  on  the 
ground,  not  daring  to  stand  up  against  us.  Our  men  cut  them  to 
pieces,  just  as  one  cuts  animals  to  pieces  for  the  market.  The  Count 
of  St.  Gilles  killed  them  without  number,  but  some  flung  themselves 
into  the  sea,  and  others  fled  hither  and  hither. 

Thereupon  the  Emir,  coming  in  front  of  the  city,  grieving  and 
sorrowfully  weeping,  said:  '*0  Spirits  of  the  Gods!  Who  ever 
saw  or  heard  such  things?  Such  might,  such  valor,  such  militar>' 
skill,  never  exceeded  by  any  people,  is  now  conquered  by  a  band 
of  Christians  so  little  that  they  could  be  enclosed  in  the  hollow  of 
a  hand.  Alas !  Grief  and  sadness  are  mine !  What  more  shall  I  say  ? 
I  am  conquered  by  a  race,  beggarly,  unarmed,  and  very  poor,  a  race 
that  has  nothing  except  a  beggar's  scrip  and  cloak.  They  now 
pursue  the  Egyptian  people  who  commonly  gave  them  alms  when 
in  olden  times  they  begged  through  our  whole  land.  Hither,  ac- 
cording to  agreement,  I  have  brought  together  two  hundred  thousand 
knights,  and,  behold,  I  see  them  fleeing  with  loose  bridles  along  the 
road  to  Babylon,  and  they  dare  not  turn  back  against  the  Frankish 
people!  I  swear  by  Mohammed  and  by  the  names  of  all  the  gods 
that,  since  I  am  driven  out  by  this  foreign  people,  I  will  no  longer 


268  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

retain  knights  for  any  gathering.  I  brought  all  kinds  of  weapons 
and  instruments  and  machines  to  besiege  them  in  Jerusalem,  and 
they  have  come  before  me  to  battle  by  two  days.  Alas!  What 
would  be  mine,  if  I  had  led  their  people  as  my  own!  Woe  is  me! 
What  more  shall  I  say?  I  will  be  forever  disgraced  in  the  land 
of  Babylon!"  Our  men,  moreover,  took  his  standard,  which  the 
Count  of  Normandy  bought  for  twenty  marks  of  silver,  and  gave 
it  to  the  Patriarch,  to  the  honor  of  God  and  the  Holy  Sepulchre; 
and  some  one  bought  the  sword  for  sixty  besants.  And  so,  God 
willing,  our  enemy  were  conquered. 

All  the  ships  of  the  pagan  lands  were  there,  but  when  the  men 
on  them  saw  the  Emir  fleeing  with  his  army,  they  immediately 
hoisted  sail  and  rode  out  to  deep  water.  Our  men  returned  to 
their  tents  and  took  a  great  amount  of  spoil,  gold,  silver,  a 
heap  of  all  kinds  of  goods,  horses  and  mules,  asses  and  camels,  in- 
numerable sheep  and  cattle  and  instruments;  for  all  the  mountains 
and  hills  and  all  the  level  places  were  covered  with  the  multitude 
of  the  enemy's  animals.  Finding  piles  of  arms,  also,  they  carried 
off  what  they  wished  and  burned  the  rest.  Our  men  returned  with 
joy  to  Jerusalem,  bringing  along  goods  of  every  description;  to  wit, 
camels  and  asses  laden  with  biscuit,  butter,  grain,  cheese,  bread,  oil, 
and  all  the  goods  they  needed.  This  battle  was  fought  on  the 
day  before  the  Ides  of  August,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  granting  this, 
who  hath  honor  and  glory  now  and  ever,  forever  and  ever.  Let 
every  spirit  say  Amen! 

(Raymond.)  And  when,  as  we  said  above,  it  had  been  arranged 
that  the  Duke  of  Lorraine  should  keep  the  city,  and  when  the  Count, 
embittered  with  grief  and  wrong  because  he  had  easily  lost  the 
Tower  of  David  (that  is,  the  capital  of  the  whole  kingdom  of 
Judaea),  was  arranging  for  this  reason  to  turn  with  most  of  our 
people,  it  was  announced  to  us  that  the  King  of  Babylon  had  come  to 
Ascalon  with  a  countless  multitude  of  pagans.  And  as  it  was  told 
us,  he  had  come  to  take  Jerusalem  by  storm,  to  kill  all  the  Franks 
above  twenty  years,  to  take  the  rest,  together  with  the  women,  cap- 
tive, to  give  the  males  to  women  of  his  own  race,  and  the  women 
to  his  youths,  so  that  the  lords  of  Babylon  might  then  have  warlike 
families  of  the  race  of  the  Franks.  But  not  content  with  this,  he 
said  he  would  do  the  same  with  Antioch  and  Bohemund;  he  said, 
Hkewise,  that  he  would  place  upon  his  head  the  diadems  of  Da- 
mascus and  the  rest  of  the  cities.  He  said  that  the  Turks  and  the 
Franks,  victors  over  the  Turks,  were  nothing  in  comparison  with 
the  multitude  of  his  foot-soldiers  and  knights.  But  not  even  content 
with  this,  he  turned  in  blasphemy  against  God,  saying.     "I  will  de- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  269 

stroy  the  place  of  the  Lord's  nativity,  and  the  place  where  the  Lord 
very  often  rested,  the  place  of  the  Passion,  and  Golgotha,  where 
they  say  flowed  the  blood  of  the  Lord  hanging  upon  the  Cross,  the 
place  of  the  Lord's  burial,  and  all  the  other  holy  places  in  the 
city,  or  nearby,  which  are  venerated  by  Christian  people.  I  will 
tear  them  up  by  their  roots  from  the  earth  and  break  them;  and, 
after  this,  I  will  cast  the  dust  into  the  sea,  so  that  there  will  no 
longer  be  any  memorial  of  the  Lord  for  the  people  of  the  Franks  to 
seek." 

Moreover,  when  this  and  many  other  things  about  the  multitude 
of  the  people  who  accompanied  that  tyrant  were  announced  to  us, 
and  that  all  these  had  been  assembled  at  Ascalon,  a  day  and  a  half 
distant  from  Jerusalem,  all  our  princes  and  clergy  gathered  together. 
Walking  with  bare  feet  before  the  Sepulchre  of  the  Lord,  with  many 
prayers  and  tears  they  sought  mercy  from  God  that  He  would  now 
deliver  His  people,  whom  He  had  thus  far  made  victorious  over  all, 
and  that  He  who  had  just  purified  the  place  of  His  sanctification 
for  His  own  name's  sake  would  not  suffer  it  again  to  be  contami- 
nated. After  this,  we  went,  likewise  on  bare  feet,  to  the  Temple 
of  the  Lord,  and,  calling  upon  God's  mercy  in  psalms  and 
hymns,  and  on  the  treasures  of  the  saints,  we  there  poured  forth 
from  soul  and  body  before  God  (the  plea)  that  the  outpouring  of 
His  blessing  might  likewise  be  recorded,  saying:  "If  thy  people 
sin  against  thee,  and,  turning  again,  shall  do  penance  and  shall 
come  and  pray  in  this  place,  hear  thou  them  from  heaven,  O  Lord, 
and  deliver  them  from  the  hands  of  their  enemies."  After  this, 
when  they  had  received  the  benediction  from  the  bishops,  the  princes 
decided  upon  the  plan  of  the  battle  and  the  guard  of  the  city. 

Thereupon,  the  Duke  and  his  knights  set  forth  to  find  out  for 
certain  if  the  news  about  the  Emir  was  as  rumor  reported  it. 
When  they  had  reached  the  plains  of  Ramlah,  he  sent  back  word 
to  the  Counts  at  Jerusalem  by  the  Bishop  of  Martirano.^*^  Thus 
assured  of  battle,  they  sent  word  among  all  the  strong  who  had  re- 
mained in  Jerusalem.  Thereupon,  after  supplicating  God  and  taking 
up  our  arms  and  the  Lance  of  the  Lord,  we  set  out  from  Jerusalem 
and  came  to  the  plains  on  that  day.  On  the  next  day,  moreover, 
with  our  army  joined  in  squadrons  we  advanced,  stationing  garrisons 
oh  every  side.  But  at  evening  when  we  had  come  near  the  river, 
which  is  on  the  way  of  those  who  go  from  Jerusalem  to  Ascalon, 
Arabs  were  grazing  their  flocks  of  sheep,  innumerable  herds  of  cattle, 
and  camels  without  number.  When  our  men  saw  this  multitude  of 
men  and  animals,  thinking  that  there  would  be  a  battle,  they  seized 
their  arms  and  sent  about  two  hundred  knights  to  reconnoiter;  but 


270  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

the  other  armed  men,  as  we  said,  were  advancing  in  nine  squadrons. 
There  were  three  on  the  rear,  three  in  front,  and  three  in  the 
middle,  so  arranged  that  from  whatever  side  battle  came,  it  would 
be  met  in  those  three  ranks,  the  ,  middle  squadron  remaining  as 
a  support  of  all.  When  the  Arab  herdsmen,  however,  saw  the 
knights  who  had  been  sent  ahead,  they  deserted  their  animals. 
And  yet,  if  God  were  regarding  them  as  He  regarded  us,  they  should 
have  entered  upon  a  fight  with  all  of  us.  There  were  about  three 
thousand  herdsmen  in  arms,  but  to  our  army  we  hesitatingly  ascribe 
more  than  twelve  hundred  knights,  while  we  dare  not  put  the 
number  of  footmen  beyond  nine  thousand.  And  so  when  the  herds- 
men had  fled,  we  took  as  much  plunder  as  we  saw  on  that  day. 
Some  of  the  herdsmen  were  killed  and  a  few  captured.  After  this, 
however,  we  remained  in  the  same  place  because  it  was  evening. 
And  then  we  forced  the  captives  to  confess  the  intentions  of  the 
enemy,  their  condition  and  number.  They  confessed,  therefore, 
that  it  was  the  will  of  these  people  to  besiege  Jerusalem,  take  the 
Franks  by  storm,  kill  and  capture  them,  and  they  added  that  the 
Emir  was  in  camp,  five  leagues  away,  ready  to  set  forth  against  us 
on  the  next  day.  Of  their  number,  however,  scarcely  anyone  was 
certain,  since  they  were  being  multiplied  daily.  When  questioned 
about  themselves  and  their  companions,  they  said  they  were  herders 
of  animals  which  were  to  be  distributed  for  a  price  among  the 
forces  of  Babylonians. 

Accordingly,  our  men,  eager  and  assured  of  battle,  sent  back  to 
their  companions  the  causes  of  trouble  and  controversy.  After 
this,  they  confessed  their  sins  and  negligence  and  were  so  cheered 
in  spirit  that  it  seemed  scarcely  credible  to  them  that  the  enemy 
were  prepared  for  battle.  For  such  security  grew  up  in  the  hearts 
of  each  man  that  they  believed  their  enemy  more  timid  than  hinds, 
and  more  harmless  than  sheep.  But  we  had  this  security  because 
we  believed  that  God  was  with  us,  as  in  the  other  matter,  and  that 
because  of  the  blasphemy  made  against  Him  He  would  deal  (with 
them)  on  His  own  account,  even  if  our  cause  were  valueless.  There- 
fore we  regarded  Him  as  our  Defender,  and  ourselves  as  aids  to  Him 
in  His  (struggle).  Then  it  was  proclaimed  through  the  army  that 
all  should  be  ready  for  battle  in  the  morning,  and  that  each  one 
should  attach  himself  to  the  princes  of  his  people,  and  that  no  one 
should  touch  plunder,  and  that  any  who  touched  it  before  the  battle 
was  finished  would  be  excommunicated.  We  spent  that  night  poorly 
enough,  for  we  had  no  tents;  a  few  had  bread,  no  one  wine,  and 
very  few  grain  and  salt,  but  meat  was  as  abundant  as  sand.  We  ate 
meat,  and  for  bread  we  had  the  soft  flesh  of  sheep. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  271 

And  now  the  morning  of  the  following  day  was  dawning,  and 
the  watchful  host  was  aroused  to  the  fight  by  the" sound  of  trumpets 
and  horns.  So  at  daybreak  we  set  forth,  drawn  up  as  we  have 
already  described,  with  guards  on  every  side,  and  directed  the  army 
of  God  against  the  camp  of  Mohammed.  But  the  enemy  lingered 
within  their  camp,  thinking  that  at  their  approach  we  would  not 
even  stay  inside  our  walls.  For  when  they  heard  of  the  death  and 
flight  of  the  herdsmen,  they  said,  'The  Franks  have  come  for 
plunder  and  have  gone  back  with  it."  They  were  being  daily  in- 
formed, forsooth,  by  those  who  fled  from  Jerusalem  of  our  small 
numbers  and  of  the  weakness  of  our  people  and  horses.  Besides, 
relying  on  their  number  and  strength,  they  believed  that  they  could 
drown  us  and  our  camp  in  their  spit  alone.  Likewise,  their  star- 
gazers  and  soothsayers,  as  it  was  reported,  said  that  they  ought 
neither  to  move' their  camp  nor  fight  against  us  until  the  seventh 
day  of  the  week;  that  if  they  wished  to  do  any  of  these  things 
earlier,  matters  would  turn  out  adversely.  We  advanced,  drawn 
up  in  squadrons,  as  we  have  said.  God  multiplied  His  army 
so  that  we  did  not  seem  inferior  in  numbers  to  the  enemy.  For 
the  animals  which  we  had  left  joined  themselves  to  us  and,  forming, 
herds,  though  no  one  drove  them,  they  accompanied  us,  so  that 
they  stood  when  we  halted,  ran  when  we  ran,  and  advanced  with 
our  advance.  The  amount  of  precious  spoil  was  inestimable.  More- 
over, who  can  count  all  the  arms  or  tents?  When  our  enemy  saw 
their  multitude  cut  to  pieces  and  our  men  securely  and  eagerly  fight- 
ing in  their  tents  for  victory  and  spoil,  they  turned  and  said  to 
themselves,  "Flight  is  our  only  protection,  and  why  delay?  If  these 
men,  worn  out  from  their  march,  almost  half  dead  from  hunger 
and  thirst,  have  today  prostrated  all  our  multitude  at  one  charge, 
what  will  they  do  when  rested,  refreshed,  and  victorious  against  us, 
half  destroyed,  lessened  in  number,  and  terrified?"  Accordingly, 
the  enemy  returned  with  disturbed  mind  to  Ascalon,  which  was 
about  a  mile  from  our  camp — but  not  all  of  them. 

It  then  pleased  Raymond  to  send  a  certain  Bohemund,  a  Turk 
by  birth,  to  the  Emir  under  pretense  of  entering  upon  a  friend- 
ship, blaming  him  because  he  had  been  unwilling  to  surrender 
Jerusalem  freely  and  because  he  had  borne  arms  against  us.  Bohe- 
mund was  at  the  same  time  to  find  out  whether  the  Emir  was 
meditating  flight  or  battle,  and  how  he  conducted  himself  in  defeat. 
This  Bohemund,  moreover,  was  a  Turk  by  birth,  learned  in  many 
tongues,  very  ingenious  and  crafty  and  most  loyal  to  us.  He  was 
called  Bohemund  because  the  great  Bohemund  had  received  him 


272  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

from  the  baptismal  font,  for  he  had  come  to  us  with  his  wife  and 
arms. 

The  book  of  Raymond  of  St.  Gilles  is  ended  happily. 

6.  Bohemund  and  Baldwin  fulfil  their  vow.  (November,  1099 — 
January,  iioo.) 

(Fulcher.) Lord  Bohemund,  a  wise  and  energetic  man, 

was  then  ruling  in  Antioch,  while  Baldwin,  a  brother  of  the  afore- 
said Godfrey,  ruled  Edessa  and  the  neighboring  lands  across  the 
Euphrates  river.  When  these  two  heard  that  Jerusalem  had  been 
taken  by  those  who  had  set  out  as  their  companions,  they  were  made 
most  joyful  and  humbly  gave  thanks  to  God.  But  if  those  who  pre- 
ceded them  had  done  well  and  successfully,  it  is  not  to  be  doubted 
that  these  two,  with  their  forces,  were  to  partake  of  the  glory,  even 
though  they  followed  later.  For  it  was  necessary  that  the  land 
and  states  taken  with  such  difficulty  from  the  Turks  should  be 
carefully  guarded.  These,  if  left  unguarded,  might  be  recovered 
in  a  renewed  attack  by  the  Turks,  who  were  now  driven  back  to 
Persia.  In  this  case,  great  harm  would  befall  all  the  Franks  going 
to  Jerusalem,  as  well  as  returning.  Perhaps  Divine  Providence, 
knowing  that  Bohemund  and  Baldwin  would  be  more  useful  to  the 
army  in  what  remained  to  be  done  than  in  what  was  already  done, 
had  delayed  them. 

Oh,  how  many  times,  in  the  meantime,  this  same  Baldwin  was 
wearied  in  making  war  against  the  Turks  in  the  land  of  Mesopo- 
tamia !  To  tell  how  many  of  their  heads  he  cut  off  there  would  be 
impossible.  Often  it  happened  that  he  with  his  few  men  fought  a 
great  multitude  of  them  and,  with  the  help  of  God,  rejoiced  in 
triumph.  And  when  Bohemund,  through  legates,  had  advised  Bald- 
win that  they  and  their  men  should  both  complete  the  unfinished 
journey  to  Jerusalem,  Baldwin,  arranging  satisfactorily  a:ll  his 
affairs,  prepared  to  go.  Then,  hearing  that  the  Turks  had  invaded 
one  section  of  his  country,  he  suspended  the  execution  of  his  pro- 
ject, and  without  taking  time  to  assemble  his  Httle  army,  he  went 
against  the  enemy  with  a  few  men.  On  a  certain  day  when  the 
Turks,  unconcerned  in  their  tents,  were  thinking  that  Baldwin  had 
already  commenced  his  journey,  all  at  once  they  saw  the  white  flag 
which  he  carried ;  and,  struck  with  fear,  they  took  to  flight.  After 
following  them  a  little  way  with  his  few  men,  Baldwin  returned  to 
complete  what  he  had  just  planned. 

Setting  out  and  passing  to  the  left  of  Antioch,  he  came  to  Lao- 
dicaea,  where  he  bought  provisions  for  the  journey  and  reloaded 
the  pack  animals  and  set  out.     It  was  the  month  of  November. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  273 

After  we  had  passed  by  Gibellum,  we  overtook  Bohemund  camped 
in  his  tents  before  the  city  Valenium.  There  was  with  him  a  certain 
Archbishop  of  Pisa,  Daimbert  by  name/^  who,  with  some  Tuscans 
and  ItaHans,  had  come  by  ship  to  the  port  of  Laodicaea,  and  who 
was  there  waiting  to  go  with  us.  The  Bishop  of  Apulia  was  there, 
too.  With  Lord  Baldwin  there  was  a  third  bishop.  We  estimated 
the  number  of  those  thus  assembled  in  friendship  to  be  twenty-five 
thousand  of  both  sexes,  foot-soldiers  as  well  as  knights. 

When  we  had  reached  the  interior  states  of  the  Saracens,  we  were 
unable  to  obtain  from  the  wicked  inhabitants  of  the  region  any 
bread  or  food  of  any  kind.  There  was  no  one  who  would  give  or 
sell  it  to  us,  and,  as  our  provisions  were  being  more  and  more  used 
up,  it  happened  that  many  were  cruelly  tortured  by  hunger.  Horses, 
too,  and  mules  suffered  doubly  for  lack  of  food.  They  traveled, 
but  they  ate  not.  However,  in  those  cultivated  fields  through  which 
we  passed  on  our  march,  there  were  certain  ripe  plants,  very  much 
like  reeds,  which  the  people  called  cannamelles.  The  name  is  com- 
posed of  the  words  canna  and  met,  whence,  I  think,  it  is  also  called 
wood-honey,^^  which  is  skilfully  made  from  it.  Almost  famished, 
we  chewed  these  all  day  long  for  the  flavor  of  the  honey,  which, 
however,  helped  but  little.  Thus  for  the  love  of  God  we  endured 
this  and  many  other  ills,  such  as  hunger,  cold,  and  heavy  rains. 
Many,  lacking  bread,  ate  horses,  mules,  and  camels.  Besides  the  ex- 
cessive cold,  we  were  tormented  very  often  by  showers  of  rain ;  and 
the  heat  of  the  sun  was  not  sufficient  to  enable  us  to  dry  our  wet 
clothes  thoroughly  before  another  rain  would  harass  us  for  four 
or  five  days.  Then  I  saw  many  who  had  no  tents  die  from  ex- 
posure to  the  cold  rain.  I,  Fulcher  of  Chartres,  who  was  with 
them,  saw  many  persons  of  both  sexes  and  a  great  many  beasts 
die  from  the  very  cold  rain  one  day.  It  would  be  long  to  tell  and 
tedious  to  Hsten  to  all  the  details  of  their  suffering;  for  no  trouble 
or  sorrow  escaped  the  people  of  God.  Often  many  Franks  were 
killed  by  the  Saracens  who  lurked  along  the  way  in  narrow  paths, 
or  wherever  our  men  went  in  search  of  food.  You  might  have  seen 
mounted  knights  of  noble  birth  become  simple  foot-soldiers,  after 
having  lost  their  horses  in  one  way  or  another.  As  the  baggage 
animals  failed,  you  might  have  seen  sheep  and  goats,  stolen  from 
the  Saracens,  heavily  laden  with  baggage,  which  by  its  weight 
skinned  their  backs.  Twice  on  the  way,  and  no  oftener,  we  had 
bread  and  grain,  bought  at  exorbitant  prices  from  the  people  of 
Tripoli  and  Caesarea.  From  this  it  is  manifest  that  one  can  scarcely 
get  any  great  good  without  great  labor.  It  was  indeed  a  great  bless- 
ing when  we  finally  arrived  at  Jerusalem. 


274  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

When  we  reached  there,  our  long  fatigue  was  forgotten.  When 
we  viewed  the  much  longed  for  Holy  of  Holies,  we  were  filled  with 
joy  indescribable.  Oh,  how  often  we  recalled  to  mind  that  prophecy 
of  David  which  says,  "We  shall  worship  in  the  place  where  His 
feet  have  stood  I"^^  We  beheld  that  prophecy  truly  fulfilled  in  us, 
although  it  likewise  pertains  to  many  others.  Thither,  indeed,  did 
we  go  up,  ''the  tribes,  the  tribes  of  the  Lord,  to  confess  His  name"^* 
in  His  holy  place.  On  the  day  of  our  entrance  into  Jerusalem,  the 
retreating  sun,  having  fulfilled  its  winter  descent,  resumed  its  as- 
cending course. 

After  we  had  visited  the  Lord's  Sepulchre  and  His  Glorious 
Temple  and  many  other  sacred  places,  on  the  fourth  day  we  went 
to  Bethlehem,  in  order  that,  as  we  were  about  to  celebrate  the  anni- 
versary of  the  nativity  of  our  Lord,  we  might  that  very  night  be 
watchers  in  the  stable  where  the  Holy  Mother  laid  Jesus,  and  there 
assist  in  the  devotions.  All  that  night  we  filled  with  appropriate 
devotions;  and  in  the  third  hour,  after  three  masses  had  been  cele- 
brated, we  returned  to  Jerusalem.  Oh,  what  a  stench  there  then  was 
around  the  wall  of  the  city,  inside  and  outside,  from  the  dead  bodies 
of  the  Saracens,  massacred  by  our  colleagues  on  the  capture  of  the 
city,  wherever  they  had  hunted  them  down ! 

But  after  we  and  our  beasts  had  been  refreshed  for  some  time 
with  a  much  needed  rest,  and  after  the  Duke  and  other  leaders  had 
chosen  Daimbert,  mentioned  above,  as  Patriarch  in  the  church  of 
the  Holy  Sepulchre,  we  got  new  supplies  of  provisions,  and,  loading 
our  mules,  we  went  down  again  to  the  river  Jordan.  Some  of 
the  army,  the  last  to  arrive,  chose  to  remain  in  Jerusalem;  others 
who  had  come  first  preferred  to  go  with  us ;  but  Duke  Godfrey 
continued  energetically  to  rule  the  territory  of  Jerusalem. 

On  the  third  day,  before  the  Ides  of  August,  those  sickly  days, 
Urban,  Pontiff  of  Rome,  passed  away. 

On  the  first  day  of  January  iioo  A.D.  we  all  took  palm  branches, 
cut  in  Jericho,  to  carry  them  off,  as  was  customary.  On  the  second 
day  we  commenced  our  return  journey.  Our  leaders  wished  to  cross 
through  the  city  of  Tiberias  on  the  sea  of  Galilee.  This  sea,  formed 
from  a  union  of  fresh  waters,  is  eighteen  miles  long  and  five  wide. 
We  went  from  there  to  Caesarea-Philippi,  which  in  the  Syrian 
tongue  is  called  Paneas,  and  which  is  situated  at  the  foot  of  Mount 
Lebanon.  There  two  springs  gush  forth  which  give  rise  to  the  river 
Jordan.  This  Jordan,  flowing  through  the  Sea  of  Galilee,  then 
runs  into  the  Dead  Sea.  The  Lake  of  Gennesaret,^^  according  to 
Josephus,  is  forty  stades  wide  and  one  hundred  long.  The  river, 
then,  flowing  in  one  channel,  spreads  out  into  a  sea  which  is  called 


THE    FIRST   CRUSADE  275 

Dead  because  nothing  living  flourishes  in  it.  This  sea,  which  is 
called  Lake  Asphahites,  is  believed  to  be  bottomless  and  to  have 
buried  in  its  depths  the  cities  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah.  Following 
St.  Jerome,  whom  I  read  in  his  exposition  upon  the  prophet  Amos, 
I  conjectured  quite  carefully  with  regard  to  these  springs  that 
Dan  was  located  in  that  part  of  Judea  where  Paneas  now  is ;  for  the 
tribe  of  Dan  built  there  a  city  which  they  called  by  the  name  of  their 
father,  Dan.  For  this  reason,  I  think  the  one  spring  was  called 
Dan,  and  the  other  Jor  which  was  adjacent  to  it.  Then  we  came  to 
a  very  strong  city  which  they  called  Balbec,  built  by  Solomon,  and 
surrounded  by  high  walls,  and  called "^yTTim  Thadamar.^^  This  is 
situated  a  two  days  march  from  upper  Syria,  about  six  days  journey 
from  great  Babylon,  and  about  one  day's  march  from  the  Euphrates. 
The  Greeks  called  this  place  Palmyra.  Here  springs  and  wells 
abound;  but  water  was  never  found  in  the  lower  land. 

Then  about  four  hundred  soldiers  of  the  Turks  of  Damascus 
came  out  to  meet  us.  Because  they  thought  we  were  unarmed  and 
greatly  exhausted  from  our  labors,  they  supposed  that  we  were 
also  discouraged.  If  Lord  Baldwin  had  not  on  that  day  cautiously 
and  carefully  guarded  the  rear,  perhaps  they  would  have  killed 
many  of  us.  For  our  bows  and  arrows  were  spoiled  in  a  rainstorm, 
since  in  that  region  they  were  fastened  together  with  glue.  Bohe- 
mund  was  leading  the  first  division  of  our  army.  So,  with  the  help 
of  God,  the  pagans  got  no  advantage  of  us.  Then  we  camped  before 
that  town.  On  the  very  next  day  approaching  nearer  to  the  sea, 
we  passed  over  the  the  cities  of  Tortosa  and  Laodicaea.  There  at 
Laodicaea  we  found  Count  Raymond,  whom  we  had  left  there. 
Because  food  was  scarce,  we  could  buy  no  supplies  on  which  we 
could  live.  Therefore  we  hastened,  without  stopping,  until  we  ar- 
rived at  Edessa.  .  .  . 

7.  Official  summary  of  the  Crusade.     (June  19,  1097 — August  12, 
1099.) 

(Daimbert.)  To  the  brd  Pope  of  the  Roman  Church,  to  all  the 
bishops,  and  all  who  cherish  the  Christian  faith;  I,  Archbishop  of 
Pisa,  and  the  other  bishops,  Duke  Godfrey,  now,  by  grace  of  God, 
Defender  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  and 
all  the  army  of  God  which  is  in  the  land  of  Israel;  greeting  and 
prayer. 

Multiply  your  prayers  and  supplications  with  joy  and  exultation  in 
the  sight  of  the  Lord,  since  God  has  enlarged  His  compassion  by 
fulfilling  in  us  what  He  promised  in  olden  times.  For,  after  the 
capture  of  Nicaea  when  the  whole  army  departed  thence,  there  were 


27^  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

more  than  300,000  soldiers.  And  though  this  multitude  was  so 
great  that  it  could  have  occupied  all  Romania,  drunk  up  all  the 
rivers,  and  consumed  all  the  vegetation  in  one  day,  yet  the  Lord 
conducted  them  in  such  plenty  that  a  ram  was  bought  for  one 
denarius,  an  ox  for  less  than  twelve.  Furthermore,  even  though 
the  princes  and  kings  of  the  Saracens  rose  up  against  us,  neverthe- 
less, God  willing,  they  were  easily  conquered  and  crushed.  And  so, 
because  some  were  puffed  up  at  the  happy  outcome  of  these  events, 
God  opposed  to  us  Antioch,  a  city  impregnable  to  human  might,  and 
detained  us  there  for  nine  months,  and  so  humbled  us  in  the  siege 
outside  the  city  until  every  swelling  of  our  arrogance  relapsed  into 
humility. 

Accordingly,  when  we  had  been  brought  so  low  that  scarcely  one 
hundred  sound  horses  were  found  in  the  whole  army,  God  opened 
up  to  us  the  supply  of  His  blessing  and  compassion,  led  us  into  the 
city,  and  made  subject  to  our  sway  the  Turks  and  all  their  posses- 
sions. Since  we  took  this  as  if  it  were  acquired  by  our  own  strength, 
and  did  not  worthily  glorify  God,  who  had  conferred  it,  we  were 
besieged  by  such  a  multitude  of  Saracens  that  no  one  dared  to  go 
out  of  the  city,  great  as  it  was.  In  addition,  famine  grew  so  power- 
ful in  the  city  that  some  could  scarcely  restrain  themselves  from 
eating  human  flesh.  It  is  a  long  story  to  recount  all  the  misery 
which  was  present  in  the  city.  However,  the  Lord  looked  again 
upon  His  people  whom  He  had  so  long  chastised,  and  consoled  them 
kindly.  Accordingly,  first,  as  if  to  make  reparation  for  our  suffer- 
ing, He  gave  us  His  Lance,  a  gift  not  seen  since  the  time  of  the 
apostles.  Then,  He  so  animated  the  hearts  of  the  men  that  those 
whom  sickness  or  starvation  had  deprived  of  strength  to  walk 
about  were  now  infused  with  power  to  take  up  arms  and  fight 
courageously.  Then,  when  the  enemy  had  been  triumphantly  over- 
come, the  army  left  Antioch  because  of  famine,  disgust,  and  espe- 
cially because  of  the  quarrels  among  the  princes. 

Setting  out  into  Syria,  we  took  by  storm  the  Saracen  cities,  Barra 
and  Marra,  and  acquired  all  the  fortresses  of  the  region.  While 
we  were  delaying  here  and  there,  there  was  so  great  a  famine  in 
the  army  that  the  already  fetid  bodies  of  Saracens  were  eaten  by 
Christian  people.  At  length,  when  upon  Divine  admonition  we 
were  advancing  into  the  interior  of  Hispania,  we  had  with  us  the 
most  generous,  compassionate,  and  most  victorious  hand  of  the 
Omnipotent  Father.  For  the  citizens  and  chatelains  of  the  region 
through  which  we  were  advancing  sent  ambassadors  with  many 
gifts,  who  were  ready  to  serve  us  and  to  surrender  their  walled 
places.  But  because  our  army  was  not  large,  and  all  were  in  haste 
to  go  to  Jerusalem,   we  accepted  their  pledges   and   made  them 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  2^j 

tributary,  since,  forsooth,  one  of  the  many  cities  which  are  on  that 
sea-coast  had  more  men  than  were  in  our  army.  And  when  they 
heard  at  Antioch,  at  Laodicaea,  and  at  Edessa  that  the  hand  of  the 
Lord  was  with  us,  more  of  the  army  who  had  remained  there  over- 
took us  at  Tyre. 

Accordingly,  with  God  thus  our  Fellow-voyager  and  Helper,  we 
came  even  to  Jerusalem.  And  while  the  army  was  laboring  in  the 
siege  of  that  city  with  great  difificulty,  especially  on  account  of  the 
scarcity  of  water,  a  council  was  held,  and  the  bishops  and  princes 
announced  that  a  procession  was  to  be  made  around  the  city  with 
bare  feet.  (This  was  done)  that  He  who  had  entered  it  in  humility 
for  our  sake  might,  through  our  humility,  open  it  to  us  to  do  justice 
on  His  enemies  for  His  sake.  Accordingly,  the  Lord,  pleased  at 
this  humility,  granted  the  city  with  His  enemies  to  us  on  the  eighth 
day  after  our  humiliation,  on  this  day,  to  wit,  when  the  primitive 
Church  was  expelled  from  Jerusalem,  the  day  when  the  festival  of 
the  Dispersion  of  the  Apostles  is  celebrated  by  many  of  the  faith- 
ful. And,  if  you  desire  to  know  what  was  done  about  the  enemy 
whom  we  found  there,  know  that  in  the  portico  of  Solomon  and  in 
his  Temple,  our  men  rode  in  the  blood  of  the  Saracens  up  to  the 
knees  of  the  horses. 

Then,  when  it  had  been  arranged  who  should  hold  the  city,  and 
the  others  wanted  to  return  home  for  love  of  their  fatherland,  or 
affection  for  their  parents,  it  was  announced  that  the  King  of  Baby- 
lon had  come  to  Ascalon,  with  a  countless  multitude  of  pagans,  to 
lead  the  Franks  who  were  at  Jerusalem  into  captivity,  and  to  take 
Antioch  by  storm.  So  he  himself  had  said ;  the  Lord,  however,  had 
decided  otherwise  concerning  us.  Accordingly,  when  we  had  found 
out  in  truth  that  the  army  of  Babylon  was  at  Ascalon,  we  hastened 
to  meet  them,  leaving  our  baggage  and  our  sick  at  Jerusalem  with 
a  garrison.  When  our  army  was  face  to  face  with  that  of  the 
enemy,  upon  bended  knees  we  invoked  God  as  our  aid,  who  in  our 
other  times  of  need  had  confirmed  the  law  of  Christians,  (praying 
Him)  in  the  present  battle  to  break  the  strength  of  the  Saracens  and 
the  devil,  and  to  extend  the  kingdom  of  Christ  and  the  Church 
everywhere  from  sea  to  sea.  Nor  was  there  delay.  God  was  present 
with  those  who  cried  out  to  Him,  and  He  administered  such  strength 
of  courage  that  any  one  who  saw  us  rush  upon  the  enemy  might 
have  likened  us  to  a  sluggish  stag  thirsting  for  a  fountain  of  running 
water.  It  was,  indeed,  accomplished  in  marvelous  manner,  for  in 
our  army  there  could  not  have  been  more  than  5000  knights  and 
15,000  foot-soldiers  ;  in  that  of  the  enemy  100,000  knights  and  400,000 
foot-soldiers.  Then  marvelous  did  the  Lord  appear  among  His  ser- 
vants, since,  before  we  came  in^^  (^ptual)  conflict.  He  turned  this 


278  THE  FIRST  CRUSADE 

multitude  to  flight  as  a  result  of  our  charge  alone,  and  snatched 
away  all  their  arms,  so  that  if  they  should  wish  thereafter  to  fight 
against  us,  they  would  not  have  arms  to  rely  upon.  As  to  the 
quantity  of  spoil,  however,  which  was  captured,  no  question  should 
be  asked  where  the  treasures  of  the  King  of  Babylon  were  con- 
cerned. In  that  place  we  killed  more  than  one  hundred  thousand 
Moors  by  the  sword.  The  fear  of  these  people,  moreover,  was  so 
great  that  about  two  thousand  of  them  were  suffocated  in  the  gate 
of  the  city.  Of  those,  furthermore,  who  perished  in  the  sea,  there 
is  no  count.  Thickets  of  thorns,  likewise,  held  many  of  them. 
The  world  was  surely  fighting  in  our  behalf,  and  had  not  the  spoils 
of  the  camp  detained  many  of  our  men,  there  would  be  few  of  that 
great  multitude  of  the  enemy  able  to  bring  back  tidings  of  the  battle. 
And  though  it  may  be  tedious,  nevertheless  this  should  not  be 
omitted :  on  the  day  before  the  battle  was  to  occur  the  army  cap- 
tured many  thousands  of  camels,  oxen,  and  sheep.  And  when  the 
people  let  them  go,  at  the  command  of  the  princes,  wonderful  to  re- 
late, the  camels  formed  many  and  multiple  squadrons,  the  oxen  and 
sheep  likewise.  Moreover,  these  animals  accompanied  us  so  closely 
that  they  halted  when  we  halted,  marched  when  we  marched,  and 
charged  when  we  charged.  Clouds,  too,  protected  us  from  the  heat 
of  the  sun  and  cooled  us. 

And  so,  when  the  victory  had  been  celebrated,  the  army  returned 
to  Jerusalem.  Leaving  Duke  Godfrey  there,  Raymond,  Count  of 
St.  Gilles,  Robert,  Count  of  Normandy,  and  Robert,  Count  of 
Flanders^^  returned  to  Laodicaea,  where  they  found  the  fleet  of  the 
Pisans  and  Bohemund.  And  when  the  Pisan  Archbishop  had 
brought  Bohemund  and  our  lords  into  concord,  Count  Raymond 
arranged  to  return  to  Jerusalem  for  the  sake  of  God  and  our 
brothers. 

Accordingly,  in  addition  to  such  wonderful  devotion  of  bravery 
on  the  part  of  our  brothers,  such  glorious  and  coveted  retribution 
on  the  part  of  the  Omnipotent,  such  greatly  desired  remission  of 
all  our  sins  through  the  Grace  of  God,  and  exaltation  of  the  Catholic 
church  of  Christ  and  all  the  Latin  people,  we  urge  that  He  may 
cause  you  also  to  sit  at  the  right  hand  of  God,  who  liveth  and 
reigneth  God  forever  and  ever.     Amen. 

We  ask  and  beseech  you  through  the  Lord  Jesus  who  was  ever 
with  us,  shared  our  labors,  and  snatched  us  from  tribulations,  that 
you  be  mindful  of  your  brethren,  who  are  returning  to  you,  by 
benefitting  them,  and  cancelling  their  debts,  that  God  may  benefit 
you  and  absolve  you  from  all  your  sins,  that  God  may  grant  you  a 
share  in  all  the  blessings  which  we  or  they  have  deserved  from 
God.    Amen. 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  279 

Moreover,  Jerusalem  was  captured  by  the  Gliristians  in  the  year 
1099,  on  the  Ides  of  July,  the  sixth  day  of  the  week,  in  the  Seventh 
Indiction,  the  third  year  of  their  setting  forth.  Their  first  battle 
was  at  the  bridge  over  the  river  Orontes,  in  which  many  Turks  were 
killed  on  the  ninth  day  before  the  Kalends  of  March.  The  second 
battle  was  fought  at  Nicaea  on  the  third  day  before  the  Nones  of 
March,  in  which  the  pagans  were  beaten  by  the  Christians.  Their 
third  battle  was  on  the  fourth  day  before  the  Kalends  of  July,  at 
Antioch,  the  Lance  of  the  Lord,  recently  found,  preceding  them. 
The  fourth  occurred  on  the  Kalends  of  July.  Moreover,  the  Turks 
were  likewise  beaten  in  Romania.  Their  fifth  battle  occurred  on 
the  Ides  of  July,  when,  after  the  thirty  ninth  day  of  the  siege, 
Jerusalem  was  captured.  Their  sixth  battle  was  fought  on  the 
fourth  day  before  the  Kalends  of  August,  at  Ascalon,  against  the 
king  of  Babylon,  in  which  100,000  knights,  and  40,000  foot-soldiers 
were  defeated  and  destroyed  by  a  small  army  of  Christians.  Thanks 
be  to  God !    The  letter  endeth. 

The  Pope's  response  to  the  news  of  the  capture  of  Jerusalem. 

(Paschal)  Paschal,  bishop,  servant  of  the  servants  of  God,  to  all 
archbishops,  bishops,  and  abbots  throughout  Gaul;  greeting  and 
apostolic  blessing. 

We  owe  boundless  gratitude  to  the  compassion  of  Almighty  God, 
since  in  our  time  He  has  deigned  to  wrest  the  Church  in  Asia  from 
the  hands  of  the  Turks  and  to  open  to  Christian  soldiers  the  very 
city  of  the  Lord's  suffering  and  burial.  However,  we  ought  to 
follow  Divine  grace  with  what  means  He  has  given  us,  and  ef- 
fectively aid  our  brethren  who  have  remained  in  those  districts 
which  were  once  the  lands  of  the  people  of  Palestine  or  Canaan. 
Urge,  therefore,  all  the  soldiers  of  your  region  to  strive  for  remis- 
sion and  forgiveness  of  their  sins  by  hastenmg  to  our  Mother 
Church  of  the  East;  especially  compel  those  who  have  assumed  the 
sign  of  the  cross  in  pledge  of  this  journey  to  hasten  thither,  unless 
they  are  prevented  by  the  hindrance  of  poverty .^^  Moreover,  we 
decree  that  those  be  held  in  disgrace  who  left  the  siege  of  Antioch 
through  weak  or  questionable  faith;  let  them  remain  in  excom- 
munication, unless  they  affirm  with  certain  pledges  that  they  will 
return.  We  furthermore  command  that  all  their  possessions  be 
restored  to  those  brethren  who  are  returning  after  the  victory  of 
the  Lord,  just  as  you  recall  was  ordained  in  a  synodal  decree  by 
Urban,  our  predecessor  of  blessed  memory.  Do  thus  in  all  matters, 
being  so  zealous  in  your  duty  that  by  common  zeal  our  Mother 
Church  of  the  East  may  be  restored  to  her  due  state,  the  Lord 
granting  it. 


EPILOGUE 

(The  accounts  of  the  Crusades  of  iioi,  of  the  expeditions  of  the 
Genoese,  of  the  Pisans,  of  the  Venetians  and  of  the  Norwegians, 
all  of  them  in  response  to  Urban's  call  at  Clermont  might  well  be 
included  as  part  of  the  First  Crusade  but  space  does  not  permit. 
The  brief  statements  of  Fulcher  about  the  general  condition  of  the 
Christians  in  the  Holy  Land  in  iioo  and  twenty  years  later  are 
added  in  conclusion.) 

1.  Conditions  in  the  Holy  Land  during  the  first  years  of  the  Latin 

Kingdom. 

{Fulcher).  ...  In  the  beginning  of  his  reign  Baldwin  was  the 
possessor  of  very  few  cities  and  people;  yet,  through  that  same 
winter  he  protected  his  kingdom  well  against  enemies  on  all  sides. 
And  because  they  found  out  that  he  was  a  very  courageous  fighter, 
although  he  had  few  men,  they  did  not  dare  to  attack  him.  If  he 
had  had  more  soldiers,  he  would  have  met  the  enemy  gladly.  The 
land  route  was  still  completely  obstructed  to  our  pilgrims — Franks, 
Angles,  Italians,  and  Venetians — who  with  from  one  to  four  ships 
came  timidly  by  sea  to  Joppa,  the  Lord  leading  them  as  they 
sailed  through  the  midst  of  hostile  pirates  and  past  the  cities  of 
the  Saracens.  At  first  Joppa  was  our  only  port.  When  we  saw  that 
they  had  come  from  our  western  lands,  immediately  and  joyfully 
we  advanced  to  meet  them  as  if  they  were  saints.  Each  of  us  in- 
quired anxiously  from  them  concerning  his  own  home  and  his  loved 
ones.  The  newcomers  told  us  all  that  they  knew.  When  we  heard 
good  news,  we  rejoiced;  when  they  told  of  misfortune,  we  were 
saddened.  They  came  on  to  Jerusalem;  they  visited  the  Holy  of 
Holies,  for  which  purpose  they  had  come.  Then  some  remained 
here  in  the  Holy  Land;  but  others  returned  to  their  native  country. 
For  this  reason  Jerusalem  was  depopulated  and  there  were  not 
enough  people  to  defend  the  city  from  the  Saracens,  if  only  they 
dared  to  attack  us.  .  .  . 

2.  Twenty  years  later. 

{Fulcher).  .  .  .  Consider,  I  pray,  and  reflect  how  in  our  time  God 
has  transferred  the  West  into  the  East.     For  we  who  were  Occi- 


THE  FIRST  CRUSADE  281 

dentals  now  have  been  made  Orientals.  He  who  was  a  Roman  or 
a  Frank  is  now  a  Galilaean,  or  an  inhabitant  of  Palestine.  One 
who  was  a  citizen  of  Rheims  or  of  Chartres  now  has  been  made  a 
citizen  of  Tyre  or  of  Antioch.  We  have  already  forgotten  the 
places  of  our  birth ;  already  they  have  become  unknown  to  many  of 
us,  or,  at  least,  are  unmentioned.  Some  already  possess  here  homes 
and  servants  which  they  have  received  through  inheritance.  Some 
have  taken  wives  not  merely  of  their  own  people,  but  Syrians,  or 
Armenians,  or  even  Saracens  who  have  received  the  grace  of  bap- 
tism. Some  have  with  them  father-in-law,  or  daughter-in-law,  or 
son-in-law,  or  step-son,  or  step-father.  There  are  here,  too,  grand- 
children and  great-grandchildren.^^  One  cultivates  vines,  another 
the  fields.  The  one  and  the  other  use  mutually  the  speech  and  the 
idioms  of  the  different  languages.^^  Different  languages,  now  made 
common,  become  known  to  both  races,  and  faith  unites  those  whose 
forefathers  were  strangers.  As  it  is  written,  "The  lion  and  the  ox 
shall  eat  straw  together."  Those  who  were  strangers  are  now 
natives;  and  he  who  was  a  sojourner  now  has  become  a  resident. 
Our  parents  and  relatives  from  day  to  day  come  to  join  us,  aban- 
doning, even  though  reluctantly,  all  that  they  possess.  For  those 
who  were  poor  there,  here  God  makes  rich.  Those  who  had  few 
coins,  here  possess  countless  besants;  and  those  who  had  not  had 
a  villa,  here,  by  the  gift  of  God,  already  possess  a  city.  Therefore, 
why  should  one  who  has  found  the  East  so  favorable  return  to  the 
West?  God  does  not  wish  those  to  suffer  want  who,  carrying  their 
crosses,  have  vowed  to  follow  Him,  nay  even  unto  the  end.  You 
see,  therefore,  that  this  is  a  great  miracle,  and  one  which  must 
greatly  astonish  the  whole  world.  Who  has  ever  heard  anything 
like  it?  Therefore,  God  wishes  to  enrich  us  all  and  to  draw  us  to 
Himself  as  His  most  dear  friends.  And  because  He  wishes  it,  we 
also  freely  desire  the  same;  and  what  is  pleasnig  to  Him  we  do 
with  a  loving  and  submissive  heart,  that  with  Him  we  may  reign 
happily  throughout  eternity. 


NOTES  TO  INTRODUCTION 

1  Bishop  Stubbs,  quoted  by  George  L.  Burr  in  the  American  Historical  Re- 
view for  April,  1901,  page  439. 

2  Gibbon:    Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire,  Chapters  LVIII-LXI. 

3  The  following  fourteen  letters  have  been  translated  from  the  Latin  texts 
edited  by  Hagenmeyer  in  his  Epistulae  et  Chartae  .  .  .  Primi  Belli  Sacri: 

II.    Urban  II  to  all  the  faithful  assembling  in  Flanders.     Written  about 
the  end  of  December,  1095.    Pages  42-43. 
IV.     Stephen  of  Blois  to  his  wife,  Adele.    Written  from  Nicaea,  June  24, 

1097.  Pages  loo-ioi ;  107-109. 

VI.  Simeon,  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  and  Adhemar,  Bishop  of  Puy,  to 
the  faithful  of  the  northern  regions.  Written  from  Antioch,  October,  1097. 
Page  132. 

VIII.  Anselm  of  Ribemont  to  Manasses,  Archbishop  of  Rheims.  Writ- 
ten from  Antioch  about  the  end  of  November,  1097.     Pages  106-107;  129. 

IX.  The  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem  to  all  the  bishops  of  the  West.  Writ- 
ten from  camp  at  Antioch,  January,  1098.     Pages  142-144. 

X.  Stephen  of  Blois  to  his  wife,  Adele.  Written  from  Antioch,  March 
29,  1098.    Pages  131-132,  155-157. 

XI.  Alexius  to  Oderisius,  Abbot  of  Monte  Casino.  Written  from  Con- 
stantinople, June,  1098.    See  Chapter  III,  n.  26.    Pages  iio-iii. 

XII.  Bohemund,  son  of  Robert  Guiscard,  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles, 
Duke  Godfrey,  and  Hugh  the  Great,  to  all  the  faithful  in  Christ.  Written 
from  Antioch,  either  October,  io97(?)  or  April-July,  1098.     Pages  130-131. 

XV.  Anselm    of    Ribemont    to    Manasses,    Archbishop    of    Rheims,    July, 

1098.  Pages  157-160;  189-191. 

XVI.  Bohemund,  Raymond,  Count  of  St.  Gilles,  Godfrey,  Duke  of  Lor- 
raine, Robert,  Count  of  Normandy,  Robert,  Count  of  Flanders,  and  Eustace, 
Count  of  Boulogne  to  Pope  Urban  II.  Written  from  Antioch,  September 
II,  1098.     Pages  160- 1 61 ;   192-195. 

XVII.  The  Clergy  and  people  of  Lucca  to  all  the  faithful.  Written  from 
Lucca,  October,  1098.     Pages  161-162;  191-192. 

XVIII.  Daimbert,  Archbishop  of  Pisa,  Duke  Godfrey,  Raymond  of  St. 
Gilles,  and  the  whole  army  in  the  land  of  Israel  to  the  Pope  and  all  the 
faithful  in  Christ.    Written  from  Laodicea,  September,  1099.     Pages  275-279. 

XIX.  Pascal  II  to  all  the  archbishops,  bishops  and  abbots  of  Gaul.  Writ- 
ten about  the  end  of  December  1099.    Page  279. 

XX.  Manasses,  Archbishop  of  Rheims  to  Lambert,  Bishop  of  Arras. 
Written  from  Rheims,  November  or  December,  1099.     Pages  264-265. 

4  The  following  are  the  accounts  contained  in  this  book : 

I.   Anonvmi  Gesta  Francorum  et  aliorum  Hierpsolymitanorum.     Trans- 
lated in  full  from  Hagemeyer's  edition.     To  read  in  the  order  of  the 


NOTES  283 

original,  see  pages  28,  57,  71,  57,  80,  62,  93,  98,  loi,  113,  118,  120,  123, 

125,  132,  136,  144,  151,  163,  169,  174,  182,  195,  204,  214,  223,  242,  249, 

256,  262,  265. 
2.   Historia  Francorum  qui  ceperunt  Jerusalem,  by  Raymond  of  Aguilers. 

Translated  in   full  from  the  text  in  the  Recueil  des  Historiens  des 
I  Croisades,  Historiens  Occidentaux,  III.     To  read  in  the  order  of  the 

original  see  pages  8,  64,  97,  103,  116,  124,  126,  134,  139,  147,  153,  168, 

173,  176,  182,  173,  185,  197,  207,  217,  224,  243,  250,  257,  262,  268. 
3-   Historia   Hierosohmitana^   by    Fulcher   of    Chartres.     Translated    in 

part  from  Hagenmeyer's  edition.     Preface:     I,  chapters  1-14,  33-34; 

II,  chapter  6  passim;  III,  chapter  37  passim.     To  read  in  the  order 

of  the  original  see  pages  24,  26,  28,  40,  24,  44,  45,  56,  61,  67,  99,  104,  105, 

116,  118,  119,  121,  272. 

4.  The  Alexiad,  by  Anna  Comnena.  Translated  in  part  from  the  edition 
by  Reifferscheid.  Vol.  II,  Book  X;  chapters  5-6  passim-,  7;  9  passim; 
10 ;  1 1  passim ;  Book  XI ;  chapters  2-3  passim ;  pages  70,  76,  86,  94,  99, 
109. 

5.  Historia  de  Hierosolimitano  Itinere,  by  Peter  Tudebode.  Only  the 
variations  from  the  Gesta  are  indicated  and  are  to  be  found  in  the 
notes.  The  edition  used  was  that  of  the  Rec.  Occid.  III.  See  also 
Molinier:     Sources  de  I'histoire  de  France,  nos.  2115-2116. 

6.  ^ierosolymita.  bv  Ekkehard^  Ahhot  of  Anr^  Translated  in  part 
from  Hagenmeyer's  edition,  chapters  VIII-XIII.    See  pages  41,  46,  53. 

7.  Gesta  Tancredi,  by  Raoul  de  Caen.  Translated  in  part  from  the  text 
in  Rec.  Occid.  Ill ;  chapters  99-103,  108-109.     See  page  237. 

8.  Liber  Christianae  expeditionis  pro  ereptione,  emundatione,  resiitutione 
Sanctae  Hierosolymitanae ,  by  Albert  of  Aix.  Translated  in  part 
from  the  text  in  the  Rec.  Occid.  IV.  Included  in  this  translation  are 
I,  chapters  2,  6-8,  15-24,  26-30,  passim;  II,  chapters  1-17  passim.  It 
has  been  thought  necessary  to  translate  only  the  gist  of  the  matter 
contained  in  most  of  the  chapters,  as  Albert  was  not,  strictly  speaking, 
an  eye  witness.     Pages  48,  54,  57,  73,  80. 

9.  Hierosolymitana  Exbeditio^  bv  Robert  the  Monlf.  The  report  of 
Urban's  speech  at  Clermont,  as  contained  in  Rec.  Occid.  Vol.  Ill, 
Book  I,  chapters  1-2,  has  alone  been  translated.     Page  30. 

10.  Historia  Hierosohmitana  bv  Balderic,  Archbishop  of  Dol.  Urban's 
speech  at  Clermont;  contained  in  Rec.  Occid,  IV,  Book  I,  chapters 
4-5,  has  alone  been  translated.    Page  33. 

11.  Gesta  Dei  per  Francos,  bv  Guibert.  Abbot  of  Nop^ent.  Here  the  speech 
of  Urban  and  the  description  of  Peter  the  Hermit,  contained  in  Rec. 
Occid.  IV,  Book  II,  chapters  4-6,  have  alone  been  translated.     Pages 

36-47. 

5  "He  who  first  wrote  this  should  be  believed,  since  he  was  on  the  expedi- 
tion and  saw  it  with  the  eyes  of  his  body — to  wit,  Peter  Tudebode  of  Civray." 
See  Tud.  XIV:6. 

«For  a  more  detailed  discussion  of  this  point,  see  Kugler:    Analekten  zur 


284  NOTES 

Kritik  Albert's  von  Aachen,  and  the  summary  of  the  discussion  in  Molinier: 
Les  sources  de  I'histoire  de  France,  no.  2126. 

'^  For  a  comprehensive  treatment  of  mediaeval  chronology,  consult  Grote- 
f end :    Taschenbuch  der  Zeitrechnung,  or  Giry :  Manuel  de  Diplomatique. 

®  Delbruck :     Geschichte  der  Kiriegskunst,  III,  pp.  228-29. 

NOTES  TO  PROLOGUE  AND  CHAPTER  I 

1  The  Maccabees  were  followers  of  Judas  Maccabeus,  whose  exploits  are 
described  in  the  Book  of  Maccabees.  The  name  recurs  frequently  in  the 
accounts  of  the  First  Crusade.  The  deeds  of  the  Maccabees,  recalled  by 
Urban  in  his  speech  at  Clermont,  served  as  a  heroic  model  for  emulation  by 
the  Crusaders.  It  is  interesting  to  note  the  opinions  of  the  different  chroni- 
clers as  to  the  success  of  the  Crusaders  in  this  aim. 

2  This  is  an  interesting  example  of  geographical  terminology.  These 
names  were  not  used  to  designate  those  particular  regions  in  the  mediaeval 
period,  but  were  all  drawn  from  Fulcher's  store  of  ancient  and  chiefly  Bib- 
lical knowledge.  His  use  of  the  terms  must  be  regarded  as  a  rhetorical 
device. 

3  Psalms  33  :  12. 

*  For  a  thorough  analysis  of  the  various  accounts  of  Urban*s  speech  at 
Clermont  see  article  by  D.  C.  Munro  in  the  American  Historical  Review  for 
January,  1906. 

5  Though  Henry  had  been  crowned  King  of  Germany  in  1054,  he  did  not 
receive  the  imperial  crown  until  1084,  after  he  had  driven  Gregory  VII  from 
Rome  and  installed  the  antipope,  Clement  III.  Under  the  circumstances, 
no  loyal  adherent  of  Gregory's  could  recognize  Henry  as  rightful  Emperor. 
Furthermore,  Conrad  of  Franconia  was  disputing  the  imperial  claims  at  this 
time. 

6  Urban  II,  formerly  Odo,  Otho,  or  Odoard  of  Largny,  or  Lagny,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Rheims,  was  of  noble  birth.  He  entered  the  service  of  the 
Church  and  had  risen  to  the  rank  of  archdeacon  in  its  secular  hierarchy 
when  he  decided  to  attach  himself  to  the  monastery  at  Cluny.  Here  his 
learning  and  zeal  for  reform  won  him  recognition  and  he  was  made  prior. 
In  1078  Gregory  made  him  Cardinal-Bishop  of  Ostia.  Gregory  esteemed 
him  very  highly  and  in  1084  sent  him  as  envoy  to  Henry  IV,  who  imprisoned 
him  for  a  short  time  on  account  of  his  loyalty  to  the  Pope.  Just  before 
Gregory's  death,  his  name  was  mentioned  as  one  of  four  men  whom  Greg- 
ory regarded  as  qualified  to  carry  on  his  policies.  The  Abbot  of  Monte 
Cassino,  who  took  the  title  Victor  III,  was  chosen  first,  but  upon  his  early 
death  in  1087,  Odo  was  elected,  and  in  1088  he  was  consecrated  Pope  Urban 
II.  He  carried  on  the  fight  with  Henry  IV  throughout  the  eleven  years  of 
his  pontificate.  Usually  in  exile  from  Rome,  he  found  the  struggle  at  first 
very  discouraging.  The  Normans  of  southern  Italy  remained  true  to  him, 
however,  and  so  also  did  Matilda  of  Tuscany.  Gradually  he  gained  other 
support,   and  after  the   Crusaders   started  on  the  journey  he  was  enabled, 


NOTES  .     285 

with  their  help,  to  regain  Rome.    The  last  two  years  of  his  life  were  spent 
in  relative  quiet,  and  he  died  peacefully  at  Rome  July  29,  1099, 

7  Wibert,  who  was  descended  from  a  very  influential  family  in  northern 
Italy,  had  risen  to  the  highest  ecclesiastical  dignity  in  Italy,  the  archbishopric 
of  Ravenna.  In  the  quarrel  between  Gregory  and  Henry  he  sided  with  the 
latter.  In  1084,  with  Henry's  help  he  was  installed  in  Rome  as  antipope, 
taking  the  title  Clement  III.  Shortly  afterward,  he  crowned  Henry  as  Em- 
peror and  continued  to  dispute  the  papal  title  until  his  death  in  iioo. 

8  Matilda,  Countess  of  Tuscany,  had  sheltered  Gregory  VII  at  Canossa  in 
the  winter  of  1076-7,  and  she  remained  a  staunch  friend  of  the  Reform 
Church  Party  until  the  time  of  her  death  in  1115. 

»  Matt.  5 :  13. 

10  Matt.  15 :  14. 

11  Luke  16: 19-31. 

12  The  Truce  of  God,  which  forbade  any  violation  of  peace  between  vespers 
on  Wednesday  and  sunrise  on  Monday.  The  allusion  to  the  former  enact- 
ment may  refer  to  a  similar  decree  passed  by  a  Church  council  in  southern 
France  in  1041. 

13  Luke  16 :  24. 
i*Matt.  10:22. 
15  Matt.  ID :  32. 
i«  Matt.  5 :  12. 

17  Matt.  10:37. 

18  Matt.  19:29. 

19  Ex.  3:8. 

20  Matt.  18 :  20. 

21  Matt.  10 :  38. 

22  See  the  account  by  Caffaro,  Liberatio  Orientis,  XIV. 

23  Psalms  79:  12. 

2*  Judges  19:10;  Gen.  15:21. 

25  Judges  45  :  3. 

26  Gen.  36:12;  Gen.  14:7. 

27  Adhemar  (d.  August  i,  1098),  the  Nestor  of  this  expedition,  had  become 
Bishop  of  Puy  before  1087.  He  had  won  fame  not  only  as  a  man  of  great 
moral  worth,  but  also  as  a  vigorous  prelate.  On  several  occasions  he  had 
been  called  upon  to  supplement  his  moral  precepts  by  physical  force,  which 
he  effectively  did.  His  knowledge  of  fighting  men  and  his  great  tact  made 
him  a  worthy  choice  for  the  exacting  office  of  papal  representative. 

28  Jno.  4 :  22. 

29  Matt.  27 :  52. 

30  Isaiah  14 :  19.  ^ 

31  Isaiah  2 :  3. 
32Eccl.  1:7. 

33  II  Thess.  chap.  2. 
3*  Luke  21 :  24. 

35  Jno.  7:6. 

36  Isaiah  43 :  5.  *    i 


286  NOTES 

37  This  recurrence  of  old  Neustria  and  Austrasia,  or  West  and  East  Frank- 
land,  after  so  many  centuries  is  an  interesting  example  of  the  persistence  of 
the  Prankish  and  Carolingian  traditions  on  both  sides  of  the  Rhine. 

38  The  epidemic  which  started  at  the  church  of  St.  Gertrude  of  Nivelle 
was  known  as  "St.  Anthony^s  fire"  and  worked  widespread  devastation  at 
the  beginning  of  the  twelfth  century. 

39  People  of  the  stem-duchies  of  Germany.  Ekkehard,  unlike  Fulcher,  does 
not  use  the  term  Alemanni  as  a  designation  for  all  Germans,  but  only  for 
those  from  the  region  of  Swabia. 

40  Alexander  II,  who  occupied  the  papal  throne  1061-1073,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Gregory  VII. 

*^  Clermont  in  Auvergne. 
42  August  15. 

NOTES  TO  CHAPTER  II 

1  See  Graetz :    History  of  the  Jews,  vol.  IV :  chap.  10  et  passim. 

2  Psalms  86:9. 

3  Psalms  18:23. 

4  This  legend  is  apparently  one  of  the  older  legends  of  Europe.  It  was 
later  applied  to  Frederick  II  and  then  to  Frederick  Barbarossa. 

^  Peter  the  Hermit,  whom  later  legend  made  the  author  of  the  Crusade, 
was  little  known  before  that  time.  These  statements  contain  almost  all 
that  is  known  about  his  earlier  career.  He  was  a  monk  and  after  the  Coun- 
cil of  Clermont  began  to  preach  the  Crusade.  There  is  little  foundation  for 
the  story  of  his  earlier  romantic  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem.  See  Hagen- 
meyer :   Peter  der  Eremite. 

"^  Coloman,  or  Koloman,  who  succeeded  his  father,  Ladislas  I,  July,  1095. 

'^  Hugh,  Count  of  Vermandois,  and  brother  of  Philip  I  of  France.  Philip 
was  incapacitated  for  the  Crusade,  since  he  was  excommunicate  at  the  time. 
Hugh  was  one  of  the  older  men  among  the  leaders.  His  forces  were  small. 
His  prominence  was  due  chiefly  to  his  relationship  with  the  King  of  France, 
together  with  a  certain  assurance  of  address,  which  led  the  other  leaders  to 
entrust  him  with  diplomatic  undertakings.  Fulcher  is  at  some  disadvantage 
in  describing  the  course  of  the  other  bands.  His  statements  about  them 
should  be  compared  carefully  with  those  of  the  other  writers.  The  state- 
ments of  Anna  and  Albert  offer  a  more  reasonable  explanation  of  Hugh's 
predicament. 

sBohemund  (io58(?)-iiii),  who  appears  as  the  crafty  Ulysses  of  the 
First  Crusade,  was  the  eldest  son  of  Robert  Guiscard.  He  had  begun  his 
military  training  early,  serving  in  many  of  his  father's  strenuous  campaigns 
in  Italy,  Sicily,  and  Greece.  He  was  with  his  father  in  the  successful  cam- 
paign against  Durazzo  and  Corfu,  and  when  his  father  was  called  back  to 
Italy  by  the  Pope's  plea  for  help,  Bohemund  was  left  in  command  of  the 
Norman  forces  in  Greece,  With  these  he  penetrated  the  peninsula  as  far 
as  Larissa,  where  he  was  finally  repulsed  by  the  Emperor  Alexius.  Neither 
Bohemund  nor  Alexius  ever  forgot  those  four  years  of  warfare.     Among 


NOTES  287 

the  Latin  leaders  on  the  First  Crusade  none  understood  the  problems  be- 
fore them  better  than  Bohemund,  for  he  had  had  dealings  not  only  with 
the  Greeks,  but  with  the  Saracens  in  Sicily.  Because  he  was  born  of  an 
early  marriage,  his  mother  being  a  woman  of  obscure  Norman  origin,  he 
had  inherited  only  the  principaHty  of  Otranto,  while  his  younger  brother, 
Roger,  son  of  a  Lombard  princess,  succeeded  to  his  father's  title.  The  Cru- 
sade, therefore,  offered  him  an  opportunity  for  improving  his  fortune. 

8  Godfrey  of  Bouillon  ( 1065 (?)-i  100),  so  called  from  the  feudal  princi- 
pality of  that  name  which  he  held  before  he  became  Duke  of  lower  Lor- 
raine. Through  his  mother,  Ida,  he  was  grandson  of  Duke  Godfrey  II  and 
had  been  designated  by  the  latter  as  his  successor.  Henry  IV,  the  Emperor, 
withheld  this  duchy  from  him  for  some  years.  The  young  Godfrey,  how- 
ever, won  the  Emperor's  favor  by  valiant  aid  against  the  Pope  and  other 
enemies,  and  in  1082  he  received  the  duchy.  It  was  said  of  Godfrey  that  he 
was  the  first  to  storm  the  walls  of  Rome  in  the  Emperor's  attack  upon  the 
papal  city.  Nevertheless,  after  some  years,  Godfrey  was  won  over  to  the 
papal  side  of  the  Investiture  Struggle  and  was  among  the  first  to  take  the 
Crusader's  vow. 

i<> Raymond  of  Toulouse  (d.  1105),  or  St.  Gilles,  had  become  Count  of 
Toulouse^TrT  1086.  He  was  a  religious  enthusiast  and  had  probably  taken 
part  in  the  warfare  against  the  Mohammedans  in  Spain  before  the  First 
Crusade.  Without  doubt,  he  was  the  first  important  secular  person  to  vol- 
unteer for  the  Crusade.  He  made  careful  disposal  of  his  possessions  before 
going,  and  on  the  expedition  he  was  reputed  to  be  the  wealthiest  of  the 
leaders.  For  some  cause  he  had  lost  the  use  of  one  eye,  a  circumstance 
which  may  have  played  a  part  in  his  position  among  the  leaders,  as  it  did 
later  in  legend. 

11  Robert  of  Normandy  (i054(?)-ii35),  eldest  son  of  William  the  Con- 
queror, had  enjoyed  a  rather  turbulent  career  as  Duke  of  Normandy  for 
some  years  before  1096.  Early  recognized  as  his  father's  successor  in  Nor- 
mandy, he  twice  revolted  against  his  father  and  was  twice  forced  into  exile. 
Upon  the  Conqueror's  death,  he  released  many  political  prisoners,  among 
them  being  his  contentious  uncle,  Odo,  Archbishop  of  Bayeux.  He  was 
engaged  in  warfare  with  his  brothers.'William  Rufus  and  Henry,  when  the 
call  for  the  Crusade  was  announced.  Thereupon,  he  made  peace  with  his 
brothers,  mortgaged  his  duchy  to  William  Rufus,  and  started  on  the  Cru- 
sade. He  had  already  given  proof  of  those  traits  which  marked  him  on  the 
expedition — great  physical  courage,  love  of  pleasure,  and  lack  of  ambition. 

12  The  Angles,  or  English,  are  mentioned  by  other  writers,  also;  e.g.,  the 
English  fleet  which  the  citizen  of  Lucca  accompanied  to  Antioch.    See  p.  161. 

13  See  Introduction,  p.  6,  and  Chapter  VII,  note  28. 

1*  Robert  of  Flanders  (d.  iiii)  became  Count  of  Flanders  upon  the  death 
of  his  father  in  1093.  He  was  comparatively  young  and  adventurous  when 
he  started  on  the  Crusade,  His  fame  rests  chiefly  upon  his  exploits  as  a 
Crusader. 

15  Baldwin   (d.   1118),  the  younger  brother  of  Godfrey,  had  been  named 


288  NOTES 

for  the  service  of  the  Church  and  ecclesiastical  preferment,  and  had,  indeed, 
taken  minor  orders  when  the  call  for  the  Crusade  came.  This  gave  him  an 
opportunity  for  the  more  congenial  pursuit  of  armed  adventure. 

1^  Baldwin,  Count  of  Hainault. 

17  Grez  and  Ascha  were  both  feudal  territories  in  that  portion  of  lower 
Lorraine  known  as  modern  Belgium. 

1^  Albert's  idea  of  this  eastern  boundary  is  rather  vague.  His  inclusion  of 
practically  all  Germany  within  Gaul  may  be  due  to  his  identification  of  the 
Roman  province  of  that  name  with  the  empire  of  Charles  the  Great,  whose 
memory  was  and  still  is  cherished  on  both  sides  of  the  Rhine. 

^^  Francavilla,  near  Sermis  on  the  Save.  It  was  known  by  that  name  as 
late  as  the  fourteenth  century. 

20Tancred  (d.  1112),  nephew  of  Bohemund,  was  the  son  of  a  Lombard 
prince  named  Marchisus.  He  had  some  military  experience  in  southern 
Italy  and  seemed  deeply  devoted  to  his  uncle.  His  chief  title  to  fame  both  in 
history  and  legend  rests  upon  his  part  in  the  First  Crusade  and  the  rule  of 
Antioch,  which  he  held  from  1101-1112. 

21  See  Hagenmeyer :  Gesta,  p.  154,  note  24. 

^^  Roscignolo,  either  Rossano  in  Calabria,  or  Roscignolo  in  Salerno,  or 
Roussillon  in  France. 

23  Not  to  be  confused  with  Adrianople,  which  is  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  Balkan  peninsula.  The  valley  here  referred  to  lay  a  short  distance  east 
of  the  Adriatic,  behind  Avlona  and  Durazzo. 

2*  The  Turcopoles  were  a  light  armed  soldiery,  possibly  of  Turkish  origin, 
in  the  service  of  the  Greek  Emperor.  Several  of  the  chroniclers  describe 
them  as  people  reared  among  the  Turks,  or  the  offspring  of  Christian 
mothers  and  Turkish  fathers. 

25  Curator  of  the  palace,  an  officer  of  high  rank  in  the  household  of  the 
Emperor. 

26  The  mercenary  army  of  the  Byzantine  Empire  was  drawn  from  the 
surrounding  tribesmen,  including  the  Turks.  The  Tanaces  have  not  been 
identified.    The  name  may  possibly  be  a  corruption  of  the  term  Patzinaks. 

27  Possibly  modern  Wodena,  though  this  is  by  no  means  certain. 

28  Romans  11:33. 

29  Isaiah  28 :  12 ;  Jer.  6 :  16 ;  Acts  3 :  20. 

30  The  modern  Devol. 

31  Either  Pella  or  Cella. 

32  Possibly  the  Greek  Peritheorion. 

NOTES  TO  CHAPTER  III 

1  Chalandon :  Essai  sur  le  regne  d'Alexis  I^^  Comnene. 

2  Revue  Historique,  LXXXIII,  pp.  160-8. 

3  The  meaning  of  this  surname  which  Anna  uses  is  uncertain.  It  may  be 
a  reference  to  the  monk's  hood  worn  by  Peter  {cucullus).  Another  conjec- 
ture is  that  the  word  comes  from  a  Picard  term  meaning  'short.' 

*  Romania  was  used  rather  loosely  by  different  writers  to  designate :   (a) 


NOTES  289 

the  whole  eastern  Roman  Empire;  (b)  Asia  Minor;  (c)  the  Sultanate  of 
the  Turks  in  Asia  Minor,  known  as  the  Sultanate  of  Rum,  or  Roum.  Here 
the  last  is  apparently  meant. 

5  The  inconsistent  statements  of  the  different  writers  make  exact  identi- 
fication of  Xerogord  impossible. 

^  September  29. 

^Matt.  10:28. 

8  See  Introduction  to  Chapter  IV,  p.  112. 

^  One  of  the  commanders  of  the  Byzantine  fleet. 

10  In  the  original  the  title  of  this  man  is  "dux,"  but  to  avoid  confusion 
with  the  Latin  title,  which  conferred  a  somewhat  different  distinction,  the 
term  is  here  translated  "governor." 

i^^An  honorary  title  reserved  for  members  of  the  imperial  family. 

12  Good  Friday,  April  2,  1081,  when,  through  the  treason  of  German 
mercenaries  within  the  city,  Alexius  succeeded  in  entering  Constantinople. 
His  reign  is  usually  dated  from  this  event. 

13  Nicephorus  Bryennius,  husband  of  Anna  Comnena. 

i*A  place  just  across  the  Strait  from  Constantinople,  not  as  yet  identified. 

15  See  Introduction  to  Chapter  III,  p.  69. 

i«A  reference  to  the  earlier  fighting  between  the  Italian  Normans  and 
Alexius — certainly  not  to  the  battle  at  Larissa,  when  Bohemund  was  forced 
to  retreat.  Anna,  in  her  references  to  this  former  hostility  between  Alexius 
and  Bohemund,  is  inclined  to  lay  greater  stress  upon  Larissa.  The  Emper- 
or's war  with  Robert  Guiscard  and  Bohemund  took  place  from  1082-1084. 

1^  The  mention  of  Antioch  as  a  specific  part  of  Bohemund's  agreement  is 
not  confirmed  by  the  other  writers,  nor  is  it  mentioned  in  connection  with 
later  disputes  about  Antioch.  The  point  raises  a  question  as  to  whether 
the  Anonymouis  wrote  this  portion  of  his  work  before  or  after  Antioch  was 
taken. 

18  The  allusion  is  to  William  the  Conqueror,  whose  gifts  to  the  knights  in 
his  following  after  the  battle  of  Senlac  had  evidently  become  proverbial. 

19  See  Introducti